Search results for: because-of-sex-one-law-ten-cases-and-fifty-years-that-changed-american-womens-lives-at-work

Because of Sex

Author : Gillian Thomas
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“Meticulously researched and rewarding to read...Thomas is a gifted storyteller.” —The New York Times Book Review Best known as a monumental achievement of the civil rights movement, the 1964 Civil Rights Act also revolutionized the lives of America’s working women. Title VII of the law made it illegal to discriminate “because of sex.” But that simple phrase didn’t mean much until ordinary women began using the law to get justice on the job—and some took their fights all the way to the Supreme Court. Among them were Ida Phillips, denied an assembly line job because she had a preschool-age child; Kim Rawlinson, who fought to become a prison guard—a “man’s job”; Mechelle Vinson, who brought a lawsuit for sexual abuse before “sexual harassment” even had a name; Ann Hopkins, denied partnership at a Big Eight accounting firm because the men in charge thought she needed "a course at charm school”; and most recently, Peggy Young, UPS truck driver, forced to take an unpaid leave while pregnant because she asked for a temporary reprieve from heavy lifting. These unsung heroines’ victories, and those of the other women profiled in Gillian Thomas' Because of Sex, dismantled a “Mad Men” world where women could only hope to play supporting roles; where sexual harassment was “just the way things are”; and where pregnancy meant getting a pink slip. Through first-person accounts and vivid narrative, Because of Sex tells the story of how one law, our highest court, and a few tenacious women changed the American workplace forever.

Women in the American Political System An Encyclopedia of Women as Voters Candidates and Office Holders 2 volumes

Author : Dianne G. Bystrom
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This book examines how women candidates, voters, and office holders shape U.S. political processes and institutions, lending their perspectives to gradually evolve American life and values. • Presents up-to-date encyclopedic coverage of a subject of great importance: women's progress in closing the gender gap in political power • Provides valuable context and illuminates specific areas of women's involvement in politics—for example, women as voters and women as local/state officeholders—in a nonpartisan way • Offers both historical and current primary documents on the evolution of women in politics

The Routledge Companion to Black Women s Cultural Histories

Author : Janell Hobson
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In the social and cultural histories of women and feminism, Black women have long been overlooked or ignored. The Routledge Companion to Black Women’s Cultural Histories is an impressive and comprehensive reference work for contemporary scholarship on the cultural histories of Black women across the diaspora spanning different eras from ancient times into the twenty-first century. Comprising over 30 chapters by a team of international contributors, the Companion is divided into five parts: A fragmented past, an inclusive future Contested histories, subversive memories Gendered lives, racial frameworks Cultural shifts, social change Black identities, feminist formations Within these sections, a diverse range of women, places, and issues are explored, including ancient African queens, Black women in early modern European art and culture, enslaved Muslim women in the antebellum United States, Sally Hemings, Phillis Wheatley, Black women writers in early twentieth-century Paris, Black women, civil rights, South African apartheid, and sexual violence and resistance in the United States in recent history. The Routledge Companion to Black Women’s Cultural Histories is essential reading for students and researchers in Gender Studies, History, Africana Studies, and Cultural Studies.

Women s Lives

Author : Claire A. Etaugh
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This cutting-edge and comprehensive fourth edition of Women’s Lives: A Psychological Perspective integrates the most current research and social issues to explore the psychological diversity of girls and women varying in age, ethnicity, social class, nationality, sexual orientation, and ableness. Written in an engaging and accessible manner, its use of vignettes, quotes, and numerous pedagogical tools effectively fosters students’ engagement, active learning, critical thinking, and social activism. New information covered includes: neoliberal feminism, standpoint theory, mujerista psychology (Chapter 1) LGBT individuals and individuals with disabilities in media (Chapter 2) testosterone testing of female athletes, precarious manhood (Chapter 3) raising a gender non-conforming child, impact of social media on body image (Chapter 4) gender differences in narcissism and Big Five personality traits, women video-game designers (Chapter 5) asexuality, transgender individuals, sexual agency, "Viagra for women" controversy (Chapter 6) adoption of frozen embryos controversy (Chapter 7) intensive mothering, integrated motherhood, "living apart together", same-sex marriage (Chapter 8) single-sex schooling controversy (Chapter 9) combat roles opened to U.S. women, managerial derailment (Chapter 10) work-hours dilemmas of low-wage workers (Chapter 11) feminist health care model, health care for transgender individuals, Affordable Care Act (Chapter 12) feminist critique of CDC guidelines on women and drinking (Chapter 13) cyberharassment, gendertrolling, campus sexual assault (Chapter 14) transnational feminism, men and feminism (Chapter 15) Women’s Lives stands apart from other texts on the psychology of women because it embeds within each topical chapter a lifespan approach and robust coverage of the impact of social, cultural, and economic factors in shaping women’s lives around the world. It provides extensive information on women with disabilities, middle-aged and older women, and women in transnational contexts. Its up-to-date coverage reflects current scientific and social developments, including over 2,200 new references. This edition also adds several new boxed features for student engagement. In The News boxes present current, often controversial, news items to get students thinking critically about real-life applications of course topics. Get Involved boxes encourage students to actively participate in the research process. What You Can Do boxes give students applied activities to promote a more egalitarian society. Learn About the Research boxes expose students to a variety of research methods and highlight the importance of diversity in research samples by including studies of underrepresented groups.

Gender and Law

Author : Katharine T. Bartlett
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Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, Commentary, Eighth Edition is organized around theoretical frameworks, showing different conceptualizations of equality and justice and their impact on concrete legal problems. The text provides complete, up-to-date coverage of conventional “women and the law” issues, including employment law and affirmative action, reproductive rights, LGBTQ issues, domestic violence, rape, pornography, international women’s rights, and global trafficking. Showing the complex ways in which gender permeates the law, the text also explores the gender aspects of subject matters less commonly associated with gender, such as property, ethics, contracts, sports, and civil procedure. Throughout, the materials allow an emphasis on alternative approaches and how these approaches make a difference. Excerpted legal cases, statutes, and law review articles form an ongoing dialogue within the book to stimulate thought and discussion and almost 250 provocative “putting theory into practice” problems challenge students to think deeply about current gender law issues. New to the Eighth Edition: The book now begins with an introductory chapter that previews the five major theoretical frameworks that shape the book: Formal Equality, Substantive Equality, Difference, Non-subordination, and Autonomy. It also introduces three critical perspectives that interrelate and enrich the study of gender—queer theory, intersectionality analysis, and masculinity theory. By introducing these critiques and adjacent theories from the outset, later chapters can integrate and build on these interrelations in specific areas of coverage. Putting Theory into Practice problems that pose cutting-edge, current issues are included throughout each chapter. Updated and more sustained attention to gender identity and non-binary identities throughout the book. Materials raising questions and critique about the intersection of race and gender are covered in greater depth. Materials and questions about masculinity as an aspect of gender are now integrated throughout the book instead of being covered discretely in a single chapter. Expanded coverage of the ERA and the renewed efforts to secure ratification. Materials on gender equity in the legal profession have been updated and new coverage has been added on women in leadership, including women in politics. The materials on public accommodations discrimination now include Masterpiece Cakeshop v. Colorado Civil Rights Comm’n as a principal case. An extensively revised and comprehensive teacher’s manual includes references to additional materials and updated suggestions of audio and video clips from films, documentaries, news programs, and television and radio series for the book’s main substantive topics.

The Oxford Handbook of U S Women s Social Movement Activism

Author : Holly J. McCammon
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Over the course of thirty-seven chapters, including an editorial introduction, this handbook provides a comprehensive examination of scholarly research and knowledge on a variety of aspects of women's collective activism in the United States, tracing both continuities and critical changes over time. Women have played pivotal and far-reaching roles in bringing about significant societal change, and women activists come from an array of different demographics, backgrounds and perspectives, including those that are radical, liberal, and conservative. The chapters in the handbook consider women's activism in the interest of women themselves as well as actions done on behalf of other social groups. The volume is organized into five sections. The first looks at U.S. Women's Social Activism over time, from the women's suffrage movement to the ERA, radical feminism, third-wave feminism, intersectional feminism and global feminism. Part two looks at issues that mobilize women, including workplace discrimination, reproductive rights, health, gender identity and sexuality, violence against women, welfare and employment, globalization, immigration and anti-feminist and pro-life causes. Part three looks at strategies, including movement emergence and resource mobilization, consciousness raising, and traditional and social media. Part four explores targets and tactics, including legislative forums, electoral politics, legal activism, the marketplace, the military, and religious and educational institutions. Finally, part five looks at women's participation within other movements, including the civil rights movement, the environmental movement, labor unions, LGBTQ movement, Latino activism, conservative groups, and the white supremacist movement.

The Affirmative Action Puzzle

Author : Melvin I. Urofsky
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A rich, multifaceted history of affirmative action from the Civil Rights Act of 1866 through today’s tumultuous times From an acclaimed legal historian, a history of affirmative action from its beginning with the Civil Rights Act of 1866 to the first use of the term in 1935 with the enactment of the National Labor Relations Act (the Wagner Act) to 1961 and John F. Kennedy’s Executive Order 10925, mandating that federal contractors take “affirmative action” to ensure that there be no discrimination by “race, creed, color, or national origin” down to today’s American society. Melvin Urofsky explores affirmative action in relation to sex, gender, and education and shows that nearly every public university in the country has at one time or another, successfully or not, instituted some form of affirmative action plan. Urofsky traces the evolution of affirmative action through labor and the struggle for racial equality, writing of World War I and the exodus that began when some six mil­lion African Americans moved northward between 1910 and 1960, one of the greatest internal migrations in the country’s history. He describes how Harry Truman, after becoming president in 1945, fought for Roosevelt’s Fair Employment Practice Act and, surprising everyone, appointed a distinguished panel to serve as the President’s Commission on Civil Rights, as well as appointing the first black judge on a federal appeals court in 1948 and, by executive order later that year, ordering full racial integration in the armed forces. In this important, ambitious, far-reaching book, Urofsky writes about the affirmative action cases decided by the Supreme Court: cases that either upheld or struck down particular plans that affected both governmental and private entities. We come to fully understand the societal impact of affirmative action: how and why it has helped, and inflamed, people of all walks of life; how it has evolved; and how, and why, it is still needed.

Controlling Women

Author : Kathryn Kolbert
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**Shortlisted for the 2021 Stephan Russo Goddard Riverside Book Prize for Social Justice** This definitive account of the battle for reproductive freedom includes a bold new strategy to safeguard our rights, from two lawyers at the forefront of the movement. Reproductive freedom has never been in more dire straits. Roe v. Wade protected abortion rights and Planned Parenthood v. Casey unexpectedly preserved them. Yet in the following decades these rights have been gutted by restrictive state legislation, the appointment of hundreds of anti-abortion judges, and violence against abortion providers. Today, the ultra-conservative majority at the Supreme Court has activists, medical providers, and everyday Americans worry that we are about to lose our most fundamental reproductive protections. When Roe is toppled, abortion may quickly become a criminal offense in nearly one-third of the United States. At least six states have enacted bans on abortion as early as six weeks of pregnancy—before many women are even aware they are pregnant. Today, 89% of U.S. counties do not have a single abortion provider, in part due to escalating violence and intimidation aimed at disrupting services. We should all be free to make these personal and private decisions that affect our lives and wellbeing without government interference or bias, but we can no longer depend on Roe v. Wade and the federal courts to preserve our liberties. Legal titans Kathryn Kolbert and Julie F. Kay share the story of one of the most divisive issues in American politics through behind-the-scenes personal narratives of stunning losses, hard-earned victories, and moving accounts of women and health care providers at the heart of nearly five decades of legal battles. At this make-or-break moment for legal abortion in the United States, Kolbert and Kay propose audacious new strategies inspired by medical advances, state-level protections, human rights models, and activists across the globe whose courage and determination are making a difference. No more banging our heads against the Court’s marble walls. It is time for a new direction.

Stories from Trailblazing Women Lawyers

Author : Jill Norgren
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The captivating story of how a diverse group of women, including Janet Reno and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, broke the glass ceiling and changed the modern legal profession In Stories from Trailblazing Women Lawyers, award-winning legal historian Jill Norgren curates the oral histories of one hundred extraordinary American women lawyers who changed the profession of law. Many of these stories are being told for the first time. As adults these women were on the front lines fighting for access to law schools and good legal careers. They challenged established rules and broke the law’s glass ceiling.Norgren uses these interviews to describe the profound changes that began in the late 1960s, interweaving social and legal history with the women’s individual experiences. In 1950, when many of the subjects of this book were children, the terms of engagement were clear: only a few women would be admitted each year to American law schools and after graduation their professional opportunities would never equal those open to similarly qualified men. Harvard Law School did not even begin to admit women until 1950. At many law schools, well into the 1970s, men told female students that they were taking a place that might be better used by a male student who would have a career, not babies. In 2005 the American Bar Association’s Commission on Women in the Profession initiated a national oral history project named the Women Trailblazers in the Law initiative: One hundred outstanding senior women lawyers were asked to give their personal and professional histories in interviews conducted by younger colleagues. The interviews, made available to the author, permit these women to be written into history in their words, words that evoke pain as well as celebration, humor, and somber reflection. These are women attorneys who, in courtrooms, classrooms, government agencies, and NGOs have rattled the world with insistent and successful demands to reshape their profession and their society. They are women who brought nothing short of a revolution to the profession of law.

The MeToo Movement

Author : Laurie Collier Hillstrom
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This volume provides a concise but authoritative overview of the #MeToo Movement and its enormous impact on American society, from the studios of Hollywood to factories, campuses, and offices across the country. • Provides entries devoted to individual events as well as milestones • Presents biographical profiles to help readers to understand the motivations and accomplishments of important activists and figures • Offers essays that explore the lasting impact of the movement on American life • Features an annotated bibliography that directs readers to resources for further study