Search results for: biographical-texts-from-ramessid-egypt

Biographical Texts from Ramessid Egypt

Author : Elizabeth Frood
File Size : 63.39 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 494
Read : 1112
Download »
The Ramesside period in Egypt (ca. 1290–1070 B.C.E.) corresponds to the late Bronze Age, a time of great change both in Egypt and the Near East. Viewed as an age of empire, dominated by the figure of Ramesses II, this period witnessed crucial developments in art, language, and religious display. Biographical Texts from Ramesside Egypt offers insights into these cultural transformations through the voices of thirty-one priests, artisans, civic officials, and governmental administrators who served under the kings of the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties. Forty-six biographical texts, which were inscribed in tombs, on statues and stelae in temples, and even on temple walls, give details of their careers and character. The translations are introduced by brief descriptions of the texts' monumental contexts and, where possible, summaries of the careers of their owners. They are formatted metrically and in stanzas to emphasize their poetic form and to foster a clearer understanding of them. The volume offers an introduction to the historical background of the Ramesside period and draws together some of the key themes and interpretive issues raised by the texts and their contexts. These include the representation of the people's relationships to god and king, the thematization of the priestly life, and the various transformations of the texts' media, including the implications of the change in the decorative programs of nonroyal tombs and the use of temple walls for some inscriptions. The introduction also locates the texts within broader contexts of biographical writing in Egypt and other societies, including our own.

Ancient Egyptian Biographies

Author : Elizabeth Frood
File Size : 80.29 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 251
Read : 339
Download »
(Auto-)biography is a genre of ancient Egyptian written discourse that was central to high culture from its earliest periods. Belonging to the nonroyal elites, these texts present aspects of individual lives and experience, sometimes as narratives of key events, sometimes as characterizations of personal qualities. Egyptian (auto-) biographies offer a unique opportunity to examine the ways in which individuals fashioned distinctive selves for display and the significance of the physical, religious, and social contexts they selected. The present volume brings together specialists from a range of relevant periods, approaches, and interests. The studies collected here examine Egyptian (auto-)biographies from a variety of complementary perspectives: (1) anthropological and contrastive perspectives; (2) the original Old Kingdom settings; (3) text format and language; (4) social dimensions; and (5) religious experience.

Daemons and Spirits in Ancient Egypt

Author : Carolyn Graves-Brown
File Size : 22.40 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 886
Read : 825
Download »
This book is about the weird and wonderful lesser-known ‘spirit’ entities of ancient Egypt –daemons, the mysterious and often fantastical creatures of the Egyptian ‘Otherworld’ – and the closely related spirits of the dead, which together conjure the excitement of all things otherworldly. Daemons and spirits are generally defined in Egyptology as creatures not of this world, which do not have their own cult centre, and both groups are frequently listed together in protective spells. This volume explores the general nature of daemons and spirits in ancient Egypt and discusses a selection in more detail: it uses artefacts from Wales’s important collection of Egyptian objects at the Egypt Centre at Swansea University, in which are to be found a dwarf daemon with sticking out tongue; several guardian daemons of the Otherworld; creatures who are part snake and part feline; spirits of deceased humans; and a Greek satyr Silenus, companion to the wine god Dionysus.

Fighting for the King and the Gods

Author : Charlie Trimm
File Size : 84.29 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 633
Read : 793
Download »
The most up-to-date sourcebook on warfare in the ancient Near East Fighting for the King and the Gods provides an introduction to the topic of war and the variety of texts concerning many aspects of warfare in the ancient Near East. These texts illustrate various viewpoints of war and show how warfare was an integral part of life. Trimm examines not only the victors and the famous battles, but also the hardship that war brought to many. While several of these texts treated here are well known (i.e., Ramses II's battle against the Hittites at Qadesh), others are known only to specialists. This work will allow a broader audience to access and appreciate these important texts as they relate to the history and ideology of warfare. Features References to recent secondary literature for further study Early Greek and Chinese illustrative texts for comparisons with other cultures Indices to help guide the reader

The Oxford Handbook of Egyptian Epigraphy and Paleography

Author : Vanessa Davies
File Size : 90.33 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 865
Read : 1018
Download »
The unique relationship between word and image in ancient Egypt is a defining feature of that ancient culture's records. All hieroglyphic texts are composed of images, and large-scale figural imagery in temples and tombs is often accompanied by texts. Epigraphy and palaeography are two distinct, but closely related, ways of recording, analyzing, and interpreting texts and images. This Handbook stresses technical issues about recording text and art and interpretive questions about what we do with those records and why we do it. It offers readers three key things: a diachronic perspective, covering all ancient Egyptian scripts from prehistoric Egypt through the Coptic era (fourth millennium BCE-first half of first millennium CE), a look at recording techniques that considers the past, present, and future, and a focus on the experiences of colleagues. The diachronic perspective illustrates the range of techniques used to record different phases of writing in different media. The consideration of past, present, and future techniques allows readers to understand and assess why epigraphy and palaeography is or was done in a particular manner by linking the aims of a particular effort with the technique chosen to reach those aims. The choice of techniques is a matter of goals and the records' work circumstances, an inevitable consequence of epigraphy being a double projection: geometrical, transcribing in two dimensions an object that exists physically in three; and mental, an interpretation, with an inevitable selection among the object's defining characteristics. The experiences of colleagues provide a range of perspectives and opinions about issues such as techniques of recording, challenges faced in the field, and ways of reading and interpreting text and image. These accounts are interesting and instructive stories of innovation in the face of scientific conundrum.

Egyptian Historical Inscriptions of the Nineteenth Dynasty

Author : Benedict G. Davies
File Size : 39.77 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 470
Read : 1268
Download »
A series of major inscriptions from the 19th Dynasty (c.1300-1185 BC) accompanied by an English translation. The inscriptions chosen are based around four main subject areas: war and diplomacy; mining and quarrying; religion; legal and adminstrative texts.

Ancient Egyptian Tombs

Author : Steven Snape
File Size : 62.53 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 122
Read : 801
Download »
This book explores the development of tombs as a cultural phenomenon in ancient Egypt and examines what tombs reveal about ancient Egyptian culture and Egyptians’ belief in the afterlife. Investigates the roles of tombs in the development of funerary practices Draws on a range of data, including architecture, artifacts and texts Discusses tombs within the context of everyday life in Ancient Egypt Stresses the importance of the tomb as an eternal expression of the self

The Duties of the Vizier

Author : G. P. F. van den Boorn
File Size : 60.76 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 661
Read : 719
Download »
"Our knowledge of the role played by the Vizier, first assistant of Pharaoh and head of the Egyptian civil administration, is derived largely from a New Kingdom text preserved in four Theban tombs. The Duties of the Vizier, as this text is usually known, is of the greatest importance in revealing the structure of the New Kingdom state and the bureaucracy which supported it. However, the complex and condensed nature of the text and the lack of an editio princeps has led to its undeserved neglect. Dr van den Boorn's study now provides a much needed commentary and interpretation, in addition to a detailed survey of viziral responsibilities"--Inside front flap.

The Private Chapel in Ancient Egypt

Author : Ann H. Bomann
File Size : 87.26 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 537
Read : 1297
Download »
First published in 1991. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Architecture of Imperialism

Author : Ellen Fowles Morris
File Size : 34.30 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 753
Read : 211
Download »
This volume utilizes both archaeological and textual data pertaining to Egyptian military bases to examine the evolution of Egypt's foreign policy in the New Kingdom. The types of structures erected to house soldiers and administrators in Syria-Palestine, Nubia, and Libya differed in ways that do much to illuminate the nature of imperial aims in these subject territories.

The Beautiful Burial in Roman Egypt

Author : Christina Riggs
File Size : 83.19 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 810
Read : 1283
Download »
This important new study looks at the intersection of Greek and Egyptian art forms in the funerary sphere of Roman Egypt. A discussion of artistic change, cultural identity, and religious belief foregrounds the detailed analysis of more than 150 objects and tombs, many of which are presented here for the first time. In addition to the information it provides about individual works of art, supported by catalogue entries, the study explores fundamental questions such as how artists combine the iconographies and representational forms of different visual traditions, and why two distinct visual traditions were employed in Roman Egypt.

Unwrapping Ancient Egypt

Author : Christina Riggs
File Size : 84.22 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 624
Read : 1196
Download »
First runner-up for the British-Kuwait Friendship Society Book Prize in Middle Eastern Studies 2015. In ancient Egypt, wrapping sacred objects, including mummified bodies, in layers of cloth was a ritual that lay at the core of Egyptian society. Yet in the modern world, attention has focused instead on unwrapping all the careful arrangements of linen textiles the Egyptians had put in place. This book breaks new ground by looking at the significance of textile wrappings in ancient Egypt, and at how their unwrapping has shaped the way we think about the Egyptian past. Wrapping mummified bodies and divine statues in linen reflected the cultural values attached to this textile, with implications for understanding gender, materiality and hierarchy in Egyptian society. Unwrapping mummies and statues similarly reflects the values attached to Egyptian antiquities in the West, where the colonial legacies of archaeology, Egyptology and racial science still influence how Egypt appears in museums and the press. From the tomb of Tutankhamun to the Arab Spring, Unwrapping Ancient Egypt raises critical questions about the deep-seated fascination with this culture – and what that fascination says about our own.

Egyptian Non Royal Epithets in the Middle Kingdom

Author : Denise M. Doxey
File Size : 62.81 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 689
Read : 1082
Download »
This analysis shows how the Egyptian non-royal epithets from the Middle Kingdom (c. 2040-1640 BCE) provide new insight into the ways in which biographical self-presentation reflects religious and social attitudes and the changing relationship between elite officials and the king.

Biography of Ramesses III

Author : Scriptural Research Institute
File Size : 70.93 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 416
Read : 960
Download »
Ramesses III was the king of Egypt between circa 1186 and 1155 BC, after inheriting the throne from his father Setnakhte, the founder of the 20th Dynasty. Setnakhte had seized power after the previous Pharaoh Queen Twosret died at the end of the 19th dynasty. It is unclear if he was descended from the royal family, however, he refused to recognize the kingship of either Twosret or her predecessor Siptah, implying he was a descendant of Seti II, the and last Pharaoh whose rule he recognized. Seti II had only reigned for about 6 years when he died, while Siptah and Twosret only ruled for a total of 8 years. Prior to their rule, Egypt had been ripped apart by the civil war between Seti II and Amenmesse, which brought chaos to the land that had not been resolved until Setnakhte's short, three-year reign. The Biography of Ramesses III reports that a Syrian name Arsu seized control of the land, which would have happened sometime during the reigns of Siptah or Twosret, between 1197 and 1189 BC. This Syrian invasion happened shortly after the previous uprising across Canaan in 1206 BC, suggesting that the Egyptians never really managed to regain control over the area. According to the Biography of Ramesses III, Setnakhte reunited the land of Egypt, and then Ramesses III restored the earlier prestige of Egypt, conquering all Egypt's enemies, and reopening trade with Punt. While Setnakhte is considered the founder of the 20th dynasty, Ramesses III is considered the founder of the Ramesside Period, the last great era of Egyptian history, in which the restored Egyptian Empire of Ramesses III slowly lost power over the final century of the New Kingdom era, and finally collapsed. The Biography of Ramesses III claims that he defeated the Palestinians and Tjeker of southern Canaan, Libyans of the Saharan Oases, and the Sardinians and Greeks in their isles. While there is no evidence of the Egyptians invading Greece or Sardinia, Sardinian artifacts including weapons have been found in Crete, the Greek mainland, Cyprus, and Sicily, supporting the reports in the Egyptian records that they were in an alliance at the time. Pylos, in southwestern Peloponnese, was destroyed by someone circa 1180 BC after the land was suddenly attacked by a major force. The records found at the site mention defenses being quickly erected that clearly weren't strong enough to defend the city. In the mid-1100s, many sites across Greece were destroyed, and much of the population of Boeotia, Argolis, and Messenia disappeared, supporting the claims that the Egyptians took many of them as captives after the battles. The Biography of Ramesses III is preserved in the longest known papyrus scroll to survive to the present, the 41 meter-long (134.5 foot-long) Papyrus British Museum EA 9999 scroll. The scroll includes 1500 lines of text, mostly lists of gifts that Ramesses III made to the various temples, however, the so-called 'Historical Section' at the end, includes his biography, which is not of the longer and more elaborate biographies from any dynasty to survive to the present. The biography was written at the beginning of Thutmose IV's rule after Thutmose III died, as reported at the end of the biography.

Scribbling through History

Author : Chloé Ragazzoli
File Size : 45.1 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 219
Read : 1111
Download »
For most people the mention of graffiti conjures up notions of subversion, defacement, and underground culture. Yet, the term was coined by classical archaeologists excavating Pompeii in the 19th century and has been embraced by modern street culture: graffiti have been left on natural sites and public monuments for tens of thousands of years. They mark a position in time, a relation to space, and a territorial claim. They are also material displays of individual identity and social interaction. As an effective, socially accepted medium of self-definition, ancient graffiti may be compared to the modern use of social networks. This book shows that graffiti, a very ancient practice long hidden behind modern disapproval and street culture, have been integral to literacy and self-expression throughout history. Graffiti bear witness to social events and religious practices that are difficult to track in normative and official discourses. This book addresses graffiti practices, in cultures ranging from ancient China and Egypt through early modern Europe to modern Turkey, in illustrated short essays by specialists. It proposes a holistic approach to graffiti as a cultural practice that plays a key role in crucial aspects of human experience and how they can be understood.

Ancient Egyptian Literature The new kingdom

Author : Miriam Lichtheim
File Size : 51.12 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 897
Read : 823
Download »
Traces the development of Ancient Egyptian forms of writing. Provides a selection of ancient Egyptian myth and folklore as well as inscriptions on tombs, songs and hymns.

Semitic Words in Egyptian Texts of the New Kingdom and Third Intermediate Period

Author : James E. Hoch
File Size : 68.76 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 648
Read : 928
Download »
Semitic words and names appear in unprecedented numbers in texts of the New Kingdom, the period when the Egyptian empire extended into Syria-Palestine. In his book, James Hoch provides a comprehensive account of these words--their likely origins, their contexts, and their implications for the study of Egyptian and Semitic linguistics and Late-Bronze and Iron-Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean. Unlike previous word catalogs, this work consists of concise word studies and contains a wealth of linguistic, lexical, and cultural information. Hoch considers some five hundred Semitic words found in Egyptian texts from about 1500 to 650 b.c.e. Building on previous scholarship, he proposes new etymologies and translations and discusses phonological, morphological, and semantic factors that figure in the use of these words. The Egyptian evidence is essential to an understanding of the phonology of Northwest Semitic, and Hoch presents a major reconstruction of the phonemic systems. Of equal importance is his account of the particular semantic use of Semitic vocabulary, in contexts sometimes quite different from those of the Hebrew scriptures and Ugaritic myths and legends. With its new critical assessment of many hotly debated issues of Semitic and Egyptian philology, this book will be consulted for its lexical and linguistic conclusions and will serve as the basis for future work in both fields. Originally published in 1994. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Pharaoh Triumphant

Author : Kenneth Anderson Kitchen
File Size : 82.42 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 581
Read : 153
Download »
A thorough and detailed account of one of the best known pharaohs of Egypt, written by the leading expert on the subject. Kitchen discusses the early life and childhood of the young king, his reign, politics, wars and policies, and his death and the after-life. This book is to be read rather than studied and is more than a simple biography, giving the wider context of Ramesses' life; daily life in the towns and cities, temples and the gods, political advisers and the royal family.

Woodcutters Potters and Doorkeepers

Author : Jac. J. Janssen
File Size : 87.56 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 279
Read : 487
Download »
The community of necropolis workmen of Deir el-Medina was part of the administrative branch responsible for the preparation of the royal tombs. To this department also belonged several groups of service personnel. This volume presents separate studies on three groups of this service staff. Two of these belonged to the so-called smdt, namely the woodcutters and the potters, while the third group occupies a position somewhere in between the workmen and the smdt, the doorkeepers.

Ramesside Inscriptions Setnakht Ramesses III and contemporaries

Author : Kenneth Anderson Kitchen
File Size : 61.92 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 645
Read : 454
Download »