Search results for: combustion-residues

Combustion Residues

Author : Michael Cox
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The first book on novel products derived from the new generation of combustion ashes, Combustion Residues —Sustainable Applications discusses the nature of ashes derived from coal co-combustion, biomass, and other fuels in traditional and stand-alone power plants and municipal waste incinerators. In addition, the book examines the development of novel commercial products incorporating such ashes, including the importance of technical and environmental standards, marketing strategies, and promotion.

Trace Elements in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues

Author : Robert F. Keefer
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Trace Elements in Coal and Coal Combustion Residues focuses on trace metal chemistry of coal and coal combustion residues. Special emphasis is placed on management of coal combustion residues in electric power plants and the influence of coal and associated residues on soils, plants, water, and animals. Topics covered include a brief summary of research sponsored by Electric Power Research Institute, environmental pollution from coal combustion plants in low-rainfall regions, accumulation of trace elements in freshwater mussels near a power plant, testing to evaluate fossil fuel wastes by chemicals and isotopes, transport of metals from coal piles and ash impoundments, leachability and toxicity of metals in fly ash, and plant absorption of chemicals from ash. The book will be a useful reference for environmental and reclamation consultants, environmental engineers, toxicologists, environmental regulatory personnel, officials with electric power utilities and water treatment plants, and soil scientists.

Managing Coal Combustion Residues in Mines

Author : National Research Council
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Burning coal in electric utility plants produces, in addition to power, residues that contain constituents which may be harmful to the environment. The management of large volumes of coal combustion residues (CCRs) is a challenge for utilities, because they must either place the CCRs in landfills, surface impoundments, or mines, or find alternative uses for the material. This study focuses on the placement of CCRs in active and abandoned coal mines. The committee believes that placement of CCRs in mines as part of the reclamation process may be a viable option for the disposal of this material as long as the placement is properly planned and carried out in a manner that avoids significant adverse environmental and health impacts. This report discusses a variety of steps that are involved in planning and managing the use of CCRs as minefills, including an integrated process of CCR characterization and site characterization, management and engineering design of placement activities, and design and implementation of monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination moving from the mine site to the ambient environment. Enforceable federal standards are needed for the disposal of CCRs in minefills to ensure that states have adequate, explicit authority and that they implement minimum safeguards.

Evaluation of Solid Residues from Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion 1983 84

Author : T. W. Constable
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This study is part of an on-going program by Environment Canada to develop protocols to characterize AFBC wastes and to develop waste handling, disposaland environmental protection practices for AFBC solid residues produced atcoal-fired power generating stations in Canada. To date, the study has beenlimited to residues generated from the combustion of high sulphur contentcoals in limestone beds. The reactivity and exothermic nature of theseresidues, and the high alkalinity and total dissolved solids levels of theirleachates, are a combination of properties that are unique to these BC wastesin comparison to conventional combustion wastes. These residues, thereforerequire special consideration in the development of safe handling, disposaland environmental protection procedures.

Regulating Coal Combustion Waste Disposal

Author : Linda Luther
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This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Coal combustion waste (CCW) is inorganic material that remains after pulverized coal is burned for electricity production. Industry estimates that as much as 136 million tons were generated in 2008. On Dec. 22, 2008, national attention was turned to the waste when a breach in an impoundment pond at the TVA¿s Kingston, TN, power plant released 1.1 billion gallons of coal ash slurry. The cleanup cost may reach $1.2 billion. Contents of this report: (1) Intro.; (2) Overview of EPA¿s Proposal; (3) The Nature of CCW; (4) CCW Management Methods; (5) Risks Associated with CCW Mis-Management; (6) RCRA Provisions Relevant to EPA¿s Proposal (7) EPA¿s Proposed Regulatory Options; (8) Types of Coal Combustion Waste. Charts and tables.

Combustion Ash Residue Management

Author : Richard W. Goodwin
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Combustion Ash and Residue Management assists owners and operators of Coal-fired and Resource Recovery Power Plants. By applying the principles and reviewing the case studies examples described within this book, accidents and upsets can be avoided and regulatory permitting can be achieved – reducing costs. This unique book is an essential reference for anybody responsible for disposal or utilization of combustion residues. It reflects over 30 years of engineering practice, applying the principles of concrete chemistry and civil engineering/soil mechanics as confirmed by field data. Dr. Richard Goodwin assesses the composition and environmental impact of combustion residues, and provides not only best practices for safe disposal, but also a blueprint for effective reuse, including applications like structural fill, grout, and capping material. Case studies and cost information for ash disposal options are included, in addition to the lessons learned by high-profile failures, such as the TVA Kingston fossil plant coal fly ash slurry spill in 2008. It also applies engineering principles to discuss how to avoid future upsets, including better operator training and monitoring methods. A comprehensive update to reflect changes in legislation and practice, including new material on the safe disposal or beneficial use of coal ash A straightforward engineering approach, providing practical guidance and field data Written by an established expert in the field

Mining Environment

Author : B.B. Dhar
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This set of conference proceedings provide a package of stimulus ideas, development strategies, and initiatives on such themes as: environmental issues; environmental practices; environmental policy and legislation; sustainable development vis-a-vis environmental management.

The Combustion of Solid Fuels and Wastes

Author : David Tillman
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Careful organization and empirical correlations help clarify the prodigious technical information presented in this useful reference. Key Features * Written for practicing engineers, this comprehensive book supplies an overall framework of the combustion process; It connects information on specific reactions and reaction sequences with current applications and hardware; Each major group of combustion solids is evaluated; Among the many topics covered are: * Various biomass forms * The coalification process * Grate, kiln, and suspension firing * Fluidized bed combustion * Gasification of solids * The manufacturing process

Residues of Pesticides and Other Contaminants in the Total Environment

Author : Francis A. Gunther
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Worldwide concern in scientific, industrial, and governmental com munities over traces of toxic chemicals in foodstuffs and in both abiotic and biotic environments has justified the present triumvirate of specialized publications in this field: comprehensive reviews, rapidly published progress reports, and archival documentations. These three publications are integrated and scheduled to provide in international communication the coherency essential for nonduplicative and current progress in a field as dynamic and complex as environmentaI contamination and toxicology. Until now there has been no journal or other publication series reserved exclusively for the diversified literature on "toxic" chemicals in our foods, our feeds, our geographical surroundings, our domestic animals, our wild life, and ourselves. Around the world immense efforts and many talents have been mobilized to technical and other evaluations of natures, locales, magnitudes, fates, and toxicology of the persisting residues of these chemicals loosed upon the world. Among the sequelae of this broad new emphasis has been an inescapable need for an articulated set of authorita tive publications where one could expect to find the latest important world literature produced by this emerging area of science together with documentation of pertinent ancillary legislation.

Managing Coal Combustion Waste CCW

Author : Linda Luther
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Coal-fired power plants account for almost half of America¿s electric power, resulting in 136 millions tons of CCW. CCW contains a range of heavy metals such as arsenic, beryllium, chromium, lead, and mercury. The primary concern regarding CCW relates to the potential for hazardous constituents to leach into surface or groundwater, and hence contaminate drinking water, surface water, or living organisms. Contents of this report: (1) Disposal and Use Issues; (2) The Nature of Coal Combustion Waste; (3) Potential Risks Associated with CCW Management; (4) Regulatory History and Current Rulemaking; (5) Landfill and Surface Impoundment Disposal; Mine Disposal; ¿Beneficial Use¿. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand report.

The Handbook of Biomass Combustion and Co firing

Author : Jaap Koppejan
File Size : 23.48 MB
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This unique handbook presents both the theory and application of biomass combustion and co-firing, from basic principles to industrial combustion and environmental impact, in a clear and comprehensive manner. It offers a solid grounding on biomass combustion, and advice on improving combustion systems. Written by leading international academics and industrial experts, and prepared under the auspices of the IEA Bioenergy Implementing Agreement, the handbook is an essential resource for anyone interested in biomass combustion and co-firing technologies varying from domestic woodstoves to utility-scale power generation. The book covers subjects including biomass fuel pre-treatment and logistics, modelling the combustion process and ash-related issues, as well as featuring an overview of the current R&D needs regarding biomass combustion.

Coal Combustion Residue

Author : Frank Rusco
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On Dec. 22, '08, a breach in a surface impoundment (or storage pond) dike at the TVA Kingston Fossil Plant in TN resulted in the release of 5.4 million cubic yards of coal ash -- also referred to as coal combustion residue (CCR) -- into the Emory River. The spill covered 300 acres and made 3 homes uninhabitable; it damaged 23 other homes, plus roads, rail lines, and utilities. The cleanup will cost a billion dollars and take 2 to 3 years to complete. This report identifies: (1) the number of surface impoundments for storing CCR in the U.S. and their location; (2) problems, if any, with the storage of coal ash, and how those problems are being addressed; and (3) the type of fed. oversight that exists for CCR and what, if any, issues need to be resolved. Illustrations.

Waste Materials in Construction

Author : G.J. Senden
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This book presents the proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Waste Materials in Construction, held in June 1997. The papers presented give the state of the art on leaching of materials and products, demonstration projects and product development. Results of workshops on immobilisation and quality control are also presented. A good overview of the latest results on the application of various materials in construction, based on both technical and environmental data, is provided. The book provides a unique opportunity for environmental researchers, environmental consultants, policy-makers, and those involved in the construction industry to gain the latest information on the subject.

Waste Materials in Construction

Author : Th.G. Aalbers
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Waste Materials in Construction contains papers from the first international conference on the environmental implications of construction with waste materials held in Maastricht in November, 1991. The three key themes of the conference are technical options for the application of waste materials in products for the construction industry, the resulting chemical and environmental aspects thereof, and legislation policies as they pertain to waste management. There has been a great deal of laboratory testing carried out in several countries on the impact of waste-derived products on the environment since most of these products are used in close contact with the soil ( eg. road construction). There is however, no consensus as to the methodologies possible for assessing the environmental behaviour of waste residue and the consequences of using them nor for developing standards to ensure environmentally safe re-use. The first half of the conference addresses this problem of lack of consensus. The second half deals with technical solutions and procedures to use waste materials for the production of construction materials.

Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Coal Combustion

Author : M. Valk
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The use of fluidized bed coal combustion technology has been developed in the past decade in The Netherlands with a view to expanding the industrial use of coal as an energy supply. Various research groups from universities, institutes for applied science and from boiler industries participated and contributed to this research area. Comprehensive results of such recent experimentation and development work on atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of coal are covered in this volume. Each chapter, written by an expert, treats one specific subject and gives both the theoretical background as well as experimental results and verifications. Though the contents deal primarily with coal combustion, much information proved applicable and relevant for the combustion or incineration of other solid fuels and waste in a fluidized bed. Results of extended research and fundamental backgrounds are presented in order to provide the designer and operator of fluidized bed combustors with more complete and systematic information needed for an optimal design and operation. The design and operating experience of a full scale fluidized bed boiler are discussed and compared with the results of theoretical and experimental research on pilot plant scale.

Chemistry of Trace Elements in Fly Ash

Author : Kenneth S. Sajwan
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The accumulation of large amounts of ash from fossil fuel combustion for electric power plant generation is becoming a major environmental concern in the United States. Furthermore, stringent environmental regulations mandated by the Environmental Protection Agency through the Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as well as state and local environmental regulations may result in even more ash production with subsequent contact with the environment. The concentrations of trace elements in coal residues are extremely variable and depend on the composition of the original coal, conditions during combustion, the efficiency of emission control devices, storage and handling ofbyproducts, and climate. The research papers in this book were presented as a part of the Sixth International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements held at the University of Guelph, Ontario, Canada, from July 29-August 2, 2001. The purpose of this corit'erence was to present current knowledge on the source, pathways, behavior and effects of trace elements in soils, waters, plants and animals. In addition, the book also includes invited research papers from scientists who have done significant research in the area of coal and coal combustion byproducts. All the research papers presented herein have been subjected to peer review.

Plastics Product Recycling

Author : Sara Hulse
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This report covers the consumption of plastics in Europe, how much waste plastic is produced, a summary of recent legislation and the various methods of dealing with plastic wastes. The plastics recycling industry in Europe is then reviewed, with an in-depth look at the relevant legislation followed by a summary of the situation in most of the major European countries. The major end-use sectors for plastics and the problem of waste plastics in each are examined in the final section.

Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Fluidized Bed Combustion April 9 11 1980 Atlanta Hilton Atlanta Georgia Plenary sessions

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Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator Residues

Author : A.J. Chandler
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This text covers a broad spectrum of topics pertinent to the management of incinerator residues. Background information includes a history of incineration, and the influence of municipal waste composition, incinerator type air pollution control technologies on residue quality. Physical, chemical and leaching characteristics for the various ash streams are described, along with recommended sampling and evaluation methodologies. Residue handling and management options, including, treatment utilisation and disposal are also discussed in detail.

Combustion and Incineration Processes

Author : Walter R. Niessen
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Covering each aspect of an incineration facility, from contaminant receipt and storage to stack discharge and dispersion, this reference explores the operation and evaluation of incineration systems for hazardous and non-hazardous gaseous, liquid, sludge, and solid wastes. Highlighting breakthroughs in air pollution control, the book discusses adva