Search results for: axis-midget-submarines

Axis Midget Submarines

Author : Jamie Prenatt
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Axis Midget Submarines details the history, weapons, and operations of German, Japanese, and Italian midget submarines during World War II. Over this period, Germany, Japan, and Italy built approximately 2,000 small, inherently stealthy, naval craft to perform special operations and conventional navy missions. Much more numerous and more technically advanced than their Allied counterparts, they saw service worldwide, operating in the Pacific, Mediterranean, Black Sea, Indian Ocean, North Sea, and the English Channel. Manned by courageous crews, these vessels made daring attacks on Allied ships in heavily protected anchorages using torpedoes and mines. Most notable were attacks against Gibraltar - launched from an Italian cargo vessel interred in nearby neutral Spain that had been converted into a clandestine support base and equipped with an underwater hatch - and Pearl Harbor. They were used against shipping in coastal waters and, near the end of the war, in desperate attempts to offset their opponents' overwhelming naval superiority during the US advance across the Pacific and the Allied amphibious landings in France and Italy. In this book, the term midget submarine includes submarines of less than 50 tons, equipped with two torpedoes and a crew of 1-4, and manned torpedoes, relatively short range torpedo-size craft with one or two operators and armed with either mines or one torpedo. It excludes vessels designed as suicide craft. It addresses operational vessels and prototypes, spanning 11 German, 4 Japanese, and 5 Italian classes. The most advanced types incorporated innovative design features and served as the basis for a number of post-war vessels. This book also briefly covers the larger vessels used to transport the midget submarines to their operational areas. Also included is an analysis of the effectiveness of these vessels, including an examination of their strengths and weaknesses. The success (or lack of success) will be discussed both in the context of the individual vessel design and as a component of their respective nation's submarine force. They are also compared to similar Allied designs.

Axis Midget Submarines

Author : Jamie Prenatt
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During World War II, Germany, Japan, and Italy built approximately 2,000 small, inherently stealthy, naval craft to perform special operations and conventional naval missions. Much more numerous and more technically advanced than their Allied counterparts, they saw service worldwide, operating in the Pacific, Mediterranean, Black Sea, Indian Ocean, North Sea, and the English channel. Manned by courageous crews, these vessels made daring attacks on Allied ships in heavily protected anchorages using torpedoes and mines. Most notable were attacks against Gibraltar – launched from an Italian cargo vessel interred in nearby neutral Spain that had been converted into a clandestine support base and equipped with an underwater hatch – and Pearl Harbor. They were used against shipping in coastal waters and, near the end of the war, in desperate attempts to offset their opponents' overwhelming naval superiority during the US advance across the Pacific and the Allied amphibious landings in France and Italy. This volume will detail the history, weapons, and operations of German, Japanese, and Italian midget submarines.

Suicide Squads W W II

Author : Richard O'Neill
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Depicts suicidal missions of the Japanese, British, German, and Italian armed forces using weapons, such as midget submarines, explosive boats, and manned torpedoes

Suicide Squads

Author : Richard O'Neill
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Depicts suicidal missions of the Japanese, British, German, and Italian armed forces using weapons, such as midget submarines, explosive boats, and manned torpedoes

Submarine Warfare in World War II

Author : Charles River Editors
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*Includes pictures *Includes accounts of the fighting by sailors on both sides *Includes a bibliography for further reading Danger prowled under both the cold gray waters of the North Sea and the shimmering blue waves of the tropical Atlantic during World War II as Adolf Hitler's Third Reich attempted to strangle Allied shipping lanes with U-boat attacks. German and British submarines combed the vast oceanic battlefield for prey, while scientists developed new technologies and countermeasures. During World War I, German U-boats operated solo except on one occasion. Initially, the British and nations supplying England with food and materiel scattered vessels singly across the ocean, making them vulnerable to the lone submarines. However, widespread late war re-adoption of the convoy system tipped the odds in the surface ships' favor, as one U-boat skipper described: "The oceans at once became bare and empty; for long periods at a time the U-boats, operating individually, would see nothing at all; and then suddenly up would loom a huge concourse of ships, thirty or fifty or more of them, surrounded by a strong escort of warships of all types." (Blair, 1996, 55). However, even the wolf-pack proved insufficient to defeat the Atlantic convoys and stop Allied commerce - the precise opposite of the Pacific theater, where America's excellent submarine forces annihilated much of Japan's merchant marine and inflicted severe damage on the Imperial Japanese Navy. Submarines exercised a decisive impact on the outcome of the Pacific Theater in World War II. The U.S. submarine fleet, largely though not exclusively under the overall command of Vice Admiral Charles Lockwood, strangled the supply lines and shipping traffic of the Empire of Japan. Their commerce raiding crippled both Japan's ability to keep its frontline units supplied and to manufacture the weapons, vessels, and vehicles needed to successfully carry on the struggle. The United States and Japan both produced excellent, high-tech submarines in the context of the World War II era. Japanese I-boats showed excellent seakeeping capabilities and offered the versatility created by their large size, including the ability to serve as motherships for midget submarines or aircraft carriers for scouting aircraft or even specialized bombers. The Type 93 Long Lance and Type 95 torpedoes they carrier packed enough punch to sink capital ships like battleships and carriers at ranges of several miles. Though constituting only 1.6% of the total U.S. Navy's tonnage in the Pacific, the submarine fleet inflicted massive losses on the Imperial Japanese Navy and Japan's crucial merchant marine. Submarines sank 55% of the merchant shipping lost, or approximately 1,300 vessels; overall, the Allies sank 77% of Japan's shipping. The submarines also sank 214 Japanese warships, including 82 of 1,000 tons or more - 4 carriers, 4 escort carriers, one battleship, 4 heavy cruisers, 9 light cruisers, 38 destroyers, and 23 submarines - or approximately 30% of the entire Imperial Japanese Navy. The sleek, predatory craft made in the shipyards of Virginia, Wisconsin, or Washington state devastated the naval and freighter assets of the Empire of the Rising Sun out of all proportion to their numbers, at a cost of 42 submarines on "Eternal Patrol." Submarine Warfare in World War II: The History of the Fighting Under the Waves in the Atlantic and Pacific Theaters analyzes the underwater fighting between the Allies and Axis across the oceans. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about submarine warfare like never before.

World War II Sea War Vol 6 The Allies Halt the Axis Advance

Author : Donald A Bertke
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Major Pacific actions from April through August 1942 include the Japanese attack on Ceylon, the Doolittle Raid on Japan, the battle of the Coral Sea, the battle of Midway Island, the U.S. landing on Guadalcanal, the battle of Savo Island, and the battle of the eastern Solomon Islands. Arctic actions include battle for convoy PQ.17. In Mediterranean, the Royal Navy interdicts Axis supply lines along Libyan and Egyptian coasts. In the Atlantic, the U.S. implements convoys along the East Coast.

Submarine Warfare in World War II

Author : Charles River Charles River Editors
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*Includes pictures *Includes accounts of the fighting by sailors on both sides *Includes a bibliography for further reading Danger prowled under both the cold gray waters of the North Sea and the shimmering blue waves of the tropical Atlantic during World War II as Adolf Hitler's Third Reich attempted to strangle Allied shipping lanes with U-boat attacks. German and British submarines combed the vast oceanic battlefield for prey, while scientists developed new technologies and countermeasures. During World War I, German U-boats operated solo except on one occasion. Initially, the British and nations supplying England with food and materiel scattered vessels singly across the ocean, making them vulnerable to the lone submarines. However, widespread late war re-adoption of the convoy system tipped the odds in the surface ships' favor, as one U-boat skipper described: "The oceans at once became bare and empty; for long periods at a time the U-boats, operating individually, would see nothing at all; and then suddenly up would loom a huge concourse of ships, thirty or fifty or more of them, surrounded by a strong escort of warships of all types." (Blair, 1996, 55). However, even the wolf-pack proved insufficient to defeat the Atlantic convoys and stop Allied commerce - the precise opposite of the Pacific theater, where America's excellent submarine forces annihilated much of Japan's merchant marine and inflicted severe damage on the Imperial Japanese Navy. Submarines exercised a decisive impact on the outcome of the Pacific Theater in World War II. The U.S. submarine fleet, largely though not exclusively under the overall command of Vice Admiral Charles Lockwood, strangled the supply lines and shipping traffic of the Empire of Japan. Their commerce raiding crippled both Japan's ability to keep its frontline units supplied and to manufacture the weapons, vessels, and vehicles needed to successfully carry on the struggle. The United States and Japan both produced excellent, high-tech submarines in the context of the World War II era. Japanese I-boats showed excellent seakeeping capabilities and offered the versatility created by their large size, including the ability to serve as motherships for midget submarines or aircraft carriers for scouting aircraft or even specialized bombers. The Type 93 Long Lance and Type 95 torpedoes they carrier packed enough punch to sink capital ships like battleships and carriers at ranges of several miles. Though constituting only 1.6% of the total U.S. Navy's tonnage in the Pacific, the submarine fleet inflicted massive losses on the Imperial Japanese Navy and Japan's crucial merchant marine. Submarines sank 55% of the merchant shipping lost, or approximately 1,300 vessels; overall, the Allies sank 77% of Japan's shipping. The submarines also sank 214 Japanese warships, including 82 of 1,000 tons or more - 4 carriers, 4 escort carriers, one battleship, 4 heavy cruisers, 9 light cruisers, 38 destroyers, and 23 submarines - or approximately 30% of the entire Imperial Japanese Navy. The sleek, predatory craft made in the shipyards of Virginia, Wisconsin, or Washington state devastated the naval and freighter assets of the Empire of the Rising Sun out of all proportion to their numbers, at a cost of 42 submarines on "Eternal Patrol." Submarine Warfare in World War II: The History of the Fighting Under the Waves in the Atlantic and Pacific Theaters analyzes the underwater fighting between the Allies and Axis across the oceans. Along with pictures of important people, places, and events, you will learn about submarine warfare like never before.

Kriegsmarine U boats 1939 45 2

Author : Gordon Williamson
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This title follows from New Vanguard 51: Kriegsmarine U-boats 1939–45 (1) and charts the continuing development of the U-boat in German service, including the evolution of the Type IX as a long range 'cruiser' intended for solo operations in distant waters. Also covered is the revolutionary Type XXI, conceived of in 1942 and launched in April 1944, the first true submarine rather than submersible, whose arrival was just too late to influence the war. Other vessels covered are the Type XXIII, a small vessel armed with only two torpedoes but technically highly advanced, and the Type X minelayers, which were rarely used in their intended role and more often used as supply boats.

Sacrifice for Stalin

Author : David Wragg
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Operation BARBAROSSA, the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941, was a turning point second only to Pearl Harbor. Russia became an ally overnight but a most difficult, dangerous and demanding one. Stalin desperately needed oil, equipment and modern technology but the only practical route was round the North Cape to the ports of Archangel and Murmansk. The dual enemies of the vulnerable merchantmen were the German naval and air forces and the weather.While no-one questioned that the Russians needed assistance, the author finds evidence that the supplies that did get through the gauntlet, at great cost, were all too often not put to good use.Elsewhere the Allies were having to make do with old and insufficient equipment, such as aircraft. He finds that little mention is made of the impact of British and American weapons and material by Soviet reports. Yet at the same time there is evidence that Allied supplies may have made it possible for the Soviets to occupy central and Eastern Europe and so dominate those countries for half a century of the Cold War.

Total Germany

Author : David Wragg
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The author of A Century of British Naval Aviation, 1909-2009 examines the losses and successes of the Royal Navy during World War Two. On the declaration of war in 1939, the British Admiralty signaled all warships and naval bases “Total Germany, Total Germany.” It was fortunate that of Germany’s three armed services, the Kriegsmarine under Grosseradmiral Erich Raeder was the least well prepared. True, Admiral Karl Donitz’s U-Boat force was to give the Allies many anxious times, but Hitler was never comfortable or competent in his handling of naval surface forces. “Total Germany” is a concise yet comprehensive account of the Royal Navy’s part in the war at sea and the measures taken to ensure victory. The different approaches taken by the warring countries are expertly examined. The author reviews the differing strategies and tactics of the various theatres such as the Far East, Mediterranean, Atlantic and Arctic. “Not only does it cover every major event during WWII the author brings up some other less well known actions. A thoroughly enjoyable read.”—Ton Class Association

The Deadly Trade

Author : Iain Ballantyne
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Originally a puny craft, derided as being of no worth, the submarine evolved to become an assassin of the deep, capable of sinking mighty battleships and gigantic aircraft carriers. The cast of colourful and courageous characters includes a former monk who created submersible boats to assist the cause of Irtish liberation, a spy who hid Confederate submarine secrets in her bonnet during the American Civil War and many a daring young captain who perished along with he men they command. During the two world wars no corner of the globe was safe from the depredations of submarines. The spectacular (and terrifying) story continued with the Cold War into the 21st century, making the submarine the most powerful vessel ever built, carrying enough nuclear weapons to end life on Earth.

10 Eventful Years

Author : Walter Yust
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Royal Navy Handbook 1939 1945

Author : David Wragg
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The service had to learn fast. It soon became clear that the Germans would not provide an opportunity for a major battleship-to-battleship fleet action along the lines of Jutland, but that submarine warfare and surface raiders were to be just as effective at undermining the British war effort. The Royal Navy was expected to be active in the North Atlantic and in British waters, and then, after the Soviet Union was invaded by Germany, it had to protect the Arctic convoys. Meanwhile, it also had to keep control of the Mediterranean, alone after the fall of France, supporting ground forces in North Africa and then in Greece, send convoys to Malta and disrupt the Axis supply lines both in the Mediterranean and off the coast of Norway, before facing the Japanese in the Far East.

Oceans 90 Conference Proceedings

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Triumph in the Atlantic The Naval Struggle Against the Axis

Author : Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz
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Here is one of the most authoritative, thoroughly documented accounts of Allied naval action in the Atlantic and Mediterranean theaters of World War II. Normandy, Salerno, Operation Neptune, Morocco—this is the story of naval warfare such as the world had never before seen. TRIUMPH IN THE ATLANTIC presents the exciting narrative of Atlantic Surface Operations in all its dramatic detail, from the sinking of the British liner Athenia in 1939 to the devastating defeat of Germany in 1945. The Atlantic operation was a sea war that made the land war in Europe and Africa possible. It was a sea war fought over the range of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean against the worst hazards men could invent and the worst nature could provide. Through U-boat and surface attack, air threat and minefields, piercing cold and blazing heat, mountainous seas, blinding fog and cutting winds, ships carried out their missions of bringing the troops and supplies to the men and women who needed them. The fruit of years of painstaking preparation by historians at the U.S. Naval Academy, TRIUMPH IN THE ATLANTIC recalls not only the tactics and maneuvers of a wartime effort unmatched in history, but also the hopes and fears of the men who made it possible.

Italian Destroyers of World War II

Author : Mark Stille
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The Italian Royal Navy (Regia Marine or RM) began the Second World War with one of the largest fleets in the world. Included in this was a total of 59 fleet destroyers, and others were added during the war. These were a diverse collection of ships dating back to the First World War, large destroyers built to counter ships of similar size being introduced in the French Navy (the RM's historical enemy), and medium-sized ships which constituted the bulk of the destroyer force. RM destroyers were built for high speed, not endurance since they were only expected to operate inside the Mediterranean. They were also well-armed, but lacked radar. During the war, RM destroyers fought well. With the exception of a small force based in Abyssinia which fought a series of battles in the Red Sea against the British, RM destroyers were active in the Mediterranean. The primary mission of the RM curing the war was to keep the supply lines to North Africa open. The Italians were largely successful in this effort, and destroyers were key in the effort. RM destroyers were present at every fleet action with the British Mediterranean Fleet.. The intensity of these actions were shown by the fact that the RM lost 51 destroyers during the war.

Submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy

Author : Dorr Carpenter
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Midget Submarine Commander

Author : Paul Watkins
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Of all the acts of gallantry in World War II few were as audacious as the attack by midget submarines on the pride of the German fleet, the battleship Tirpitz, lying in her fortified mooring in a Norwegian fjord. Lieutenant Godfrey Place was in command of submarine X7 in September 1943 and traveled over 1000 miles, negotiating minefields and antisubmarine nets to accurately place four tons of high explosive under the hull of the Tirpitz. He was awarded the Victoria Cross in 1944, at the age of 22. Taken prisoner he was repatriated to England at the end of the war, and continued to serve in the Royal Navy for 25 years, flying with 801st squadron in the Korean War, and served on aircraft carriers at Suez, Nigeria and the withdrawal from Aden. On his retirement in 1970, he had the distinction of being the last serving naval officer to hold the Victoria Cross.Using many first-hand accounts, the book details his life, from a childhood spent partly in East Africa to being Chairman of the Victoria Cross and George Cross Association for over 20 years. It draws on previously unpublished material, including his own recollections on the attack on the Tirpitz and his time as a prisoner of war.

A Dictionary of Military and Technological Abbreviations and Acronyms

Author : Bernhard Pretz
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This book, first published in 1983, is a compilation of some 50,000 acronyms and abbreviations used by the British, American, German and Soviet military. It enables the researcher to understand the language of the Armed Forces, their armaments and the related technology, and to reach a greater understanding of the capabilities and duties of the Armed Forces at the end of the Cold War. The Dictionary covers all the services and their technology, and is an indispensable reference work.

Suicide Squads

Author : Richard O'Neill
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Sixty years ago, both Allied and Axis soldiers went to war in suicidal or near-suicidal machines. The men's bravery cannot be overestimated, nor can the ingenuity and desperation that led to the development of such hazardous crafts. Richard O'Neill's "Suicide Squads" tells the story of these special attack forces, focusing on the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy. O'Neill offers a detailed exploration (evolution, types, effect) of explosive motorboats (which offered "the prospect of spectacular gain at little cost"), midget submarines (Japanese, Italian, German, and British), manned as well as human torpedoes, human bullets, and kamikaze aircraft. He also describes the actions themselves -- the attack on Pearl Harbor, the raid on Sydney Harbour, special forces missions at Guadalcanal, Midway, and Okinawa, among others. And he provides insights into the samurai and bushido codes of conduct that inspired ritual suicide.