Search results for: dopamine-and-glutamate-in-psychiatric-disorders

Dopamine and Glutamate in Psychiatric Disorders

Author : Werner Schmidt
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An illuminating summary of our current understanding of the interactive role of dopamine and glutamate in psychiatric diseases and the therapeutic strategies and possibilities for future treatment. Among the new ideas presented are hypotheses on the role of dopamine and glutamate in aggression, the glutamate system in anxiety disorders, glutamate and neurodegeneration, and on the origin and progression of Parkinson's disease. Additional chapters offer novel insights into a variety of psychiatric diseases, including ADHD, stress, aggression, addiction, schizophrenia, depression, social phobias, dementias, bulimia, and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Each chapter summarizes the prevalence and symptoms of the disease and explains the involvement of dopamine and/or glutamate systems using the newer molecular approaches such as transgenic knockout or knockin mice and recent brain imaging techniques.

Dopamine Glutamate Interactions in the Basal Ganglia

Author : Susan Jones
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The basal ganglia are involved in complex brain functions, from voluntary movement control to learning and reward processing, and they are implicated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Information from the cerebral cortex and thalamus is conveyed to basal ganglia nuclei via glutamate release, while dopamine from the midbrain is released in close proximity to glutamate. At the heart of both function and dysfunction of basal ganglia circuits is the interaction of these two neurotransmitters, dopamine and glutamate. Elucidating the relationship between their molecular and cellular effects and behavioural significance has been challenging, but in the past 5–10 years, improved labeling, imaging, recording, and genetic manipulation approaches have yielded new information on how dopamine and glutamate interact to generate the circuit activity underpinning basal ganglia function. Dopamine–Glutamate Interactions in the Basal Ganglia synthesizes this recent research from the level of receptor molecules all the way to complex behaviours and disease. Current insights from research on individual neurons and synapses, detailed circuit analysis, and learning and action functions of the basal ganglia are presented against a historical perspective. The book also discusses compromised dopamine–glutamate interaction in disorders of basal ganglia function, including Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and drug addiction.

Glutamate based Therapies for Psychiatric Disorders

Author : Phil Skolnick
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Both metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors present attractive “druggable” targets in treating disorders of the central nervous system. There has been a dramatic shift in the focus of glutamate-based therapies away from neurologic disorders such as stroke and traumatic brain injury to the treatment of psychiatric disorders. This “Milestones in Drug Therapy” volume offers a unique, contemporary overview of preclinical and clinical evidence that modulating glutamatergic tone is an effective means of treating psychiatric disorders ranging from depression and anxiety to schizophrenia and drug abuse. The ability to treat diseases such as depression and schizophrenia through multiple, glutamate-based mechanisms offers a unique therapeutic opportunity, as described in this book.

Genetic and Neurobiological Basis of Schizophrenia

Author : Patrick Kimuyu
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Seminar paper from the year 2018 in the subject Medicine - Pathology, grade: 1, Egerton University, language: English, abstract: Schizophrenia has emerged as one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders, and it impacts on an individual’s quality of life. Its prevalence is approximately 1.0%, whereas its incidence ranges from 0.16 to 0.42/1000 individuals. Evidence indicates that genetics have an integral role in the onset of schizophrenia. Some of genes involved in the development of schizophrenia include RELN gene, GRM3 gene, COMT gene, and NOS1AP gene. Similarly, neurological dysfunctions including dopamine and glutamate dysfunction have been identified as some of the main factors underlying the pathophysiology of the disorder. Overall, there is evidence that support the biological basis of schizophrenia.

Studies on Psychiatric Disorders

Author : Anna Dietrich-Muszalska
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This authoritative volume reviews clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic aspects of oxidative and nitrosative stress in different psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-nine comprehensive chapters are divided into three distinct sections: clinical aspects, pathophysiological aspects, and therapeutic aspects. Together, these chapters present the environmental, genetic and neurodevelopmental factors in the generation of oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders, with particular emphasis on the biochemical changes associated with oxidative stress in dopaminergic and glutamate neurotransmission as well as mitochondrial dysfunction in the brain and peripheral cells. Through an investigation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) abnormalities in schizophrenia, the book provides a coherent framework to account for the impact of oxidative stress on pathological phenomena ranging from cellular to cognitive and clinical aspects. It describes biomarkers of oxidative damage, the role of oxidative stress in numerous abnormalities of biochemical pathways in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, the development of new investigative techniques, specially neuroimaging, and studies of apoptotic pathways that seem to prove neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental theories. Written by leading researchers in their fields, Studies on Psychiatric Disorders explores therapeutic approaches with aspects of various antioxidants, cryostimulation, and hyperbaric oxygen treatment in oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric diseases. The volume also discusses the role of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia on nitric oxide generation and biomarkers of oxidative stress together with the clinical symptomatology. Overall, it proposes that novel therapeutic strategies such as supplementation with antioxidants—in particular polyphenols, ω-3 fatty acids or combination of both—could be effective for long-term treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders.

Behavioral Neurobiology of Stress related Disorders

Author : Carmine M. Pariante
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Stress is such an over-used word that it is at time difficult to define its core features. When is an environment stressful? What does a stressful environment do to the brain and to the body? What are the biological mechanisms by which a stressor affects us? How does stress contributes to the onset and the progression of mental disorders? How do the effects of stress change over the life-time of an individual? These are just some of the overarching questions addressed by this book, thanks to the contribution of some of the world leading experts on the neurobiology of stress at the pre-clinical and clinical levels. Topics include current advances on the neurobiology of stress on various neurobiological systems such as immune, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, neurogenesis and neuroplasticity, neurotransmitter (glutamate, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and endocannabinoid), neuropeptides, cognition and emotional processing as well as in utero and early postnatal effects. The clinical chapters deal with the relationship of stress and mental disorders such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, substance abuse and addiction, dementia and age-related cognitive decline as well as resilience to stress. Thus, this book brings together some of the most updated and authoritative views on the effects of stress of brain and behavior.

Your Brain Electric

Author : James Lee
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In brain science, there are two phenomena which are becoming increasing common in modern society. Firstly, rates of depression and anxiety disorders are increasing, with as many as one in five people either clinically depressed or anxious at any given time. Secondly, our aging population is revealing a range of cognitive problems associated with aging, including memory loss and other cognitive impairments. Each of these has a common thread - They are underpinned by clear deficits in neurochemical function. You have probably heard that "depression is caused by a serotonin imbalance" (sometimes, but not always, this is the case), however did you also know - - Depression can be caused by low dopamine or noradrenaline (norepinephrine) - Problems with aceylcholine and glutamate can lead to cognitive, memory and attention-related issues - Deficits in your natural opioids (such as endorphins) not only leads to increased pain, but also poor tolerance to stressful life events or situations However the good news is that whether your problem is serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, glutamate, endorphins or any of the other major neurotransmitters and neuro-hormones, your situation is usually fixable with either medication, supplements, cognitive behavioral therapy or other lifestyle modifications. They key is to first know exactly how it feels to be deficient in a particular neurotransmitter. For example, did you know that - - Just the simple act of writing out a plan on how you will change your life for the better can boost serotonin and dopamine - Just hanging out with friends and loved ones boosts serotonin - Most people who are diagnosed with depression will receive a medication to boost serotonin, however for many people, serotonin is not their problem - Meditation has been shown to boost serotonin In his latest book, following on from his hugely successful anti-aging book, The Methuselah Project, James Lee gives you all you need to know regarding the major neurotransmitters including - - What they are - What do they do in your brain and body - What are the symptoms when they are depleted - How to boost levels Lee also details some of the more obscure (yet no less important) neurochemicals such as substance P, which has recently been implicated in neuropathic pain conditions and poor tolerance to stress. As always, Lee has focused on creating a book that sticks to the key facts to create a boredom-free exploration of that mysterious electrical activity that is occurring 24/7, between your ears.

Neurobiology of Mental Illness

Author : Dennis S. Charney
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Our understanding of the neurobiological basis of psychiatric disease has accelerated in the past five years. The fourth edition of Neurobiology of Mental Illness has been completely revamped given these advances and discoveries on the neurobiologic foundations of psychiatry. Like its predecessors the book begins with an overview of the basic science. The emerging technologies in Section 2 have been extensively redone to match the progress in the field including new chapters on the applications of stem cells, optogenetics, and image guided stimulation to our understanding and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Sections' 3 through 8 pertain to the major psychiatric syndromes-the psychoses, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, dementias, and disorders of childhood-onset. Each of these sections includes our knowledge of their etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment. The final section discusses special topic areas including the neurobiology of sleep, resilience, social attachment, aggression, personality disorders and eating disorders. In all, there are 32 new chapters in this volume including unique insights on DSM-5, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) from NIMH, and a perspective on the continuing challenges of diagnosis given what we know of the brain and the mechanisms pertaining to mental illness. This book provides information from numerous levels of analysis including molecular biology and genetics, cellular physiology, neuroanatomy, neuropharmacology, epidemiology, and behavior. In doing so it translates information from the basic laboratory to the clinical laboratory and finally to clinical treatment. No other book distills the basic science and underpinnings of mental disorders and explains the clinical significance to the scope and breadth of this classic text. The result is an excellent and cutting-edge resource for psychiatric residents, psychiatric researchers and doctoral students in neurochemistry and the neurosciences.

Brain Mechanisms and Psychotropic Drugs

Author : Andrius Baskys
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Written by recognized experts in their fields, Brain Mechanisms and Psychotropic Drugs integrates clinical psychopharmacology with basic neuroscience and offers the latest in treatment approaches for major psychiatric disorders. The text is divided into three major sections. The first two sections focus on basic neuroscience, covering fundamental concepts such as ion channels, synapses, second messenger mechanisms, and the aging brain. The second section contains chapters on serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine, GABA, glutamate, and peptides. The final section is clinically oriented and discusses major psychotropic drug classes: antidepressants, neuroleptics, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines, and cognition-enhancing drugs. This is a must-have volume for all those involved in the clinical use of psychotropic medications, from medical students to practitioners and researchers.

Targets and Emerging Therapies for Schizophrenia

Author : Jeffrey S. Albert
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New and emerging directions in pharmaceutical research to better treat schizophrenia Although the dopamine hypothesis has been the cornerstone of schizophrenia therapeutics, it is clear that dopamine-based approaches do not treat all aspects of the disease. Moreover, many schizophrenia patients fail to respond to current antipsychotics. Integrating chemistry, biology, and pharmacology, this book explores emerging directions in pharmaceutical research for drug targeting and discovery in order to find more effective treatments for schizophrenia, one of the most serious and widespread psychiatric diseases. Targets and Emerging Therapies for Schizophrenia presents the basics of schizophrenia, drug targets for the disease, and potential new drugs and therapeutics. It begins with a discussion of prevalence and etiology. Then, it describes therapies such as dopamine agonists and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors as well as growing research aimed at addressing untreated symptoms. Next, the authors discuss receptor modulators, inhibitors, and targeting strategies for drug discovery. Both the neurobiological and chemical aspects of all major pharmacological targets are examined. With contributions from an international team of pioneering pharmaceutical researchers, this book compiles the current knowledge in the field, setting the stage for new breakthroughs in the treatment of schizophrenia. Targets and Emerging Therapies for Schizophrenia: Provides a comprehensive resource for neuro-drug discovery and the development of molecular targets for schizophrenia treatment Draws from chemistry, biology, and pharmacology for more effective drug targeting and discovery Explores a wide range of receptors and molecular targets, including dopamine, PDEs, and neuropeptides With Targets and Emerging Therapies for Schizophrenia as their guide, drug discovery and development scientists have the information they need to advance their own research so that new, more effective treatments for schizophrenia will soon be a reality.

Dopamine Handbook

Author : Leslie L. Iversen
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The discovery of dopamine in 1957-1958 was one of the seminal events in the development of modern neuroscience, and has been extremely important for the development of modern therapies of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This publication captures current progress and excitement in this dynamic research field

Neurobiology of Brain Disorders

Author : Michael J. Zigmond
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Neurobiology of Brain Disorders is the first book directed primarily at basic scientists to offer a comprehensive overview of neurological and neuropsychiatric disease. This book links basic, translational, and clinical research, covering the genetic, developmental, molecular, and cellular mechanisms underlying all major categories of brain disorders. It offers students, postdoctoral fellows, and researchers in the diverse fields of neuroscience, neurobiology, neurology, and psychiatry the tools they need to obtain a basic background in the major neurological and psychiatric diseases, and to discern connections between basic research and these relevant clinical conditions. This book addresses developmental, autoimmune, central, and peripheral neurodegeneration; infectious diseases; and diseases of higher function. The final chapters deal with broader issues, including some of the ethical concerns raised by neuroscience and a discussion of health disparities. Included in each chapter is coverage of the clinical condition, diagnosis, treatment, underlying mechanisms, relevant basic and translational research, and key unanswered questions. Written and edited by a diverse team of international experts, Neurobiology of Brain Disorders is essential reading for anyone wishing to explore the basic science underlying neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. Links basic, translational, and clinical research on disorders of the nervous system, creating a format for study that will accelerate disease prevention and treatment Covers a vast array of neurological disorders, including ADHD, Down syndrome, autism, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, TBI, Parkinson, Huntington, Alzheimer, OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, depression, and pain Illustrated in full color Each chapter provides in-text summary points, special feature boxes, and research questions Provides an up-to-date synthesis of primary source material

Drug Discovery for Psychiatric Disorders

Author : Zoran Rankovic
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This is a wide scope and in-depth coverage of the state of the art and future directions in drug discovery for major psychiatric disorders.

Neurobiology of Mental Illness

Author : Dennis S. Charney
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The new edition of this definitive textbook reflects the continuing reintegration of psychiatry into the mainstream of biomedical science. The research tools that are transforming other branches of medicine - epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, imaging, and medicinal chemistry - are also transforming psychiatry. The field stands poised to make dramatic advances in defining disease pathogenesis, developing diagnostic methods capable of identifying specific and valid disease entities, discovering novel and more effective treatments, and ultimately preventing psychiatric disorders. The Neurobiology of Mental Illness is written by world-renowned experts in basic neuroscience and the pathophysiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It begins with a succint overview of the basic neurosciences followed by and evaluation of the tools that are available for the study of mental disorders in humans. The core of the book is a series of consistently organized sections on the major psychiatric disorders that cover their diagnostic classification, molecular genetics, functional neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and pharmacology, neuroimaging, and principles of pharmacotherapy. Chapters are written in a clear style that is easily accessible to practicing psychiatrists, and yet they are detailed enough to interest researchers and academics.For this second edition, every section has been thoroughly updated, and 13 new chapters have been added in areas where significant advances have been made, including functional genomics and animal models of illness; epidemiology; cognitive neuroscience; postmortem investigation of human brain; drug discovery methods for psychiatric disorders; the neurobiology of schizophrenia; animal models of anxiety disorders; neuroimaging studies of anxiety disorders; developmental neurobiology and childhood onset of psychiatric disorders; the neurobiology of mental retardation; the interface between neurological and psychiatric disorders; the neurobiology of circadian rhythms; and the neurobiology of sleep disorders. Both as a textbook and a reference work, Neurobiology of Mental Illness represents a uniquely valuable resource for psychiatrists, neuroscientists, and their students or trainees.

Dopamine and Glutamate Interactions in Primate Working Memory

Author : Brooke Michelle Roberts
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Immunopsychiatry

Author : Antonio L. Teixeira
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In recent years, a dedicated effort has been made to understand the immune dysfunction that is associated with major psychiatric disorders. The expanding knowledge of the immune system as a major homeostatic system has been very helpful in indicating new potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets to reduce the burden of psychiatric disorders. Indeed, immune cells, their secreted molecules, and cell signalling events are highly promising. Yet, the literature on immunology of psychiatric disorders is still dispersed, and only a few attempts have been made to consolidate the current knowledge in this expanding area. This book assembles and presents the available data on the immune/inflammatory dysfunction in psychiatric disorders, indicating the potential of immune mechanisms as either biomarkers or therapeutic targets, as well as discussing the challenges ahead of incorporating this knowledge into clinical practice. An international team of senior experts in the field review all psychiatric disorders in order to provide an integrated, in-depth understanding of the role of immune changes in psychiatric diseases for mental health clinicians as well as for researchers in immunology, psychiatry, neurology, and pharmacology.

Neurobiology of Psychiatric Disorders

Author : Thomas E. Schlaepfer
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This new volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology presents a comprehensive review of the fundamental science and clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders. Advances in neuroscience have allowed for dramatic advances in the understanding of psychiatric disorders and treatment. Brain disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are the leading cause of disability worldwide. It is estimated that over 25% of the adult population in North America are diagnosed yearly with at least one mental disorder and similar results hold for Europe. Now that neurology and psychiatry agree that all mental disorders are in fact, "brain diseases," this volume provides a foundational introduction to the science defining these disorders and details best practices for psychiatric treatment. Provides a comprehensive review of the scientific foundations of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric treatment Includes detailed results from genetics, molecular biology, brain imaging, and neuropathological, immunological, epidemiological, metabolic, therapeutic and historical aspects of the major psychiatric disorders A "must have" reference and resource for neuroscientists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists as well as all research scientists investigating disorders of the brain

Schizophrenia Treatment

Author : Yu-Chih Shen
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Schizophrenia treatment has many facets. This book begins with the glutamatergic and GABAergic hypofunctioning contribute to the schizophrenic symptoms and their current targeted therapeutics. The genetic, epigenetic, and immune etiologies of schizophrenia and their potential targeted therapeutics as approached in this book are interesting. Understanding cognitive biases and delusional circuits in schizophrenia is important; several behavioral cognitive therapies working on the reduction and avoidance of these cognitive biases are demonstrating their effectiveness. Advances in schizophrenia treatment followed, including transcranial magnetic stimulation and special sport program, are presented at the book's end.

Neurobiology of Psychiatric Disorders

Author : Thomas E Schlaepfer
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This new volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology presents a comprehensive review of the fundamental science and clinical treatment of psychiatric disorders. Advances in neuroscience have allowed for dramatic advances in the understanding of psychiatric disorders and treatment. Brain disorders, such as depression and schizophrenia, are the leading cause of disability worldwide. It is estimated that over 25% of the adult population in North America are diagnosed yearly with at least one mental disorder and similar results hold for Europe. Now that neurology and psychiatry agree that all mental disorders are in fact, "brain diseases," this volume provides a foundational introduction to the science defining these disorders and details best practices for psychiatric treatment. Provides a comprehensive review of the scientific foundations of psychiatric disorders and psychiatric treatment Includes detailed results from genetics, molecular biology, brain imaging, and neuropathological, immunological, epidemiological, metabolic, therapeutic and historical aspects of the major psychiatric disorders A "must have" reference and resource for neuroscientists, neurologists, psychiatrists, and clinical psychologists as well as all research scientists investigating disorders of the brain

Implications of Psychopharmacology to Psychiatry

Author : M. Ackenheil
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The discovery of chlorpromazine for the specific treatment of schizophrenic symp toms and, later on, of imipramine for the specific treatment of depressive symptoms marked a new milestone in clinical psychiatry and basic neuroscience 40 years ago. The exploration of biochemical mechanisms of action of these psychotropic drugs created new theories on the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders, such as the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and the catecholamine and serotonin hypotheses of depression. Thus the discovery of these biological treatments had a major impact on natural science-oriented research. Biological psychiatry as we know it today has its origin in these psychopharmacological drugs and influences many disciplines in psychiatry. It was a fortunate coincidence that Hans Hippius, whose 70th birthday we celebrated this year with an international symposium, started his professional career during this time in the 1950S. He was one of the early pioneers in clinical psycho pharmacological research and enthusiastic about both the scientific and the thera peutic prospects of the new psychotropic drugs. He has worked in this field for more than three decades and has made many lasting contributions to biological psychiatry. Among the many activities, his contributions in the development of the new atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine should be mentioned.