Automotive Vehicle Strategies and Ecm Modes

Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems

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Author: Mandy Concepcion

Publisher: Mandy Concepcion

ISBN: N.A

Category: Transportation

Page: 44

View: 4865

Automotive Vehicle Strategies and ECM Modes(Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems)By Mandy ConcepcionThis book is divided into two sections, “Vehicle Operational Strategies”, which detail what's needed for and engine to start. In other words, this section concentrates on the signals needed for a particular manufacturer to make the engine run. These signal strategies are true regardless of the system and the section simply zeros in on the actual signal, whether it's a distributor, DIS, COP, etc. The second section is the "ECM operational modes" and goes into details on why and how the ECM does what it needs to do to run the engine. In other words, this section has to do with the behavior of the ECM according to outside conditions.VEHICLE OPERATIONAL STRATEGIESThis section is designed to serve as a functional guide to some of the more difficult to diagnose faults. It basically came about from the trial and error experimentation with different systems, during the diagnostic process. It is not a study section per se, but will definitelyenlighten the technician as to the logics of different systems on the market today. Hopefully, it will serve to pinpoint the source of an actual problem.ECM OPERATIONAL MODES In this section, we'll take a look at automotive OPERATIONAL MODES. The section deals with the specifics of internal ECM programming strategies. The knowledge gained here will aide the modern technician is deciphering why is the ECM functioning in a specific way. This section, as in other parts of this book, helps to answer the technician's diagnostic basic question “What is the ECM seeing, that's causing it to do what it does?”Table of ContentsVEHICLE OPERATIONAL STRATEGIES- HONDA IGNITION & INJECTION STRATEGY- MAZDA IGNITION STRATEGY- MAZDA EEC IV IGNITION STRATEGY- MITSUBISHI/HYUNDAI IGNITION STRATEGY- NISSAN IGNITION STRATEGY- NISSAN COP IGNITION STRATEGY- TOYOTA IGNITION STRATEGYECM OPERATIONAL MODES• CRANKING ENRICHMENT MODE• ENGINE WARM-UP MODE• OPEN-LOOP MODE• CLOSE-LOOP MODE• ACCELERATION ENRICHMENT MODE• DECELERATION ENLEANMENT MODE• IDLE SPEED CONTROL MODE• LOW VOLTAGE CORRECTION MODE• CLEAR FLOOD MODE• SELECTIVE FUEL INJECTOR CUT-OFF MODE• LIMP-HOME MODE• EXHAUST VARIABLE VALVE TIMING/EGR CONTROL MODE

Techniques on Using Automotive Diagnostic Equipment

Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems

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Author: Mandy Concepcion

Publisher: Mandy Concepcion

ISBN: N.A

Category: Transportation

Page: 74

View: 4068

Techniques on Using Automotive Diagnostic Equipment (Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems) By Mandy Concepcion This "Tools and Equipment" (Techniques on Using Automotive Diagnostic Equipment) book serves as a basic primer for any future equipment purchasing decisions, as well as operating and learning the use of these advanced gadgets. An effort was made to cover some of the OEM (Dealer) tools available today. Furthermore, detailed operational explanations were presented so as to introduce and explain the intricacies of each tool. Emphasis was also placed on module re-flashing or reprogramming, since it is becoming an integral part of automotive repair. This section was produced without the sponsoring of anyone company and any opinion expressed by the author is totally unbiased. Table of Contents Techniques on Using Automotive Diagnostic Equipment (A Tool and Equipment Section) * Introduction * TEST LIGHT * POWER PROBE * DIGITAL MULTIMETER * AMP-PROBE (Low & High Current) * SOUND (Tone) SIGNAL TRACER * IAC ACTUATOR * IR (Infra-Red) THERMOMETER * SCAN TOOLS * OEM SCANNERS: * DRB III, * TECH-2, * NGS, * I-PRO (Hi Scan), * Vehicle Reflashing (Re-Programming), * Off-Board Re-programming and Re-FLashing * OSCILLOSCOPES, DSO, Fulke

Automotive Repair Case Studies

Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems

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Author: Mandy Concepcion

Publisher: Mandy Concepcion

ISBN: N.A

Category: Transportation

Page: 52

View: 1863

Automotive Repair Case Studies (Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems) By Mandy Concepcion In this section, we'll take a look at automotive diagnostics in action. An effort has been made to look at problems in different ways, in each of the examples. Although there are many ways to perform the same task, the idea here is to show the technician or avid DIY mechanic the different ways to go about diagnosing automobiles. Special attention is given to specific systems and different makes and models. The different real life diagnostic cases are explained from narrated perspective to make learning easier. Hopefully you find this section enlightening and productive. Enjoy your readings. Table of Contents * - Audi data bus signal recognition (exposes the intricacies of diagnosing vehicle networks and how computers talk to each other.) * - Cadi idle re-learn (explains the importance of module re-learn procedure, which is done by re-adapting the ECM to a new sensor.) * - Case of the EVAPs (these emission systems are difficult to diagnose, due to their complexities.) * - Computer Data Lines (scan tools talk to the different engine modules or computers through the data line or bus. See how to diagnose this type of problem.) * - Faulty EGR operation (the EGR is in charge of lowering combustion temperatures. But issue with this system can cause pinging, performance, misfire and countless other issues.) * - Lean (dirty) MAF (the lean condition comprises about 60% of all engine performance issues. Learn to deal with this situation.) * - The case of the low volume (Fuel pumps deliver both pressure and volume. If one of these is missing then the engine has problems.) * - Unsynchronized CAM & CRK signals (CAM and CRK signal synchronization is needed for the engine to start.) * - Wrong MAP reading (The manifold air pressure is a main input to the ECM. See how this sensor creates havoc with the engine.) * - The Cadi's dual crank affair (this Cadillac's engine control system has dual crank sensors. Learn to diagnose these systems.) * - Analytical misfire code (Misfires are difficult to diagnose and this case shows precisely that.) * - The misfire ghost (A case of hard to find misfire.)

Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems

Equipment Usage and Repair Strategies

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Author: Mandy Concepcion

Publisher: Mandy Concepcion

ISBN: 1463552513

Category: Transportation

Page: 40

View: 514

In this section, we'll cover diagnostic equipment usage. As an automotive activity, diagnosing modern vehicles has become extremely high-tech oriented and difficult. Few professions involve so much from their practitioner. A modern technician has to master a multitude of disciplines, including electronics, optics, mechanics, programming, computer science and many others. Such highly technological activities require a keen analytical mind. But as in any human endeavors, proficiency comes with practice and patience. The techniques presented in this section combined with the necessary hands on practice are designed to sharpen the technician's abilities to perform profitable and fast diagnostics. With patience and practice, any vehicle can be repaired. Enjoy!Edition 4.0, Section 3, Equipment Usage & Repair Strategies, Copyright 2004, 2011, All rights reserved. Section 3 Table of Contents* CURRENT RAMPING STRATEGY – (what's current ramping and how it works, oscilloscope (DSO) and a low/ high amperage clamp-on amp probe, magnetic field, fuel pumps, current ramping a fuel pump, determining the fuel pump speed, commutators, FP waveforms, ignition coil current ramping, Coil-On-Plug current ramping, ignition coil waveforms, current ramping an injector, low Amp probe usage, current ramping compression test)* HESITATION LACK OF POWER REPAIR STRATEGY – (strategy and operation, fuel delivery test, spark reserve test, exhaust pressure, ignition and valve timing, guidelines for a multi-channel scope, visual inspection, ECM in control, air-fuel ratio, 5-gas analyzer, HC, CO, CO2, O2 and Nox analysis, fuel flow, fuel volume analysis, ignition waveform)* FUEL FLOW VOLUME GUIDELINES – (Fuel Volume usage for Dometic cars, Fuel Volume usage for Asian cars, Fuel Volume for Continuous injection cars)* IGNITION COIL WAVEFORM INTERPRETATION – (Parade ignition analysis, Super-imposed, Bar-Graphs, Raster ignition analysis, single cylinder)* IGNITION SYSTEM TESTING STRATEGY – (Ignition current waveform interpretation, low resistance or shorted primary ignition, shorted ignition coil, full coil saturation, Ignition testing strategy, ignition waveform interpretation, coil On-Time, Firing line, Dwell, Turn-Off, Spark line, the main 5-types of misfires, triggering device misfire, CRK and CAM, ignition testing procedures, cranking Kilo-Volts, firing line KVs, WOT KVs, Idle baseline, Pre-Loading, Individual spark line, Distributor, DIS and COP) * A/F RATIO (lean/rich) REPAIR STRATEGY – (Fuel trim diagnostic, air-fuel ratios, ECM in control, Pressure and Volume, Spark issues, O2 not switching) * MINIMUM AIR RATE ADJUSTMENT – (why do we need a Min. AR adjustment, ECM strategy, IAC strategy, Adjustment procedure, a stalling engine, idle re-learn procedure, battery reset)* NO FUEL PRESSURE/VOLUME REPAIR STRATEGY – (No pressure volume symptomatic diagnostic, fuel system operation, fuel systems types, returnless fuel system, variable speed fuel pumps, duty-cycle control, steps to diagnose fuel system issues, defective filter, regulator)* NO INJECTION PULSE STRATEGY – (no injection and pulse diagnostics, crank issues, EFI operation, non-sequential and sequential injection, Direct injection, fuel pulse testing, noid light, injector voltage supply, scanner, the switched side, engine speed signal, injector current)* NO START/NO SPARK REPAIR PROCEDURE – (Visuals, secondary, ignition grounds, ignition power, primary side, ignition neon noid)* NO START GENERAL REPAIR PROCEDURE – (procedures that should be used to diagnose a no start, cranks ok condition, spark, pressure, fuel)* NOTES

Automotive Scan Tool Pid Diagnostics

Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems

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Author: Mandy Concepcion

Publisher: Mandy Concepcion

ISBN: N.A

Category: Transportation

Page: 62

View: 9486

Automotive Scan Tool PID Diagnostics (Diagnostics Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems ) By Mandy Concepcion In this section, the different techniques of scan tool parameter (PID) analysis will be exposed. Techniques involving PID analysis are quickly catching on, due to their speed and accuracy. By properly analyzing the different scanner PIDs, the technician can arrive at the source of the problem much faster and accurately. These procedures give rise to the new term “driver seat diagnostics”, since most of the preliminary diagnostic work is done through the scanner. However, these techniques will in no way replace the final manual tests that are a part of every diagnostic path. They are simply geared to point the technician in the right direction. Table of Contents INTRODUCTION (Introduction to scan tool diagnostics and the relevance of using PIDs or scanner parameter to perform the first leg of all diagnostics.) - Theory of Operation Behind the Different PIDs (Describes CARB, the difference between generic and enhanced PIDs, the FTP) - OBD II Generic PIDs (PID calculated and actual values, calculated data relationships, base injection timing, ECM value substitution) - OBD I & II General PID analysis (erasing code-or not, recording, analyzing and pinpoint tests, separating PIDs into groups) - Fuel Delivery Fault Detection (fuel delivery issues, intake air temp. sensor, BARO sensor, Engine LOAD, RPM PID, Short-Term Fuel Trims, Long-Term Fuel Trims, 60% of check engine light issues, block learn/integrators, Example 1: injector fault, Example 2: intake gasket issues, fuel status, ignition timing, MAP/MAF, TPS, O2 sensor, IAC, Closed Throttle, injector pulse width, voltage power, injector dutycycle, fuel trim cell) - Test #1 (Determining an engine’s fuel Consumption (rich-lean operation, duty-cycle to fuel trim relationship, O2 sensor to fuel trim relation, FT and vacuum leaks, ignition timing and idle control, test conclusion) - Test # 2 (Misfire Detection Strategy, EGR, Ignition and Mechanical misfires) (misfires and OBD2, scanner misfire detection – a time saver, OBD2 40 and 80 cycle misfire, ignition, injector and EGR density misfire, coil-on-plug, misfires and O2 sensor, lean O2 & Secondary misfire, O2 sensor & injector misfires, leaky injector, EGR and the MAP, Type A, B, C misfires, test conclusion) - Test # 3 (Air/Fuel Ratio Faults) (air-fuel imbalance, MAF and post O2 sensors, open-closed-loop, fuel enable, HC & CO relation to AF issues, test conclusion) - Test # 4 (BARO, MAP & MAF PID analysis) (MAP & valve timing faults, ECM behavior, fuel delivery or duty cycle test, volumetric efficiency, , test conclusion) - Test # 5 (Clogged exhaust) (clogged catalytic converter detection, TPS, MAF and converters, idle and WOT or wide open throttle values, vacuum readings, MAP to WOT chats analysis, engine and MAP vacuum, test conclusion) - Test # 6 (EGR Fault Detection) (EGR and MAP values, ECM reaction to EGR issues, EGR temp sensor, DPFE sensor, EGR and O2-MAP and lift position sensor, EGR and engine pre-loading, EGR and the ECM erroneous high LOAD issues, test conclusion) - Test # 7 (O2 Sensor Heater) (O2 heaters and why?, tough to check O2 heater issues, O2 heater effect on signal output, O2 heater bias voltage, engine off and O2 changing value, test conclusion) - Test # 8 (Resetting Fuel Trims) (resetting injection pulse corrections, long-term and short-term fuel trims, learn condition, Lambda, case study on fuel trims, FT resetting according to manufacturer, test conclusion) - Test # 9 (Engine Cranking Vacuum Test) (MAP/MAF cranking vacuum, vacuum to PID analysis, vacuum leaks, gauge-PID test, sources of leaks, cranking values, test conclusion)

Automotive Computer Network Repair

Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems

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Author: Mandy Concepcion

Publisher: Mandy Concepcion

ISBN: N.A

Category: Transportation

Page: 50

View: 6682

Automotive Computer Network Repair (Diagnostic Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems) By Mandy Concepcion In this book we will cover the intricacies of automotive inter-module communication systems or networks. The scope of this section will also go beyond the normal needs of an automotive technician. Hence, this will probably be the most difficult part of this series to comprehend. Be patient and open minded. Always give yourself time to absorb the knowledge and do not be discouraged. Special emphasis will be placed on the CAN system (Controller Area Network), since it is now the standard. CAN is one of the 9 OBD-2 protocols. A protocol is an agreement on communications interchange. It is in essence a computer communication language and specifies signaling, wiring, size of cables used, who controls the network and voltage levels. Various protocols were used in the past, some proprietary and some generic such as ISO 9141 and SAE 1850 VPW, but the standard is now the CAN protocol. Virtually all vehicle networks now talk to each other though the CAN protocol. It is now common place to see the seat belt, SRS-Airbag, transmission, ABS-Brakes, engine and radio modules or computer talking to each other through the network. Ever wondered why your radio volume goes up when you accelerate the vehicle? That's the engine computer or module telling the radio to raise the volume due to a higher RPM and hence higher ambient noise. It is also common to see a non-shifting transmission due to a faulty network and the issue not being related to the transmission at all. Hopefully this book will shed some light on the operation and knowledge needed to tackle automotive networks in today's vehicles...... Enjoy. Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION * - Automotive inter-module communication systems or networks * - Asian, Domestics and European Vehicles * - Fully Networked vehicles. 2. THE NEED FOR IN-VEHICLE NETWORKING * - Use of electrical and electronic components * - Networked automotive sensors. * - Sharing of sensor information * - Weight savings and the simpler wiring harnesses * - Networking and modular systems 3. THE NEED FOR PROTOCOLS * - CAN or Controller Area Network communication protocol * - CLASS A - Low speed * - CLASS B - Medium speed * - CLASS C - High speed * - SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) * - ISO (International Standards Organization) * - What is a Gateway? 4. NETWORKING ESSENTIALS * - the 7-layer ISO/OSI reference model * - PHYSICAL LAYER * - DATA LINK LAYER * - APPLICATION LAYER * - Medium Access * - CARRIER SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS or CSMA * - Network latency * - The Topology of a network * - The STAR topology * - The BUS topology * - The TREE topology * - The RING topology 5. DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION NETWORK * - The CCD data bus (Chrysler Collision Detection) * - CCD bus ground * - CCD bus bias voltage * - OEM scan tool (DRB III) * - NO TERMINATION message fault * - The PCI bus (Programmable Communications Interface) * - A CSMA/CD media access scheme * - The Header, DATA, CRC, IFR and EOF elements * - DCL (Data Communications Link) * - circuit 914 and 915 * - SCP (J1850) (Standard Corporate Protocol) * - Dual wire twisted pair bus topology * - The ISO 9141 protocol * - The NGS "DATA LINK DIAGNOSTICS" menu option * - GM (Data Line) UART Serial Communications * - UART data line communications * - GM CLASS 2 data bus * - State of health messages * - The Tech-2 scanner has a dynamic menu configuration * - The Tech-2's PING-ALL-MODULES 6. CAN (Controller Area Network) * - implementation of the CAN protocol * - 11 bit and 29 bit identifyer * - EPA approved for MY 2003 and up * - CAN A, B and C * - MID and PID CAN identifyers * - Master time-keeper-node * - Drive-by-wire systems * - Byteflight, Flexray, and Time-triggered CAN or TTCAN * - The CAN Data-Frame * - The CAN bus-access arbitration * - SOF (start-of-frame) bit * - Control bit * - Arbitration bits * - Data bits * - EOF or end of frame bit

Cybersecurity Best Practices

Lösungen zur Erhöhung der Cyberresilienz für Unternehmen und Behörden

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Author: Michael Bartsch,Stefanie Frey

Publisher: Springer Vieweg

ISBN: 9783658216542

Category: Computers

Page: 469

View: 6465

Das Thema Cybersecurity ist so aktuell wie nie, denn im Cyberspace lassen sich nur schwer Grenzen in Bezug auf den Zugang zu Informationen, Daten und Redefreiheit setzen. Kriminelle nutzen die Lücken oft zu ihrem Vorteil aus. Die Vielzahl der IT-Systeme, ihre unterschiedlichen Nutzungsarten und ihre Innovations- und Lebenszyklen haben zu hohen Sicherheitsrisiken für Unternehmen und staatliche Einrichtungen geführt. Diese Risiken werden sich auch langfristig nicht so einfach aus der Welt schaffen lassen. Daher müssen Institutionen Strategien und Lösungen zu ihrem Selbstschutz entwickeln. Dieses Buch beschreibt Lösungsansätze und Best Practices aus den unterschiedlichsten Bereichen, die nachweislich zu einer höheren Resilienz gegenüber Cyberangriffen führen. Weltweit renommierte IT-Sicherheitsexperten berichten in 40 Beiträgen, wie sich staatliche Institutionen, unter anderem das Militär (Cyber Defence), Behörden, internationale Organisationen und Unternehmen besser gegen Cyberangriffe schützen und nachhaltige Schutzstrategien entwickeln können. Die Autoren widmen sich den Gründen und Zielen, die ihren jeweiligen Strategien zugrunde liegen, sie berichten, wie Unternehmen auf konkrete Cyberattacken reagiert haben und wie einzelne staatliche Institutionen angesichts nationaler Cyberstrategien agieren. In weiteren Kapiteln zeigen Wissenschaftler auf, was bei der Abwehr von Cyber-Attacken bereits heute möglich ist, welche Entwicklungen in Arbeit sind und wie diese in Zukunft eingesetzt werden können, um die Cyber-Sicherheit zu erhöhen. Im letzten Kapitel berichten Hersteller, Anwenderunternehmen und Dienstleister welche Best Practices sie in ihren Unternehmen eingeführt haben und wie andere Unternehmen ihrem Beispiel folgen können. Das Buch richtet sich an IT-Verantwortliche und -Sicherheitsbeauftragte in Unternehmen und anderen Organisationen, aber auch an Studierende in den verschiedenen IT-Studiengängen.

Diagnostics Strategies of Modern Automotive Systems

Automotive sensor testing

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Author: Mandy Concepcion

Publisher: Mandy Concepcion

ISBN: 1463552467

Category: Transportation

Page: 66

View: 2407

This work has been a labor of love. It is meant to compliment and broaden the working knowledge of the modern automotive technician. No theoretical information is given, except under certain explanatory circumstances and sections. This book is totally based on actual working conditions and real life diagnostics. With that intent, special thanks are given to Mr. Gino Ferrulli for his incredible patience and understanding. This book, including waveform captures and photographs would have been impossible to acquire and assemble without his help. My gratitude to him and his family for putting up with me throughout the almost three years that took to make the book. Special thanks are also given to Ms. Maria Ferrulli and Ms. Caroline Torres for their invaluable help in amending and correcting the information contained here. I couldn't have done it without their help. And last, but not least, thanks to my family for their support and encouragement. I really needed it at times. The family is the basis for all societies. But most of all, this book was done for you, "The Lone Automotive Mechanic or Technician." The guy (or girl in some cases) who works all day long and studies at night to further his/her career in spite of the stress of the day, the guy who's not appreciated for what he does because to the rest of the world he's the dirty mechanic that doesn't know better, the guy who spends thousands of dollars in tools and equipment but that nobody has any idea that he did, and the guy who in spite of all the drawbacks of our profession is happy at what he does and keeps America rolling. This work was done for you. I hope you enjoy and learn from it. Remember, no matter what happens keep building your knowledge and it'll pay-off in the end. Edition 4.0, Copyright 2004, 2011, All rights reserved Table of Content COMPONENT STRATEGIES (Sections 1) Section 1-1 (sensors) 1) O2 Sensor - O2 Sensor, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 2) APP (accelerator Pedal Position Sensor) - APP, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 3) CAM & CRK sensor - CAM & CRK, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 4) ECT (Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor) - ECT, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 5) IAT (Intake Air Temperature Sensor) - IAT, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 6) Knock Sensor (Detonation) - Knock Sensor, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 7) MAF (Mass Air Flow Sensor) - MAF, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 8) MAP (Manifold Air Pressure Sensor) - MAP, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 9) TPS (Throttle Position Sensor) - TPS, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 10) VSS (Vehicle Speed Sensor) - VSS, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 11) A/C Pressure Sensor - A/C Press. Sensor, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 12) FRP (Fuel Rail Pressure Sensor) - FRP sensor, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 13) PFS (Evap Purge Flow Sensor) - PFS, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures 14) AFR (Air Fuel or Wide Range Air Fuel Sensors) - AFR sensor, Theory of Operation, Conditions that Affect Operation, Component Testing Procedures NOTES

Automotive electrical and electronic systems

Shop manual

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Author: John F. Kershaw,James D. Halderman,Chek-Chart Publications (Firm)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780130394958

Category: Transportation

Page: 402

View: 8015

[This book] teaches test procedures, troubleshooting techniques, and how to repair the systems and components introduced in the Classroom manual. The [book] provides the practical, hands-on information required for working on automotive electrical and electronic systems.-How to use this book.