Search results for: denationalizing-science

Denationalizing Science

Author : E. Crawford
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Present trends indicate that in the years to come transnational science, whether basic or applied and involving persons, equipment or funding, will grow considerably. The main purpose of this volume is to try to understand the reasons for this denationalization of science, its historical contexts and its social forms. The Introduction to the volume sets out the socio-political, intellectual, and economic contexts for the nationalization and denationalization of the sciences, processes that have extended over four centuries. The articles examine the specific conditions that have given rise to the growth of transnational science in the 20th century. Among these are: the need for cognitive and technical standardization of scientific knowledge-products, pressure toward cost-sharing of large installations such as CERN, the voluntary and involuntary migration of scientists, and the global market for R&D products that has emerged at the end of the century. The volume raises many new questions for research by historians and sociologists of science and poses problems that are of concern both to scientists and science policy-makers.

Denationalizing Science

Author : E. Crawford
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Neue Formen der Wissenserzeugung

Author : Gerd Bender
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Beyond Borders

Author : Pedro Ruiz-Castell and Ximo Guillem-Llobat
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How does scientific knowledge circulate? Does scientific communication shape the making of science? Is the making of science a national endeavour or does it have an international or transnational dimension? Are teaching and research equally relevant in this endeavour? How can history of science react to the challenges posed by the changing practices of science in historical context? Beyond Borders is a book generated at the heart of these fundamental questions. In the last decades, the history of science has attained a high degree of disciplinary maturity and sophistication. However, perception of disciplinary crisis is apparent behind calls for the search of new “big pictures” and their implementation in teaching and communicating the history of science to wider audiences. Temporal and narrative fragmentation are seen as major drawbacks hindering the development of the discipline. In addition, national, linguistic and methodological division is increasingly afflicting its practice. Like other areas in the humanities, and in contrast to the sciences, the history of science has nowadays a pronounced local character which clearly constrains its intellectual output. Challenging this state of affairs is a major aim of this book, which argues for a resolute call for intellectual and methodological pluralism and internationalism. Through a broad diversity of subjects, periods, and geographies, covering from studies of sixteenth-century astrological texts to contextual analysis of twentieth-century X-ray spectroscopy, this collection of papers and historiographical essays offers a fresh overview of the field and its major questions. Beyond Borders revisits five major topics in history of science, namely the early modern map of knowledge, pedagogy and science, science popularization, science and the nation and the geography of scientific centres and peripheries. Engaging with a broad diversity of historiographical and methodological approaches in an international perspective, Beyond Borders is a rich and plural manifesto contributing to the reflective appraisal of history of science as a discipline.

Sprache und Sprachen in den Wissenschaften

Author : Walter de Gruyter & Co
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In dem vorliegenden Band unternehmen namhafte Wissenschaftsphilosophen und Sprachwissenschaftler den Versuch, von ihren jeweiligen Standpunkten aus über die fundamentale Rolle der Sprache in Wissenschaft und Alltag nachzudenken. Zugleich werden die derzeit wichtigsten zeitgenössischen Modelle zur Struktur und Funktion von Sprache von jeweiligen Fachvertretern vorgestellt und diskutiert. Hierbei werden Fragen der Realitäts- bzw. Gegenstandskonstitution behandelt sowie Aspekte der Erklärungskraft und Grenzen der unterschiedlichen Forschungspositionen erörtert. Abschließend werden Probleme der wissenschaftlichen Fachkommunikation betrachtet. Der vorliegende Band vermittelt einen umfassenden Einblick in Positionen und Probleme der zeitgenössischen Forschung. Wer sich zum Thema 'Sprache und Sprachen in den Wissenschaften' grundlegend informieren will, findet derzeit kein vergleichbares Buch.

Mathematics Unbound

Author : Karen Hunger Parshall
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Although today's mathematical research community takes its international character very much for granted, this ''global nature'' is relatively recent, having evolved over a period of roughly 150 years-from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century. During this time, the practice of mathematics changed from being centered on a collection of disparate national communities to being characterized by an international group of scholars for whom thegoal of mathematical research and cooperation transcended national boundaries. Yet, the development of an international community was far from smooth and involved obstacles such as war, political upheaval, and national rivalries. Until now, this evolution has been largely overlooked by historians andmathematicians alike. This book addresses the issue by bringing together essays by twenty experts in the history of mathematics who have investigated the genesis of today's international mathematical community. This includes not only developments within component national mathematical communities, such as the growth of societies and journals, but also more wide-ranging political, philosophical, linguistic, and pedagogical issues. The resulting volume is essential reading for anyone interestedin the history of modern mathematics. It will be of interest to mathematicians, historians of mathematics, and historians of science in general.

History of Universities

Author : Mordechai Feingold
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Volume XXII/2 of History of Universities contains the customary mix of learned articles, book reviews, and bibliographical information, which makes this publication an indispensable tool for the historian of higher education. In this special issue, the contributors examine the institutional and intellectual history of the Collège de Montaigu, from the fourteenth to the eighteenth century. The volume offers a lively combination of original research and invaluable reference material.

Legitimizing Science

Author : Andreas Franzmann
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Since the founding in 1660 of the Royal Society, London, scientists engaging in experimental research have sought to establish a base for exploratory work in communities and their political institutions. This connection between science and the national state has only grown stronger during the past two centuries. Here, historians, sociologists, and jurists discuss the history of that relationship since 1800, asking such key questions as how have scientists conceived of the national setting for their transnational work in the past, and how do they situate their work in the context of globalization? Taken together, the essays reveal that while nineteenth-century scientists in many countries felt they had to fight for public recognition of their work, the twentieth century witnessed the national endorsement and planning of science. With essays ranging from an analysis of speeches by nineteenth-century German university presidents to the state of science in the context of European integration, this book will appeal to anyone interested in the public and political role of science and its institutions in the past, present, and future.

Handbook on Science and Public Policy

Author : Dagmar Simon
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This Handbook assembles state-of-the-art insights into the co-evolutionary and precarious relations between science and public policy. Beyond this, it also offers a fresh outlook on emerging challenges for science (including technology and innovation) in changing societies, and related policy requirements, as well as the challenges for public policy in view of science-driven economic, societal, and cultural changes. In short, this book deals with science as a policy-triggered project as well as public policy as a science-driven venture.

Reader s Guide to the History of Science

Author : Arne Hessenbruch
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The Reader's Guide to the History of Science looks at the literature of science in some 550 entries on individuals (Einstein), institutions and disciplines (Mathematics), general themes (Romantic Science) and central concepts (Paradigm and Fact). The history of science is construed widely to include the history of medicine and technology as is reflected in the range of disciplines from which the international team of 200 contributors are drawn.