Search results for: culvert-design-for-aquatic-organism-passage

Minnesota Guide for Stream Connectivity and Aquatic Organism Passage Through Culverts

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This guide assists Minnesota culvert designers in identifying, selecting, and implementing appropriate designs for maintaining aquatic organism passage (AOP) and stream connectivity at road-stream intersections. It was synthesized from existing literature and culvert design documents, a survey of Minnesota practitioners, research, and input from local, regional, and national experts. Culvert designs that create excessive velocity, physical barriers, or shallow depth can disrupt AOP and may be detrimental to the continuity of water flow, sediment, and debris transport vital to stream health. Conversely, the recommended culvert designs in this guide account for stream parameters such as slope and substrate that vary across Minnesota landscapes. A set of best practices captures critical design elements based on stream characteristics, which can be summarized as follows: 1.) Design the culvert to be similar to the stream channel (reference reach) by matching its slope, alignment, bankfull width, and flow depth to maximize AOP; 2.) Provide a continuous sediment bed with roughness similar to the channel, while maintaining continuity of sediment transport and debris passage, and; 3.) Design for public safety, longevity, and resilience. Culvert design that improves AOP and accounts for sediment transport is expected to reduce long-term maintenance costs and increase culvert life span.

Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts 3rd Edition

Author : U S Department of Transportation
File Size : 33.57 MB
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Hydraulic Design Series Number 5 (HDS 5) originally merged culvert design information contained in Hydraulic Engineering Circulars (HEC) 5, 10, and 13 with other related hydrologic, storage routing and special culvert design information. This third edition is the first major rewrite of HDS 5 since 1985, updating all previous information and adding new information on software solutions, aquatic organism passage, culvert assessment, and culvert repair and rehabilitation. The result is a comprehensive culvert design publication. The appendices of the publication contain the equations and methodology used in developing the design charts (nomographs) and software programs, information on hydraulic resistance of culverts, the commonly used design charts, and Design Guidelines (DG) illustrating various culvert design calculation procedures. The number of design charts provided has been reduced recognizing the increased use of software solutions...

Hydraulic Design of Highway Culverts Third Edition Hydraulic Design Series Number 5 Fhwa Hif 12 026

Author : Federal Highway Administration
File Size : 26.44 MB
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Full color, richly illustrated book. .The purpose of this publication is to provide information for the planning and hydraulic design of culverts. Chapter 2 provides a summary of design considerations including hydrology, site data and site assessments. Chapter 3 provides detailed information on the hydraulic design of the barrel (size, shape, material) and the inlet configuration (pipe end section, headwalls, wingwalls, bevels, and tapers). Chapter 4 provides an overview of aquatic organism passage (AOP) design concepts. A wide range of assorted design topics including bends, junctions, erosion, sedimentation, site modifications, structural considerations, broken back culverts, storage routing, and failure modes is summarized in Chapter 5. Finally, Chapter 6 discusses culvert repair and rehabilitation.

Hatcher Pass Recreational Area Access Trails and Transit Facilities

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Pavement Drainage Theory and Practice

Author : G L Sivakumar Babu
File Size : 28.87 MB
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SUMMARY This book provides complete coverage of surface and subsurface drainage of all types of pavements for highways, urban roads, parking lots, airports, and container terminals. It provides up-to-date information on the principles and technologies for designing and building drainage systems and examines numerous issues, including maintenance and designing for flood events. Practical considerations and sophisticated analysis, such the use of the finite element method and unsaturated soil mechanics, anisotropy and uncertainties, are presented. This book allows civil engineers to make the best use of their resources to provide cost effective and sustainable pavements. Features Presents a holistic consideration of drainage with respect to pavement performance. Includes numerous practical case studies. Examines flooding and the impacts of climate change. Includes PowerPoint slides which include quizzes, schematics, figures, and tables.

Forest Operations Engineering and Management

Author : Raffaele Spinelli
File Size : 54.33 MB
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This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Forest Operations, Engineering and Management" that was published in Forests

Management and Techniques for Riparian Restorations

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File Size : 21.76 MB
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Improperly constructed or maintained roads near riparian and wetland areas may degrade these valuable sites. Degradation affects many aspects of the riparian and wetland ecosystems. This field guide presents information in a practical, user friendly format to help resource managers and professionals. Well-documented evaluation and monitoring strategies are critical in riparian road restoration projects. Learning from mistakes as well as successes helps to improve and protect valuable riparian and wetland sites. This two-volume field guide covers the management and techniques for riparian restoration near roads. The field guides cover the following topics: (1) riparian area considerations, (2) monitoring, (3) planning projects, (4) laws and regulations, and (5) techniques to use in the field.

Ecologically Aware Design of Waterway Encapsulating Structures

Author : Dennis Lyn
File Size : 82.32 MB
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Aquatic organism passage (AOP) in waterways-encapsulating structures, particularly culverts, is of growing concern to environmental regulatory agencies, and the Indiana Dept. of Transportation (INDOT) is seeking systematic responses to this concern in the hydraulic design of such structures. This study reviews design approaches to enhance or accommodate aquatic organism passage through culverts, and proposes a simplified design procedure that requires less data input and analysis, and yet results in a structure complying with the current regional general permit (RGP) conditions. It also makes as much use of already existing INDOT standard specifications for riprap and coarse aggregates that would be as backfill material to form a stable bed within the culvert. The simplified procedure is intended for new larger structures for which a culvert bed needs to be installed, and for expected Indiana conditions of low-gradient (

A Study of Bankfull Culvert Design Effectiveness

Author : Mark Andrew Tumeo
File Size : 86.91 MB
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As part of the certification under the Clean Water Act 404 Nationwide Permit, the Ohio EPA mandated that the Ohio DOT install bankfull culverts in all new culvert installations subject to the permit. In addition, by embedding the culvert, the bottom of the culvert is to take on the characteristics of the natural streambed and promote the passage of fish and other aquatic organisms. The OEPA's requirement to install bankfull culverts has resulted in increased design and construction costs. The objectives of the study were to examine the parameters which control the benefits of bankfull culverts when installed, including how the benefits alleged are affected by culvert diameter, slope and length, and the size of the stream in which the culvert is placed. Ultimately, the research was designed to determine if bankfull culverts, as currently installed, provide the benefit of allowing movement of aquatic biota better than traditional culverts, if there is any impact on flood attenuation, and if the bankfull culverts installed in Ohio have caused quantitative environmental changes or cumulative impacts (as measured by the QHEI). The physical survey of the culverts revealed that of the 61 culverts identified by ODOT as being designed as embedded bankfull culverts (EBCs), there are only 12 that are actually embedded. ODOT should develop and implement a system of inspecting and verifying that culverts specified to be embedded bankfull culverts are actually installed as such. An important finding is that many of the culverts with greater than 1% slope had no sediment present inside of the culvert. The results of the survey indicate that, at the 90% confidence interval, sediments are being washed through culverts with a slope 1% or greater. Therefore it is recommended that EBCs should not be installed at slopes greater than 1%. Of the 12 embedded culverts, only two were found to be effectively allowing for the continuity of sedimentation patterns through the reach of a culvert. Because of the low numbers, the results found are not statistically significant. To better understand the functionality of culverts and the trends presented, more research is needed. ODOT should consider funding additional research in this area to confirm preliminary trends and provide more guidance in the design of embedded bankfull culverts.

Handbook of Applied Hydrology Second Edition

Author : Vijay P. Singh
File Size : 46.98 MB
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Fully Updated Hydrology Principles, Methods, and Applications Thoroughly revised for the first time in 50 years, this industry-standard resource features chapter contributions from a “who’s who” of international hydrology experts. Compiled by a colleague of the late Dr. Chow, Chow’s Handbook of Applied Hydrology, Second Edition, covers scientific and engineering fundamentals and presents all-new methods, processes, and technologies. Complete details are provided for the full range of ecosystems and models. Advanced chapters look to the future of hydrology, including climate change impacts, extraterrestrial water, social hydrology, and water security. Chow’s Handbook of Applied Hydrology, Second Edition, covers: · The Fundamentals of Hydrology · Data Collection and Processing · Hydrology Methods · Hydrologic Processes and Modeling · Sediment and Pollutant Transport · Hydrometeorologic and Hydrologic Extremes · Systems Hydrology · Hydrology of Large River and Lake Basins · Applications and Design · The Future of Hydrology

Advancing the Fundamental Sciences

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File Size : 70.17 MB
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Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Assessment

Author : Canada. Pipeline Application Assessment Group
File Size : 66.8 MB
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Stormwater Conveyance Modeling and Design

Author : Haestad Methods, Incorporated
File Size : 87.65 MB
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Introduction to stormwater conveyance - System components, models, and the design process - Fundamental laws and units - Modeling rainfall - Modeling runoff - Flow in closed conduits - Flow in open channels - Design of open channels - Culvert design - Gutter flow and inlet design - Storm sewer pipe system and outlet design - Stormwater detention - Stormwater pumping - Regulatory and environmental issues - Stormwater quality management.

Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstracts

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Evaluation of Wildlife Crossing Structures and Fencing on US Highway 93 Evaro to Polson

Author : Amanda Ruth Hardy
File Size : 23.81 MB
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The US 93 reconstruction project on the Flathead Indian Reservation in northwest Montana represents one of the most extensive wildlife sensitive highway design efforts to occur in the continental United States. The reconstruction will include installations of 42 fish and wildlife crossing structures and approximately 15 mi (24 km) of wildlife exclusion fencing for a total investment of over 9 million dollars. This report documents the success of using a context sensitive approach to collaboratively redesign a rural highway within a multiple use landscape that accommodates the needs and concerns of different institutions, cultures and priorities. Further, this report introduces baseline field data collection methods and results that are being used to evaluate how the wildlife crossing structures and wildlife fencing affect deer and bear vehicle collisions and movements in a multiple use rural landscape. The preconstruction data summarized here, and in combination with complementary post construction data, will address the following goals of the evaluation study: (1) determine what effect US 93 wildlife crossing structures and fencing have on the frequency of animal vehicle collisions and successful animal highway crossings; (2) document the design decision making processes and lessons learned as a case study; and (3) identify best management practices and further research. These issues are addressed via a literature review of important considerations related to locating, designing, and evaluating the effectiveness of wildlife crossings and exclusion fencing; a case study and project history; summary and synthesis of field data collection efforts; overview of other relevant and repeatable field studies; and a discussion about the measures of effectiveness and post-construction data collection recommendations. The ultimate value of the information in this report will be realized when the reconstruction is complete and post construction field data is collected to comparatively assess the effect of the wildlife mitigation on the parameters of interest identified in the goals. Perhaps one of the most important insights gained from the preconstruction research is that, due to the myriad sources of unquantifiable variation in the environment, many years of monitoring are necessary to make valid inferences. Given the paucity of long term, before after field studies assessing the effects of wildlife exclusion fencing and crossing structures on wildlife and driver safety, the US 93 wildlife mitigation evaluation, when completed, will provide useful results, lessons learned, and best management practices to guide other wildlife mitigation efforts in the future.

Strategies for Impediment Rehabilitation to Create Fish Passage Opportunities in the Rappahannock River Basin

Author : Stephen P. McIninch
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Areas where anthropogenic development coincides with aquatic systems often impede the flow of organisms and nutrients in either an upstream, downstream, or bidirectional path. These impediments are especially outstanding in the tidal and nontidal freshwater areas of Virginia where diadromous fishes are hindered from moving upstream onto spawning grounds and the upstream ecosystems lose out on the contribution of marine derived nutrients. Recent removals of major impediments such as Embry Dam Fredericksburg, Virginia, opens large expanses of previously blocked spawning habitat for recreationally and commercially important diadromous species. Many smaller river systems require different methods of impediment rehabilitation and various fish passage systems are being used throughout the country to assist in the reconnection of previously impeded stream segments. The primary intent of this research was to assess different fish passage systems as they relate to impediments created by road culverts and to design and install systems in Virginia. Road culverts are common throughout the state and represent one of the important types of potential barriers to upstream migration. We examined the available literature (mostly from Pacific Northwest river systems), explored extant impediment databases (created by VDGIF and VCU) for the Rappahannock River drainage, monitored the effectiveness of the two major fish passage types being used in Maryland (pool-weir designs and Alaskan steep pass design), consulted state and federal officials, chose sites for Virginia stream implementation of fish passage and had fabricated the appropriate passage structures. It was concluded that site selections can be prioritized, if fish passage is a primary concern, by use of databases that describe anadromous fish use in the appropriate watershed. Models of spawning and nursery habitat preferences help in site selection by allowing quantification of habitat to be opened by the installation of fish passage. Detailed design of the passage structure(s) must be made on a site-by-site basis. To date, there are insufficient data to state firmly whether a steep pass design is better or worse that a pool-weir as both designs work under variable conditions. Considerations in passage design include the type, size, and height of the current impediment, future maintenance requirements, and potential use by the various species of concern and funding available for the system development, placement, and maintenance.

Bayesian Methodology for Verifying Recommendations to Minimize Asphalt Pavement Distress

Author : Woodward-Clyde Consultants
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Evaluation of 1 D and 2 D Hydraulic Models for Designing and Assessing Fullspan Stream Crossings

Author : Alyssa Sachiko Virgil
File Size : 68.73 MB
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This project compared design decisions and hydraulic analyses of full-span stream crossings using one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) hydraulic models. The project was initiated by the California Department of Transportation’s interest in moving from 1-D to 2-D hydraulic modeling and by the Federal Highways Administration’s support for adopting SRH-2D (Sedimentation and River Hydraulics-2D developed by the US Bureau of Reclamation) in Aquaveo, LLC’s Surface-water Modeling System as their standard design model. Two-dimensional hydraulic models calculate more detailed water depths and velocities than 1-D models, which can better identify fish passage conditions, areas of potential scour or deposition, and aquatic organism habitat characteristics. The project evaluated two recently constructed full-span (channel spanning) crossings that were designed based on HEC-RAS 1-D model analysis and constructed in 2017. The 1-D hydraulic models were not available for either of the projects, so the 1-D model results within the final project reports were used for comparison with 2-D model results completed for this project. Little Mill Creek crossing is a bridge with five rock weirs installed in the channel below located in Del Norte County, California. North Fork Ryan Creek is located in Mendocino County and is a box culvert with inlet and outlet headwalls and rock weirs installed both upstream and downstream of the crossing. The sites were re-surveyed in 2019 and 2020, and current conditions were modeled using SRH-2D. Current site conditions and 2-D model depth and velocity results were used to identify design elements that may have been designed differently using a 2-D model analysis in an effort to inform future full-span crossing design processes. Using local 2-D model velocities for bank rock slope protection or riprap (RSP) sizing and abutment scour calculations resulted in differences in RSP size recommendations and abutment scour depth estimations. For Little Mill Creek Bridge, the RSP was estimated to be currently undersized, while at North Fork Ryan Creek crossing the RSP was oversized compared to the 2-D analysis based calculations. The local velocities and water depths available from 2-D model results provide greater spatial detail of the estimated forces experienced at the banks and abutments and account for local turbulence. In terms of practicality, model efficiency and computing power continue to increase, making 2-D modeling more accessible. Computer processing time was found to increase linearly with the number of mesh elements so model run times are not likely to limit 2-D modeling for stream crossing sites. Sites with expansive floodplains could experience longer run times if detailed results, and therefore more mesh elements, are needed on the floodplain.

Eighth International Conference on Low Volume Roads 2003

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Wildlife Considerations in Planning and Managing Highway Corridors

Author : Daniel L. Leedy
File Size : 26.93 MB
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