Beyond the Boycott

Labor Rights, Human Rights, and Transnational Activism

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Author: Gay W. Seidman

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610444884

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 192

View: 4631

As the world economy becomes increasingly integrated, companies can shift production to wherever wages are lowest and unions weakest. How can workers defend their rights in an era of mobile capital? With national governments forced to compete for foreign investment by rolling back legal protections for workers, fair trade advocates are enlisting consumers to put market pressure on companies to treat their workers fairly. In Beyond the Boycott, sociologist Gay Seidman asks whether this non-governmental approach can reverse the "race to the bottom" in global labor standards. Beyond the Boycott examines three campaigns in which activists successfully used the threat of a consumer boycott to pressure companies to accept voluntary codes of conduct and independent monitoring of work sites. The voluntary Sullivan Code required American corporations operating in apartheid-era South Africa to improve treatment of their workers; in India, the Rugmark inspection team provides 'social labels' for handknotted carpets made without child labor; and in Guatemala, COVERCO monitors conditions in factories producing clothing under contract for major American brands. Seidman compares these cases to explore the ingredients of successful campaigns, as well as the inherent limitations facing voluntary monitoring schemes. Despite activists' emphasis on educating individual consumers to support ethical companies, Seidman finds that, in practice, they have been most successful when they mobilized institutions—such as universities, churches, and shareholder organizations. Moreover, although activists tend to dismiss states' capabilities, all three cases involved governmental threats of trade sanctions against companies and countries with poor labor records. Finally, Seidman points to an intractable difficulty of independent workplace monitoring: since consumers rarely distinguish between monitoring schemes and labels, companies can hand pick monitoring organizations, selecting those with the lowest standards for working conditions and the least aggressive inspections. Transnational consumer movements can increase the bargaining power of the global workforce, Seidman argues, but they cannot replace national governments or local campaigns to expand the meaning of citizenship. As trade and capital move across borders in growing volume and with greater speed, civil society and human rights movements are also becoming more global. Highly original and thought-provoking, Beyond the Boycott vividly depicts the contemporary movement to humanize globalization—its present and its possible future. A Volume in the American Sociological Association's Rose Series in Sociology

Beyond Boycotts

Sport during the Cold War in Europe

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Author: Philippe Vonnard,Nicola Sbetti,Grégory Quin

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110529092

Category: History

Page: 242

View: 6003

Sport during Cold War has recently begun to be studied in more depth. Some scholars have edited a book about the US and Soviet sport diplomacy and show ow the government of these two countries have used sport during this period, notably as a tool of "soft power" during the Olympic games. Our goal is to continue in this direction and to focus more on the sport field as a place of exchanges during the Cold War. Regarding this point, our aim is to show that there were events "beyond boycotts"many and that unknown connections existed inside sport. Morevoer, many actors were involved in these exchanges. Thus, it is important not only to focus on the action of States, but also on private actors (international sporting bodies and journalists), considering that they acted around sport (an "apolitic" field) as it was tool to maintain links between the two blocs. Our project offers a good opportunity for young scholars to present original research based on new materials (notably the use of institutional or personals archives). Morevoer, it is also a step forward with a view to conduct research within a global history paradigm, one that is still underused in sport academic fields.

Beyond the Handshake

Multilateral Cooperation in the Arab-Israeli Peace Process, 1991-1996

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Author: Dalia Dassa Kaye

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231529368

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 9511

Arabs and Israelis have battled one another in political and military arenas, seemingly continuously, for some fifty years. The 1991 Madrid Peace Conference sought to change this pattern, launching bilateral and multilateral tracks in the Arab-Israeli peace process. As a result, a broad group of Arab states sat down with Israel and began to cooperate on a wide range of regional issues in what became known as the Middle East multilaterals. Yet why did enemies reluctant even to recognize one another choose to cooperate on regional problems? And once this process began, what drove the parties to continue such cooperation or, in some cases, halt their cooperative efforts? Beyond the Handshake addresses these fundamental questions, exploring the origins of the multilaterals and the development of multilateral cooperation in the areas of arms control and regional security, economic development, water management, and the environment. Dalia Dassa Kaye, challenging conventional concepts of cooperation, argues that multilateral cooperation in the Middle East must be appreciated as a process of interaction rather than solely as a set of outcomes. Presenting theoretical insights of value to students of regional and international relations, Beyond the Handshake provides a unique look at the evolving nature of Arab-Israeli relations and exposes the foundation the multilateral peace process laid for future regional cooperation in the Middle East.

Boycotts Past and Present

From the American Revolution to the Campaign to Boycott Israel

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Author: David Feldman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319948725

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 5026

In this book historians and social scientists examine boycotts from the eighteenth century to the present day. Employed in struggles against British rule in the American colonies, against racial discrimination in the United States during the Civil Rights movement, and Apartheid in South Africa, today it is Israel that is the focus of a campaign for Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS). Boycotts have featured in campaigns undertaken by labour, consumer and nationalist movements. Jews were the focus of some boycotts instigated by nationalist movements in Central and Eastern Europe and Jewish businesses were targeted by the National Socialist regime in Germany. In this collection, contributors explore the history of past boycott movements and examine the different narratives put forward by proponents and opponents of the current BDS movement directed against Israel: one which places the movement within a history of struggles for ‘human rights’; the other which regards BDS as the latest manifestation of an antisemitic tradition.

The Birth of Vietnamese Political Journalism

Saigon, 1916-1930

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Author: Philippe M.F. Peycam

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231528043

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 5481

Philippe M. F. Peycam completes the first ever English-language study of Vietnam's emerging political press and its resistance to colonialism. Published in the decade that preceded the Communist Party's founding, this journalistic phenomenon established a space for public, political contestation that fundamentally changed Vietnamese attitudes and the outlook of Southeast Asia. Peycam directly links Saigon's colonial urbanization to the creation of new modes of individual and collective political agency. To better justify their presence, French colonialists implemented a peculiar brand of republican imperialism to encourage the development of a highly controlled print capitalism. Yet the Vietnamese made clever use of this new form of political expression, subverting colonial discourse and putting French rulers on the defensive, while simultaneously stoking Vietnamese aspirations for autonomy. Peycam specifically considers the work of Western-educated Vietnamese journalists who, in their legal writings, called attention to the politics of French rule. Peycam rejects the notion that Communist and nationalist ideologies changed the minds of "alienated" Vietnamese during this period. Rather, he credits colonial urban modernity with shaping the Vietnamese activist-journalist and the role of the French, even at their most coercive, along with the modern public Vietnamese intellectual and his responsibility toward the group. Countering common research on anticolonial nationalism and its assumptions of ethno-cultural homogeneity, Peycam follows the merging of French republican and anarchist traditions with neo-Confucian Vietnamese behavior, giving rise to modern Vietnamese public activism, its autonomy, and its contradictory aspirations. Interweaving biography with archival newspaper and French police sources, he writes from within these journalists' changing political consciousness and their shifting perception of social roles.

Beyond the Fields

Cesar Chavez, the UFW, and the Struggle for Justice in the 21st Century

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Author: Randy Shaw

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520942240

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 7538

Cesar Chavez is the most prominent Latino in United States history books, and much has been written about Chavez and the United Farm Worker's heyday in the 1960s and '70s. But left untold has been their ongoing impact on 21st century social justice movements. Beyond the Fields unearths this legacy, and describes how Chavez and the UFW's imprint can be found in the modern reshaping of the American labor movement, the building of Latino political power, the transformation of Los Angeles and California politics, the fight for environmental justice, and the burgeoning national movement for immigrant rights. Many of the ideas, tactics, and strategies that Chavez and the UFW initiated or revived—including the boycott, the fast, clergy-labor partnerships and door-to-door voter outreach—are now so commonplace that their roots in the farmworkers' movement is forgotten. This powerful book also describes how the UFW became the era's leading incubator of young activist talent, creating a generation of skilled alumni who went on to play critical roles in progressive campaigns. UFW volunteers and staff were dedicated to furthering economic justice, and many devoted their post-UFW lives working for social change. When Barack Obama adopted "Yes We Can" as his 2008 campaign theme, he confirmed that the spirit of "Si Se Puede" has never been stronger, and that it still provides the clearest roadmap for achieving greater social and economic justice in the United States.

In Iberia and Beyond

Hispanic Jews Between Cultures : Proceedings of a Symposium to Mark the 500th Anniversary of the Expulsion of Spanish Jewry

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Author: Bernard Dov Cooperman

Publisher: University of Delaware Press

ISBN: 9780874136012

Category: History

Page: 390

View: 9123

"This collection of articles is an attempt to get at the complexities of Sephardic history by bringing together scholars who approach the topic from quite different points of view and quite different methodologies. It includes twelve essays selected from those presented at a conference at the University of Maryland to mark the 500th anniversary of the expulsion of Jews from Spain." "The papers range chronologically from the eleventh to seventeenth centuries, and geographically from Spain to Italy and the Low Countries."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

The Water's Edge and Beyond

Defining the Limits to Domestic Influence on United States Middle East Policy

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Author: Mitchell Geoffrey Bard

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412839617

Category: Political Science

Page: 313

View: 5901

One of the most commonly held notions in American politics is that American Jews have a great deal of influence on U.S. foreign policy. Some influential Americans have even argued that Jewish-Americans control American policy in the Middle East to the detriment of the national interest. Such views are readily accepted by leaders of the Arab world, and influence their own policies, perspectives, and lobbying activities. How accurate is this assessment? This study provides the most thorough analysis to date of the Israeli and Arab lobbies, their effectiveness, and the impact they exerted on the American political process from 1945 onward. Bard examines the reasons for the acknowledged effectiveness of Israeli lobbying efforts, and the relative ineffectiveness of Arab lobbies, and compares and contrasts their approaches. He shows that lobby - influence is constrained by a number of variables, including the President's own position on the issues, the specific policy content of an issue, the election cycle, the popularity of a President, and where decision-making authority resides. Using case studies, a thorough knowledge of political theory, and sophisticated quantitative analysis, Bard presents a study that will be of interest to all those concerned about Middle East policy, interest groups, and foreign policy decision-making. Above all, it will compel a retreat from stereotypical thinking about the Jewish "lobby" and the function of lobbies in general.

Coltan

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Author: Michael Nest

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 074563771X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 232

View: 9725

A decade ago no one except geologists had heard of tantalum or 'coltan' - an obscure mineral that is an essential ingredient in mobile phones and laptops. Then, in 2000, reports began to leak out of Congo: of mines deep in the jungle where coltan was extracted in brutal conditions watched over by warlords. The United Nations sent a team to investigate, and its exposé of the relationship between violence and the exploitation of coltan and other natural resources contributed to a re-examination of scholarship on the motivations and strategies of armed groups. The politics of coltan encompass rebel militias, transnational corporations, determined activists, Hollywood celebrities, the rise of China, and the latest iGadget. Drawing on Congolese and activist voices, Nest analyses the two issues that define coltan politics: the relationship between coltan and violence in the Congo, and contestation between activists and corporations to reshape the global tantalum supply chain. The way production and trade of coltan is organised creates opportunities for armed groups, but the Congo wars are not solely, or even primarily, about coltan or minerals generally. Nest argues the political significance of coltan lies not in its causal link to violence, but in activists' skillful use of mobile phones as a symbol of how ordinary people and transnational corporations far from Africa are implicated in Congo's coltan industry and therefore its conflict. Nest examines the challenges coltan initiatives face in an activist 'marketplace' crowded with competing justice issues, and identifies lessons from coltan initiatives for the geopolitics of global resources more generally.