Search results for: cycle-central-america

Cycle Central America

Author : Ian Benford
File Size : 70.20 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 904
Read : 978
Download »
The 'Cycle Central America' guidebook offers extremely valuable information and aims to help you expereince an amazing cycling experience. The wide diversity of landscapes, from volcanoes to cloud forest, plus the incredible mix of Latin and Mayan cultures, make this region perfect for cycling. The extensive coverage and commentary in 'Cycle Central America' also provides the reader with a choice of routes based upon their particular interests, fitness and available travel time.

Central America s Regional Trends and U S Cycles

Author : Shaun K. Roache
File Size : 84.10 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 298
Read : 207
Download »
The economies of Central America share a close relationship with the United States, with considerable comovement of GDP growth over a long period of time. Trade, the financial sector, and remittance flows are all potential channels through which the U.S. cycle could affect the region. But just how dependent is growth in the region on the U.S.? Using the common cycles method of Vahid and Engle (1993), this paper suggests that the business cycle is dominated by the U.S.; region-specific growth drivers tend to be long-lasting shocks, rather than temporary fluctuations. The most cyclically sensitive countries include Costa Rica, El Salvador, and Honduras.

Credit Cycle and Capital Buffers in Central America Panama and the Dominican Republic

Author : Valentina Flamini
File Size : 74.9 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 649
Read : 821
Download »
Credit is key to support healthy and sustainable economic growth but excess aggregate credit growth can signal the build-up of imbalances and lead to systemic financial crisis. Hence, monitoring the credit cycle is key to identifying vulnerabilities, particularly in emerging markets, which tend to be more exposed to sudden external shocks and reversal in capital flows. We estimate the credit cycle in Central America, Panama, and the Dominican Republic and find that the creadit gap is a powerful predictor of systemic vulnerability in the region. We simulate the activation of the Basel III countercyclical capital buffers and discuss the macroprudential policy implications of the results, arguing that countercyclical macroprudential policies based on the credit gap could prove useful to enhance the resilience of the region’s financial sector but the activation of macroprudential instruments should also be informed by the development of other macrofinancial variables and by expert judgment.

Effects of the Business Cycle on Social Indicators in Latin America and the Caribbean

Author : Carlos A. Vegh
File Size : 37.33 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 892
Read : 991
Download »
After mediocre growth in 2018 of 0.7 percent. LAC is expected to perform only marginally better in 2019 (growth of 0.9 percent) followed by a much more solid growth of 2.1 percent in 2020. LAC will face both internal and external challenges during 2019. On the domestic front. the recession in Argentina; a slower than expected recovery in Brazil from the 2014-2015 recession, anemic growth in Mexico. and the continued deterioration of Venezuela. present the biggest challenges. On the external front. the sharp drop in net capital inflows to the region since early 2018 and the monetary policy normalization in the United States stand among the greatest perils. Furthermore, the recent increase in poverty in Brazil because of the recession points to the large effects that the business cycle may have on poverty. The core of this report argues that social indicators that are very sensitive to the business cycle may yield a highly misleading picture of permanent social gains in the region.

Spanish Central America

Author : Murdo J. MacLeod
File Size : 43.36 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 951
Read : 901
Download »
The seventeenth century has been characterized as "Latin America's forgotten century." This landmark work, originally published in 1973, attempted to fill the vacuum in knowledge by providing an account of the first great colonial cycle in Spanish Central America. The colonial Spanish society of the sixteenth century was very different from that described in the eighteenth century. What happened in the Latin American colonies between the first conquests, the seizure of long-accumulated Indian wealth, the first silver booms, and the period of modern raw material supply? How did Latin America move from one stage to the other? What were these intermediate economic stages, and what effect did they have on the peoples living in Latin America? These questions continue to resonate in Latin American studies today, making this updated edition of Murdo J. MacLeod's original work more relevant than ever. Colonial Central America was a large, populous, and always strategically significant stretch of land. With the Yucatán, it was home of the Maya, one of the great pre-Columbian cultures. MacLeod examines the long-term process it underwent of relative prosperity, depression, and then recovery, citing comparative sources on Europe to describe Central America's great economic, demographic, and social cycles. With an updated historiographical and bibliographical introduction, this fascinating study should appeal to historians, anthropologists, and all who are interested in the colonial experience of Latin America.

Nitrogen Cycling in Ecosystems of Latin America and the Caribbean

Author : G. Philip Robertson
File Size : 63.51 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 645
Read : 465
Download »
The large and rapidly expanding body ofliterature related to nitrogen cycling in both managed and native terrestrial ecosystems reflects the importance accorded to the behaviour of this vital and often limiting nutrient. Research at the organism, ecosystem and landscape levels commonly addresses questions concerning nitrogen acquisition, internal cycling and retention. Goals for this research include increased agricultural productivity and a better understanding of human impact on local, regional and global nitrogen cycles. Nitrogen cycle research in tropical regions has a long and distinguished history. Research on different aspects of nitrogen cycling in ecosystems of the tropics has been carried out in many regions. In relatively few instances has there, however, been a focus on the biogeochemical cycles at the ecosystem level. The meeting resulting in this volume was an attempt to bring together existing information on nitrogen cycling in ecosystems of Latin America and the Caribbean and discuss this in an ecosystem context.

Business Cycle Synchronization and Regional Integration

Author : Norbert Fiess
File Size : 66.6 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 623
Read : 156
Download »
Abstract: In early January 2003, the United States and Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua launched official negotiations for the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA), a treaty that would expand NAFTA-style trade barrier reductions to Central America. With deeper trade integration between Central America and the United States, it is expected that there will be closer links in business cycles between Central American countries and the United States. The paper finds a relatively low degree of business cycle synchronization within Central America as well as between Central America and the United States. The business cycle synchronization is expected to increase only modestly with further trade expansion, making the coordination of macroeconomic policies within CAFTA somewhat less of a priority.

Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean 2017

Author : United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
File Size : 24.61 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 172
Read : 198
Download »
The 2017 edition of the Economic Survey of Latin America and the Caribbean has three parts. Part I outlines the region’s economic performance in 2016 and analyses trends in the early months of 2017, as well as the outlook for the rest of the year. It examines external and domestic factors that have influenced the region’s economic performance and draws attention to macroeconomic policy challenges. Part II analyses the characteristics of the current economic cycle in the region (2009-2016) and contrasts it with the two preceding cycles (1990-2001 and 2002-2008). It also identifies and attempts to explain some of the determinants of the cycle and outlines possible strategies for regaining growth. Part III contains notes relating to the economic performance of countries of the region.

Do Remittances to Latin America Depend on the U S Business Cycle

Author : Shaun K. Roache
File Size : 61.47 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 575
Read : 1086
Download »
We use a range of methods and remittance data from 1990 to 2007 to assess the strength and significance of linkages between remittance flows to Latin America and the U.S. business cycle. All of the evidence suggests that remittance flows are relatively insensitive to fluctuations in the U.S. cycle, underlining their role as a stable source of external financing, in good times and bad. A number of factors, notwithstanding uncertainties related to official remittance data reliability, might explain this result, including remittance smoothing and flexible immigrant labor markets.

Latin American Economic Outlook 2014 Logistics and Competitiveness for Development

Author : OECD
File Size : 60.40 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 393
Read : 697
Download »
This edition of the Latin American Economic Outlook finds stable growth but uncertainty with regards to the commodity boom. The special theme is logistics and competitiveness.

South America Central America and the Caribbean 2003

Author : Europa Publications
File Size : 45.75 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 403
Read : 578
Download »
Introductory surveys cover topics of regional importance; individual country chapters include analysis, statistics and directory information; plus information on regional organizations

Media Power in Central America

Author : Rick Rockwell
File Size : 29.67 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 914
Read : 719
Download »
Media Power in Central America is the first book in a generation to explore the media landscape in Central America. It captures the political and cultural interplay between the media and those in power in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Nicaragua. Highlighting the subtle strangulation of opposition media voices in the region, the authors show how the years since the guerrilla wars have not yielded the free media systems that some had expected. Country by country, the authors deal with the specific conditions of government-sponsored media repression, economic censorship, corruption, and consumer trends that shape the political landscape. Challenging the notion of the media as a democratizing force, Media Power in Central America shows how the media are used to block democratic reforms in the region and outlines the difficulties of playing watchdog to rulers who use the media as a tool of power.

Latin America and Global Capitalism

Author : William I. Robinson
File Size : 52.85 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 849
Read : 1158
Download »
This ambitious volume chronicles and analyzes from a critical globalization perspective the social, economic, and political changes sweeping across Latin America from the 1970s through the present day. Sociologist William I. Robinson summarizes his theory of globalization and discusses how Latin America’s political economy has changed as the states integrate into the new global production and financial system, focusing specifically on the rise of nontraditional agricultural exports, the explosion of maquiladoras, transnational tourism, and the export of labor and the import of remittances. He follows with an overview of the clash among global capitalist forces, neoliberalism, and the new left in Latin America, looking closely at the challenges and dilemmas resistance movements face and their prospects for success. Through three case studies—the struggles of the region's indigenous peoples, the immigrants rights movement in the United States, and the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela—Robinson documents and explains the causes of regional socio-political tensions, provides a theoretical framework for understanding the present turbulence, and suggests possible outcomes to the conflicts. Based on years of fieldwork and empirical research, this study elucidates the tensions that globalization has created and shows why Latin America is a battleground for those seeking to shape the twenty-first century’s world order.

Structural Change and Growth in Central America and the Dominican Republic

Author : Hugo E. Beteta
File Size : 85.61 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 188
Read : 227
Download »
This publication looks at changes that have occurred with the production structure, trade and society in Central America and the Dominican Republic, and how they have influenced the countries growth trajectories. One of the conclusions it reaches is that the subregion overall has enjoyed faster economic growth than the rest of Latin America over the two decades examined, 1990-2011, which has helped to raise incomes and living standards. Yet this progress falls far short of what is needed, given the high levels of poverty and indigence and the glaring inequalities suffered by much of the population in Central America and the Dominican Republic.

Political Movements and Violence in Central America

Author : Charles D. Brockett
File Size : 39.94 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 857
Read : 153
Download »
This book offers an indepth analysis of the confrontation between popular movements and repressive regimes in Central America for the three decades beginning in 1960, particularly in El Salvador and Guatemala. It examines both urban and rural groups as well as both nonviolent social movements and revolutionary movements. It studies the impact of state violence on contentious political movements as well as defends the political process model for studying such movements.

Real Exchange Rate and Bussiness sic Cycles in Latin America

Author : Pablo Mejía Reyes
File Size : 56.77 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 590
Read : 782
Download »

The Earth and Its Inhabitants Mexico Central America West Indies

Author : Elisée Reclus
File Size : 39.41 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 731
Read : 617
Download »

The Earth and Its Inhabitants North America Mexico Central America West Indies

Author : Elisée Reclus
File Size : 68.60 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 307
Read : 572
Download »

Intercropping With Sweet Potato Ipomoea balalas in Central America

Author :
File Size : 46.54 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 107
Read : 863
Download »

Coastal Marine Ecosystems of Latin America

Author : U. Seeliger
File Size : 44.47 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 295
Read : 1331
Download »
Coastal and marine ecosystems, some severely degraded, other still pristine, control rich resources of inshore environments and coastal seas of Latin America's Pacific and Atlantic margins. Conflicts between the needs of the region's nations and diminishing revenues and environmental quality have induced awareness of coastal ecological problems and motivated financial support for restoration and management. The volume provides a competent review on the structure, processes and function of 22 important Latin American coastal marine ecosystems. Each contribution describes the environmental settings, biotic components and structure of the system, considers trophic processes and energy flow, evaluates the modifying influence of natural and human perturbations, and suggests management needs. Although the focus of the book is on basic ecological research, the results have application for coastal managers.