Search results for: environment-ecology-exergy

Exergy

Author : Ibrahim Dincer
File Size : 78.93 MB
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This book deals with exergy and its applications to various energy systems and applications as a potential tool for design, analysis and optimization, and its role in minimizing and/or eliminating environmental impacts and providing sustainable development. In this regard, several key topics ranging from the basics of the thermodynamic concepts to advanced exergy analysis techniques in a wide range of applications are covered as outlined in the contents. Offers comprehensive coverage of exergy and its applications, along with the most up-to-date information in the area with recent developments Connects exergy with three essential areas in terms of energy, environment and sustainable development Provides a number of illustrative examples, practical applications, and case studies Written in an easy-to-follow style, starting from the basics to advanced systems

Eco Exergy as Sustainability

Author : Sven Erik Jørgensen
File Size : 33.44 MB
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Exergy is the measurement of the amount of work capacity i.e. the amount of energy that can do work. The author applies this concept to ecology, where it can be used as an ecological indicator for ecosystem health assessment and this is presented in the book with illustrative examples. In addition, the question of how it is possible to define a special ecological exergy concept to calculate the exergy for models of ecosystems is covered. The use of exergy and an introduced fourth law of thermodynamics make it possible to understand the ecosystem reactions and how the ecosystem can grow in three different forms - biomass, complexity of network and information. From this analysis, it is clear why ecosystems are sustainable systems and what characteristic properties ecosystems have to ensure that sustainability. A parallel from ecosystems to society makes it possible to formulate the same rules (laws) for society. The concept of exergy as a health indicator measuring the degree of sustainability of society can also be used. Examples will be applied to illustrate the application of exergy and the deduced ecological rules (laws) for understanding the society.

Thermo ecology

Author : Wojciech Stanek
File Size : 26.16 MB
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Thermo-ecology: Exergy as a Measure of Sustainability integrates thermo-ecology and exergy replacement cost as a new and original tool called thermo-ecology cost, or TEC. This tool allows for a more inclusive measurement of the impacts of using renewable and non-renewable resources by including the thermodynamics law in decision-making and presenting applications of this tool across industries and lifecycle assessments. It includes ways to investigate these effects more effectively by combining these critical aspects. This combination has emerged as a valuable decision-support tool for policymakers and the industry as they seek to evaluate the impacts of a product or process. Walks through what Thermo-Ecology Cost (TEC) is and why it gives a more holistic assessment when calculating the costs vs benefits of utilizing a natural resource Provides a new and more efficient way to measure and evaluate the sustainability of resources Includes: TEC calculation examples to explain the TEC theory as well as to help readers prepare their own analyses devoted to exergo-ecological applications across industries including energy production and waste management Demonstrates the potential of TEC usage for applications like ecological taxes proportional on TEC

Exergy Method

Author : Jan Szargut
File Size : 60.36 MB
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The exergy method makes it possible to detect and quantify the possibilities of improving thermal and chemical processes and systems. The introduction of the concept thermo-ecological cost (cumulative consumption of non-renewable natural exergy resources) generated large application possibilities of exergy in ecology. This book contains a short presentation on the basic principles of exergy analysis and discusses new achievements in the field over the last 15 years. One of the most important issues considered by the distinguished author is the economy of non-renewable natural exergy. Previously discussed only in scientific journals, other important new problems highlighted include: calculation of the chemical exergy of all the stable chemical elements, global natural and anthropogenic exergy losses, practical guidelines for improvement of the thermodynamic imperfection of thermal processes and systems, development of the determination methods of partial exergy losses in thermal systems, evaluation of the natural mineral capital of the Earth, and the application of exergy for the determination of a pro-ecological tax.A basic knowledge of thermodynamics is assumed, and the book is therefore most appropriate for graduate students and engineers working in the field of energy and ecological management.

Exergetic Energetic and Environmental Dimensions

Author : Ibrahim Dincer
File Size : 53.35 MB
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This edited book looks at recent studies on interdisciplinary research related to exergy, energy, and the environment. This topic is of prime significance – there is a strong need for practical solutions through better design, analysis and assessment in order to achieve better efficiency, environment and sustainability. Exergetic, Energetic and Environmental Dimensions covers a number of topics ranging from thermodynamic optimization of energy systems, to the environmental impact assessment and clean energy, offering readers a comprehensive reference on analysis, modeling, development, experimental investigation, and improvement of many micro to macro systems and applications, ranging from basic to advanced categories. Its comprehensive content includes: Comprehensive coverage of development of systems considering exergy, energy, and environmental issues, along with the most up-to-date information in the area, plus recent developments New developments in the area of exergy, including recent debate involving the shaping of future directions and priorities for better environment, sustainable development and energy security Provides a number of illustrative examples, practical applications, and case studies Introduces recently developed technological and strategic solutions and engineering applications for professionals in the area Provides numerous engineering examples and applications on exergy Offers a variety of problems that foster critical thinking and skill development

Exergy Analysis for Energy Conversion Systems

Author : Efstathios Michaelides
File Size : 78.51 MB
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Discover a straightforward and holistic look at energy conversion and conservation processes using the exergy concept with this thorough text. Explains the fundamental energy conversion processes in numerous diverse systems, ranging from jet engines and nuclear reactors to human bodies. Provides examples for applications to practical energy conversion processes and systems that use our naturally occurring energy resources, such as fossil fuels, solar energy, wind, geothermal, and nuclear fuels. With more than one-hundred diverse cases and solved examples, readers will be able to perform optimizations for a cleaner environment, a sustainable energy future, and affordable energy generation. An essential tool for practicing scientists and engineers who work or do research in the area of energy and exergy, as well as graduate students and faculty in chemical engineering, mechanical engineering and physics.

Ecological Indicators for Coastal and Estuarine Environmental Assessment

Author : João Carlos Marques
File Size : 58.53 MB
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Ecological indicators address ecosystems structure and/or function and are commonly used to provide synoptic information about their state. Through quantitative representations of either the forces that steer ecosystems, responses to forcing functions, or of previous, current, or future states of an ecosystem, indicators are expected to reveal conditions and trends that will help in development planning and decision making processes. Ecological indicators combine numerous environmental factors in a single value, which may be useful in terms of management and in the development of ecological concepts, compliant with the general public's understanding. Nevertheless, their application is not exempt of criticisms, the first of which is that aggregation results in an oversimplification of the ecosystem under observation. Ecological indicators must therefore be handled following the right criteria and in situations that are consistent with its intended use and scope; otherwise they may drive to confusing interpretations of data.

Exergy

Author : Masanori Shukuya
File Size : 73.47 MB
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Many people, professionals and non-professionals alike, recognize that it is of critical importance to solve global energy and environmental issues. For this purpose, it is essential to have a scientific understanding of what is meant by the “energy” issue is and the “environmental” issue. The concept of “exergy” is a scientific concept that exactly fits. The concept of ‘energy’ is a scientifically-well established concept, namely ‘to be conserved’. Then the question is what is really consumed. Exergy: Theory and Applications in the Built Environment is dedicated to answer this fundamental question by discussing the theory of “exergy” and by demonstrating its use extensively to describe a variety of systems in particular for built-environmental conditioning. Our immediate environmental space works within the flow of energy and matter in an “exergy-entropy” process, and the built environment can be designed with these energy & environmental issues in mind. Exergy: Theory and Applications in the Built Environment introduces readers who are not familiar with thermodynamics to the concept of exergy with a variety of discussion on the built-environmental space such as heating, cooling, lighting, and others. Readers, including students, researchers, planners, architects and engineers, will obtain a better picture of a sustainable built-environment.

Introduction to Systems Ecology

Author : Sven Erik Jorgensen
File Size : 73.55 MB
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Possibly the first textbook to present a practically applicable ecosystems theory, Introduction to Systems Ecology helps readers understand how ecosystems work and how they react to disturbances. It demonstrates—with many examples and illustrations—how to apply the theory to explain observations and to make quantitative calculations and predictions. In this book, Sven Erik Jørgensen takes a first step toward integrating thermodynamics, biochemistry, hierarchical organization, and network theory into a holistic theory of systems ecology. The first part of the book covers the laws of thermodynamics and the basic biochemistry of living organisms, as well as the constraints they impose on ecosystems. To grow and develop, however, ecosystems have to evade these thermodynamic and biochemical constraints, so the second part of the book discusses the seven basic properties that enable ecosystems to grow, develop, and survive: They are open systems, far from thermodynamic equilibrium. They are organized hierarchically. They have a high diversity. They have high buffer capacities toward changes. Their components are organized in cooperative networks, which allows for sophisticated feedback, regulation mechanisms, and higher efficiencies. They contain an enormous amount of information embodied in genomes. They have emerging system properties. This timely textbook also looks at how systems ecology is applied in integrated environmental management, particularly in ecological modeling and engineering and in the assessment of ecosystem health using ecological indicators. Acknowledging that there is still much room for improvement, it will inspire ecologists to develop a stronger and more widely applicable ecosystem theory.

Towards a Thermodynamic Theory for Ecological Systems

Author : S.E. Jorgensen
File Size : 85.29 MB
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The book presents a consistent and complete ecosystem theory based on thermodynamic concepts. The first chapters are devoted to an interpretation of the first and second law of thermodynamics in ecosystem context. Then Prigogine's use of far from equilibrium thermodynamic is used on ecosystems to explain their reactions to perturbations. The introduction of the concept exergy makes it possible to give a more profound and comprehensive explanation of the ecosystem's reactions and growth-patterns. A tentative fourth law of thermodynamic is formulated and applied to facilitate these explanations. The trophic chain, the global energy and radiation balance and pattern and the reactions of ecological networks are all explained by the use of exergy. Finally, it is discussed how the presented theory can be applied more widely to explain ecological observations and rules, to assess ecosystem health and to develop ecological models.

Use of Extended Exergy Analysis as a Tool to Optimize the Environmental Performance of Industrial Processes

Author : Jon Chandler Creyts
File Size : 73.85 MB
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Sustainable Development Indicators

Author : Søren Nors Nielsen
File Size : 61.94 MB
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Analyzing the self-sufficient Danish island of Samsø, this book explains sustainability through a bio-geophysical understanding of how to best use society’s limited resources to achieve true sustainability. The method used derives from the thermodynamic function of exergy. By analyzing exergy flows and establishing a system for evaluating the energy and the materials used in a society, the author creates a platform for monitoring certain indicators of sustainability. These indicators inform readers about the actions that must be taken and the time frames for achieving sustainability goals. The exergy-based approach is an important tool for carrying out such an analysis because it Focuses on several key thermodynamic concepts and the usefulness of exergy analysis for evaluating sustainability Explains sustainability by implementing thermodynamic laws to societal consumption and the use of resources Discusses new methods that integrate energy and material fluxes and evaluates them against each other Provides direct indicators for finding the largest problems/obstacles and deciding where measures should be taken Includes instructions on how to establish an accounting system for evaluating the energy and the materials used in a society This book is aimed for professionals, researchers, and students working on nature conservation and environmental management projects related to sustainability.

Integration of Ecosystem Theories A Pattern

Author : Sven Erik Jørgensen
File Size : 27.5 MB
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The book presents an integration of existing ecosystem theories in such a comprehensive way as to enable a full ecological and theoretical pattern to be presented. It shows that ecosystems and their reactions may be understood, provided that all basic systems ecology is applied to different aspects of the properties of ecosystems. Since the publication of the previous two editions of this book, ongoing research and discussions on an international scale have greatly clarified and enhanced this pattern. This progress is presented as Chapter 16 in this new, third edition. It is shown that the integrated ecosystem theory presented can be applied to explain various ecological observations and rules. Audience: Researchers and decision makers whose work involves the study of ecosystems and ecology. This book is also recommended for use in graduate courses.

Extended Exergy Analysis

Author : Jon Chandler Creyts
File Size : 38.43 MB
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Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling

Author : Sven Erik Jørgensen
File Size : 35.45 MB
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This book is a completely revised version of the 1986 edition. It is considerably expanded and is accompanied by a diskette with modeling programmes. The work presents a general introduction to the rapidly growing field of ecological and environmental modeling. Its aim is to give on the one hand an overview of the field and on the other to teach the reader to develop his own models. These objectives are met by covering the following points: discussion of the modeling procedure in detail and presentation of the development of models step by step; presentation of most model types by use of theory, overview tables on applications, complexity, examples and illustrations; presentation of both simple and complex models; and a ready available software, that contains several small models the reader can use for training in the elementary steps of modeling. Furthermore, the individual chapters can be read independently, which renders it feasible to tailor the book to any course in ecological and environmental modeling.

Encyclopedia of Ecology

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File Size : 71.80 MB
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The groundbreaking Encyclopedia of Ecology provides an authoritative and comprehensive coverage of the complete field of ecology, from general to applied. It includes over 500 detailed entries, structured to provide the user with complete coverage of the core knowledge, accessed as intuitively as possible, and heavily cross-referenced. Written by an international team of leading experts, this revolutionary encyclopedia will serve as a one-stop-shop to concise, stand-alone articles to be used as a point of entry for undergraduate students, or as a tool for active researchers looking for the latest information in the field. Entries cover a range of topics, including: Behavioral Ecology Ecological Processes Ecological Modeling Ecological Engineering Ecological Indicators Ecological Informatics Ecosystems Ecotoxicology Evolutionary Ecology General Ecology Global Ecology Human Ecology System Ecology The first reference work to cover all aspects of ecology, from basic to applied Over 500 concise, stand-alone articles are written by prominent leaders in the field Article text is supported by full-color photos, drawings, tables, and other visual material Fully indexed and cross referenced with detailed references for further study Writing level is suited to both the expert and non-expert Available electronically on ScienceDirect shortly upon publication

Understanding and Solving Environmental Problems in the 21st Century

Author : R. Costanza
File Size : 58.14 MB
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The aim of this book is to encourage integration of the natural and social sciences with the policy and design-making community, and thereby develop a deeper understanding of complex environmental problems. Its fundamental themes are: . integrated modeling and assessment . complex, adaptive, hierarchical systems . ecosystem services . science and decision-making . ecosystem health and human health . quality of life and the distribution of wealth and resources. This book will act as a state of the art assessment of integrated environmental science and its relation to real world problem solving. It is aimed not only at the academic community, but also as a sourcebook for managers, policy makers, and the informed public. It deals both with the state of the science and the level of consensus among scientists on key environmental issues. The concepts underlying this book were developed at the 2nd EcoSummit workshop held in Halifax, Nova Scotia, June, 2000, with active participation from all delegates, and attempts to present their collective view.

Ecosystem Ecology

Author : Sven Erik Jørgensen
File Size : 89.23 MB
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Jorgensen's Ecosystem Ecology provides a thorough and comprehensive overview of the world’s aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. This derivative volume based on the best-selling Encyclopedia of Ecology (published 2008) is the only book currently published that provides an overview of the world’s ecosystems in a concise format. Provides an overview of the world’s ecosystems in a concise format Covers aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems Based on the best-selling Encyclopedia of Ecology Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding

Encyclopedia of Ecology

Author : Sven Erik Jørgensen
File Size : 58.59 MB
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The Encyclopedia of Ecology contains contributions from international experts on a diverse array of topics related to ecology. It provides current and comprehensive information on many themes, including behavioral ecology, ecological processes, ecological modeling, ecological engineering, ecological indicators, ecological informatics, ecosystems, ecotoxicology, evolutionary ecology, general ecology, global ecology, human ecology, and systems ecology. The online version includes extensive internal cross-referencing and dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases.

Thermodynamics for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources

Author : Wojciech Stanek
File Size : 56.73 MB
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This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management. Divided into two parts, the first section provides the theoretical background to assessment methods, while the second section provides practical application examples. The topics covered in detail include the theory of exergy cost and thermo-ecological cost, cumulative calculus and life cycle evaluation. This book serves as a valuable resource for researchers looking to investigate a range of advanced thermodynamic assessments of the influence of production processes on the depletion of nonrenewable resources.