Search results for: daydreaming-in-humans-and-machines

Daydreaming in Humans and Machines

Author : Erik T. Mueller
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This volume presents a computer model of human daydreaming to demonstrate how it is useful for creative problem solving and learning in both humans and computers. The model is implemented as the running computer program Daydreaming, which takes simple descriptions of external world events as input and produces descriptions of daydreams and actions as output.

Commonsense Reasoning

Author : Erik T. Mueller
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To endow computers with common sense is one of the major long-term goals of artificial intelligence research. One approach to this problem is to formalize commonsense reasoning using mathematical logic. Commonsense Reasoning: An Event Calculus Based Approach is a detailed, high-level reference on logic-based commonsense reasoning. It uses the event calculus, a highly powerful and usable tool for commonsense reasoning, which Erik Mueller demonstrates as the most effective tool for the broadest range of applications. He provides an up-to-date work promoting the use of the event calculus for commonsense reasoning, and bringing into one place information scattered across many books and papers. Mueller shares the knowledge gained in using the event calculus and extends the literature with detailed event calculus solutions that span many areas of the commonsense world. The Second Edition features new chapters on commonsense reasoning using unstructured information including the Watson system, commonsense reasoning using answer set programming, and techniques for acquisition of commonsense knowledge including crowdsourcing. Understand techniques for automated commonsense reasoning Incorporate commonsense reasoning into software solutions Acquire a broad understanding of the field of commonsense reasoning Gain comprehensive knowledge of the human capacity for commonsense reasoning

Transparent Computers

Author : Erik T. Mueller
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Computers today can be very opaque. When they make a mistake, it's hard to understand why, and it's hard to fix the problem. Computers should instead be transparent. They should be able to reason like people and explain their reasoning to people. This book discusses techniques for designing and building transparent computers ranging from declarative methods to neural networks. It describes ways of implementing dialogue, explanation, and learning in transparent computers.

Spoken Dialogue Systems for Ambient Environments

Author : Gary Geunbae Lee
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Spoken Dialogue Systems, IWDS 2010, held in Gotemba, Japan, in October 2010. The 22 session papers presented together with 2 invited keynote talks were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers deal with topics around Spoken Dialogue Systems for Ambient Environment and discuss common issues of theories, applications, evaluation, limitations, general tools and techniques.

In Search of the Miraculous Fragments of an Unknown Teaching

Author : Peter D. Ouspensky
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Return from India. The war and the search for the miraculous. Old thoughts The question of schools. Plans for further travels. The East and Europe. A notice in a Moscow newspaper. Lectures on India. The meeting with G. A distinguished man. The first talk, G's opinion on schools. G's group. Glimpses of Truth. Further meetings and talks. The organization of G's Moscow group The question of payment and of means for the work. The question of secrecy and of the obligations accepted by the pupils. A talk about the East. Philosophy, theory, and practice. How was the system found G's ideas. Man is a machine governed by external influences Everything happens. Nobody does anything In order to do it is necessary to be. A man is responsible for his actions, a machine is not responsible. Is psychology necessary for the study of machines The promise of facts. Can wars be stopped A talk about the planets and the moon as living beings. The intelligence of the sun and the earth. Subjective and objective art.

Memory and Action Selection in Human Machine Interaction

Author : Munéo Kitajima
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The first goal of this book is to extend Two Minds originating from behavioral economics to the domain of interaction, where the time dimension has to be dealt with rigorously; in human–machine interaction, it is of crucial importance how synchronization between conscious processes and unconscious processes is established for a sense of smoothness, and how memory processes and action selection processes are coordinated. The first half this book describes the theory in detail. The book begins by outlining the whole view of the theory consisting of action selection processes and memorization processes, and their interactions. Then, a detailed description for action selection processes theorized as a nonlinear dynamic human behavior model with real-time constraints is provided, followed by a description for memorization processes. Also, implications of the theory to human–machine interactions are discussed. The second goal of this book is to provide a methodology to study how Two Minds works in practice when people use interactive systems. The latter half of this book describes theory practices in detail. A new methodology called Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE) is introduced, which adds the time dimension to Hutchins’ Cognitive Ethnography, in order to practice "know the users" systematically by designing user studies based on a simulation of users’ mental operations controlled by Two Minds. The author then shows how CCE has been applied to understanding the ways in which people navigate in real physical environments by walking and by car, respectively, and explores the possibility of applying CCE to predict people’s future needs. This is not for understanding how people use interfaces at present but to predict how people want to use the interfaces in the future given they are currently using them in a certain way Finally, the book concludes by describing implications of human–machine interactions that are carried out while using modern artefacts for people's cognitive development from birth, on the basis of the theories of action selection and memorization.

Computers and Caring

Author : Erik T. Mueller
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How can we use technology to help us be more caring to the people around us and to ourselves? This book presents solutions including point of performance systems that help us care in the moment, training systems that teach us strategies for caring, and reflection systems that help us analyze caring in our lives. It reviews existing technological tools and products to support caring. It includes sample code and a case base of how to be caring in forty-eight common situations.

Cultural Computing

Author : Ryohei Nakatsu
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Welcome to the Second International IFIP Entertainment Computing Symposium on st Cultural Computing (ECS 2010), which was part of the 21 IFIP World Computer Congress, held in Brisbane, Australia during September 21–23, 2010. On behalf of the people who made this conference happen, we wish to welcome you to this inter- tional event. The IFIP World Computer Congress has offered an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to present their findings and research results in several prominent areas of computer science and engineering. In the last World Computer Congress, WCC 2008, held in Milan, Italy in September 2008, IFIP launched a new initiative focused on all the relevant issues concerning computing and entertainment. As a - sult, the two-day technical program of the First Entertainment Computing Symposium (ECS 2008) provided a forum to address, explore and exchange information on the state of the art of computer-based entertainment and allied technologies, their design and use, and their impact on society. Based on the success of ECS 2008, at this Second IFIP Entertainment Computing Symposium (ECS 2010), our challenge was to focus on a new area in entertainment computing: cultural computing.

Computers and Cognition Why Minds are not Machines

Author : J.H. Fetzer
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An important collection of studies providing a fresh and original perspective on the nature of mind, including thoughtful and detailed arguments that explain why the prevailing paradigm - the computational conception of language and mentality - can no longer be sustained. An alternative approach is advanced, inspired by the work of Charles S. Peirce, according to which minds are sign-using (or `semiotic') systems, which in turn generates distinctions between different kinds of minds and overcomes problems that burden more familiar alternatives. Unlike conceptions of minds as machines, this novel approach has obvious evolutionary implications, where differences in semiotic abilities tend to distinguish the species. From this point of view, the scope and limits of computer and AI systems can be more adequately appraised and alternative accounts of consciousness and cognition can be more thoroughly criticised. Readership: Intermediate and advanced students of computer science, AI, cognitive science, and all students of the philosophy of the mind.

Systems Engineering Models of Human machine Interaction

Author : William B. Rouse
File Size : 87.21 MB
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Daydreams and Nightmares

Author : William R. Burch
File Size : 42.51 MB
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Machines as the Measure of Men

Author : Michael Adas
File Size : 37.95 MB
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Over the past five centuries, advances in Western understanding of and control over the material world have strongly influenced European responses to non-Western peoples and cultures. In Machines as the Measure of Men, Michael Adas explores the ways in which European perceptions of their scientific and technological superiority shaped their interactions with people overseas. Adopting a broad, comparative perspective, he analyzes European responses to the cultures of sub-Saharan Africa, India, and China, cultures that they judged to represent lower levels of material mastery and social organization. Beginning with the early decades of overseas expansion in the sixteenth century, Adas traces the impact of scientific and technological advances on European attitudes toward Asians and Africans and on their policies for dealing with colonized societies. He concentrates on British and French thinking in the nineteenth century, when, he maintains, scientific and technological measures of human worth played a critical role in shaping arguments for the notion of racial supremacy and the "civilizing mission" ideology which were used to justify Europe's domination of the globe. Finally, he examines the reasons why many Europeans grew dissatisfied with and even rejected this gauge of human worth after World War I, and explains why it has remained important to Americans. Showing how the scientific and industrial revolutions contributed to the development of European imperialist ideologies, Machines as the Measure of Men highlights the cultural factors that have nurtured disdain for non-Western accomplishments and value systems. It also indicates how these attitudes, in shaping policies that restricted the diffusion of scientific knowledge, have perpetuated themselves, and contributed significantly to chronic underdevelopment throughout the developing world. Adas's far-reaching and provocative book will be compelling reading for all who are concerned about the history of Western imperialism and its legacies. First published to wide acclaim in 1989, Machines as the Measure of Men is now available in a new edition that features a preface by the author that discusses how subsequent developments in gender and race studies, as well as global technology and politics, enter into conversation with his original arguments.

Man a Machine And Man a Plant

Author : Julien Offray de La Mettrie
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The first modern translation of the complete texts of La Mettrie's pioneering L'Homme machine and L'Homme plante, first published in 1747 and 1748, respectively, this volume also includes translations of the advertisement and dedication to L'Homme machine. Justin Leiber's introduction illuminates the radical thinking and advocacy of the passionate La Mettrie and provides cogent analysis of La Mettrie's relationship to such important philosophical figures as Descartes, Malebranche, and Locke, and of his lasting influence on the development of materialism, cognitive studies, linguistics, and other areas of intellectual inquiry.

The Human Machine

Author : Charles Wesley Shilling
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Information Processing and Human machine Interaction

Author : Jens Rasmussen
File Size : 90.69 MB
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Mathematics and the Roots of Postmodern Thought

Author : Vladimir Tasic
File Size : 31.69 MB
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This is a charming and insightful contribution to an understanding of the "Science Wars" between postmodernist humanism and science, driving toward a resolution of the mutual misunderstanding that has driven the controversy. It traces the root of postmodern theory to a debate on the foundations of mathematics early in the 20th century, then compares developments in mathematics to what took place in the arts and humanities, discussing issues as diverse as literary theory, arts, and artificial intelligence. This is a straightforward, easily understood presentation of what can be difficult theoretical concepts It demonstrates that a pattern of misreading mathematics can be seen both on the part of science and on the part of postmodern thinking. This is a humorous, playful yet deeply serious look at the intellectual foundations of mathematics for those in the humanities and the perfect critical introduction to the bases of modernism and postmodernism for those in the sciences.

Human Factors Testing and Evaluation

Author : D. Meister
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Human factors measurement has characteristics that set it apart from psychological or engineering measurement and for that reason, human factors testing and evaluation deserves special treatment. The many excellent texts available in the behavioral area do not give an adequate picture of this topic, and this is particularly unfortunate because testing and evaluation (T&E) is an integral part of human-machine system design and operation. The emphasis in this book is on why and how to conduct such testing. One of its outstanding features is its pragmatism; based on his past experience in system testing, the author recognizes the difficulties that occur in testing and indicates how these may be overcome or minimized. Special attention has been paid to the context in which T&E is conducted. Although the book contains detailed procedures for performing T&E, the logic and the conceptual foundation of testing have not been overlooked. Comparisons are made with laboratory-centered experimentation. For those with research interests, the author points out the many research questions that can be answered by system testing. An illustrative case history of a T&E program for a fictional system has been included to provide ``real life'' context. Special problem areas in T&E are emphasized, in particular human error data collection, the evaluation of computerized systems and software, the measurement of maintenance technician and team performance; workload and training effectiveness testing. Special attention is also paid to environmental testing (e.g. temperature, lighting, noise, vibration, etc.). One chapter reviews all the relevant T&E literature including government documents that may not be readily available to the general reader. As part of the preparation for writing this text a survey was made of 45 distinguished T&E specialists in order to determine their characteristic T&E practices. The book will be useful not only to the human factors professional who specializes in T&E, but to all students and practitioners interested in human factors and work measurement.

Beyond Human

Author : Gregory Benford
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Concepts once purely fiction -- robots, cyborg parts, artificial intelligences -- are becoming part of everyday reality. Soon robots will be everywhere, performing surgery, exploring hazardous places, making rescues, fighting fires, handling heavy goods. After a decade or two, they will be as unremarkable as the computer screen is now in offices, airports or restaurants. Cyborgs will be less obvious. These additions to the human body are interior now, as rebuilt joints, elbows and hearts. Soon we will cross the line between repair and augmentation, probably first in sports medicine, then spreading to everyone who wants to make a body perform better, last longer, than it ordinarily could. Controversy will arise, but it will not stop the desire to live longer and be stronger than we are. Gregory Benford and Elisabeth Malartre's Beyond Human treats the landscape of human self-change and robotic development as poles of the same general phenomenon. At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.

Preprints

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The how and why Wonder Book of the Human Body

Author : Martin L. Keen
File Size : 85.72 MB
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