Search results for: electric-brain

Electric Brain

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Electric Brain

Author : R. Douglas Fields
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What is as unique as your fingerprints and more revealing than your diary? Hint: Your body is emitting them right now and has been every single day of your life. Brainwaves. Analyzing brainwaves, the imperceptible waves of electricity surging across your scalp, has been possible for nearly a century. But only now are neuroscientists becoming aware of the wealth of information brainwaves hold about a person's life, thoughts, and future health. From the moment a reclusive German doctor discovered waves of electricity radiating from the heads of his patients in the 1920s, brainwaves have sparked astonishment and intrigue, yet the significance of the discovery and its momentous implications have been poorly understood. Now, it is clear that these silent broadcasts can actually reveal a stunning wealth of information about any one of us. In Electric Brain, world-renowned neuroscientist and author R. Douglas Fields takes us on an enthralling journey into the world of brainwaves, detailing how new brain science could fundamentally change society, separating fact from hyperbole along the way. In this eye-opening and in-depth look at the most recent findings in brain science, Fields explores groundbreaking research that shows brainwaves can: • Reveal the type of brain you have—its strengths and weaknesses and your aptitude for learning different types of information • Allow scientists to watch your brain learn, glean your intelligence, and even tell how adventurous you are • Expose hidden dysfunctions—including signifiers of mental illness and neurological disorders • Render your thoughts and transmit them to machines and back from machines into your brain • Meld minds by telepathically transmitting information from one brain to another • Enable individuals to rewire their own brains and improve cognitive performance Written by one of the neuroscientists on the cutting edge of brainwave research, Electric Brain tells a fascinating and obscure story of discovery, explains the latest science, and looks to the future—and the exciting possibilities in store for medicine, technology, and our understanding of ourselves.

Models and Simulations of the Electric Field in Deep Brain Stimulation

Author : Fabiola Alonso
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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established surgical therapy for movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and essential tremor (ET). A thin electrode is implanted in a predefined area of the brain with the use of stereotactic neurosurgery. In the last few years new DBS electrodes and systems have been developed with possibilities for using more parameters for control of the stimulation volume. In this thesis, simulations using the finite element method (FEM) have been developed and used for investigation of the electric field (EF) extension around different types of DBS lead designs (symmetric, steering) and stimulation modes (voltage, current). The electrode surrounding was represented either with a homogeneous model or a patient-specific model based on individual preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The EF was visualized and compared for different lead designs and operating modes. In Paper I, the EF was quantitatively investigated around two lead designs (3389 and 6148) simulated to operate in voltage and current mode under acute and chronic time points following implantation.Simulations showed a major impact on the EF extension between postoperative time points which may explain the clinical decisions to change the stimulation amplitude weeks after implantation. In Paper II, the simulations were expanded to include two leads having steering function (6180, Surestim1) and patient-specific FEM simulations in the zona incerta. It was found that both the heterogeneity of the tissue and the operating mode, influence the EF distribution and that equivalent contact configurations of the leads result in similar EF. The steering mode presented larger volumes in current mode when using equivalent amplitudes. Simulations comparing DBS and intraoperative stimulation test using a microelectrode recording (MER) system (Paper III), showed that several parallel MER leads and the presence of the non-active DBS contacts influence the EF distribution and that the DBS EF volume can cover, but also extend to, other anatomical areas. Paper IV introduces a method for an objective exploitation of intraoperative stimulation test data in order to identify the optimal implant position in the thalamus of the chronic DBS lead. Patient-specific EF simulations were related to the anatomy with the help of brain atlases and the clinical effects which were quantified by accelerometers. The first results indicate that the good clinical effect in ET is due to several structures around the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus.

Electric Fields of the Brain

Author : Paul L. Nunez
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This work investigates the connections between psychology and physiology. Topics include synaptic sources, electrode placement, choice of reference, volume conduction, power and coherence, projection of scalp potentials to dura surface, dynamic signatures of conscious experience and more.--[Source inconnue].

Does Electrical Stimulation Map Brain Function

Author : Patrick Chauvel
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Brain Stem Electric Response Audiometry

Author : Michael E. Glasscock (III)
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Brain Computer Interfaces 1

Author : Maureen Clerc
File Size : 44.3 MB
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Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) are devices which measure brain activity and translate it into messages or commands, thereby opening up many investigation and application possibilities. This book provides keys for understanding and designing these multi-disciplinary interfaces, which require many fields of expertise such as neuroscience, statistics, informatics and psychology. This first volume, Methods and Perspectives, presents all the basic knowledge underlying the working principles of BCI. It opens with the anatomical and physiological organization of the brain, followed by the brain activity involved in BCI, and following with information extraction, which involves signal processing and machine learning methods. BCI usage is then described, from the angle of human learning and human-machine interfaces. The basic notions developed in this reference book are intended to be accessible to all readers interested in BCI, whatever their background. More advanced material is also offered, for readers who want to expand their knowledge in disciplinary fields underlying BCI. This first volume will be followed by a second volume, entitled Technology and Applications

Brain Computer Interfaces

Author : Aboul Ella Hassanien
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The success of a BCI system depends as much on the system itself as on the user’s ability to produce distinctive EEG activity. BCI systems can be divided into two groups according to the placement of the electrodes used to detect and measure neurons firing in the brain. These groups are: invasive systems, electrodes are inserted directly into the cortex are used for single cell or multi unit recording, and electrocorticography (EcoG), electrodes are placed on the surface of the cortex (or dura); noninvasive systems, they are placed on the scalp and use electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG) to detect neuron activity. The book is basically divided into three parts. The first part of the book covers the basic concepts and overviews of Brain Computer Interface. The second part describes new theoretical developments of BCI systems. The third part covers views on real applications of BCI systems.

Current List of Medical Literature

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Includes section, "Recent book acquisitions" (varies: Recent United States publications) formerly published separately by the U.S. Army Medical Library.

Brain Stimulation

Author : Irving Reti
File Size : 51.91 MB
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Brain stimulation technologies are both tools to probe brain function and to provide therapeutic options for patients with neuropsychiatric disease where pharmacological options are not viable. Although the field has been in existence for over seventy years, research interest in brain stimulation has been on the rise particularly in the last two decades. Brain Stimulation: Methodologies and Interventions is an introduction to the field of brain stimulation technology and its applications. The book explores how brainstimulating technologies work in the context of brain pathways that mediate normal and abnormal brain function. Chapters cover neuroanatomy and activity dependent changes in neuronal function triggered by brain stimulation, as well as applications of brain stimulation technologies themselves, including noninvasive procedures that rely on convulsive or seizure therapeutics, and non-convulsive therapies such as magnetic and electrical brain stimulation. Authored by an international group of leaders in the field, Brain Stimulation is a valuable resource for both neuroscience researchers and clinicians.