Search results for: axial-civilizations-and-world-history

Axial Civilizations And World History

Author : J©đhann P©Łll © rnason
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A collection of essays by social theorists, historical sociologists and area specialists in classical, biblical and Asian studies. The contributions deal with cultural transformations in major civilizational centres during the "Axial Age," the middle centuries of the last millennium BCE, and their long-term consequences.

Axial Civilizations and World History

Author : Johann P. Arnason
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A collection of essays by social theorists, historical sociologists and area specialists in classical, biblical and Asian studies. The contributions deal with cultural transformations in major civilizational centres during the “Axial Age”, the middle centuries of the last millennium BCE, and their long-term consequences.

The Axial Age and Its Consequences

Author : Robert N. Bellah
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This book makes the bold claim that intellectual sophistication was born worldwide during the middle centuries of the first millennium bce. From Axial Age thinkers we inherited a sense of the world as a place not just to experience but to investigate, envision, and alter. A variety of utopian visions emerged and led to both reform and repression.

Seshat History of the Axial Age

Author : Jenny Reddish
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Applying insights from a massive historical research project-Seshat: Global History Databank-this edited volume reveals that there was no single "Axial Age" in human history. Instead, it points to cross-cultural parallels in the co-evolution of egalitarian ideals and constraints on political authority with sociopolitical complexity. The first book-length publication to make use of Seshat's systematic approach to collecting information about the human past, Seshat History of the Axial Age expands the Axial Age debate beyond first-millennium BCE Eurasia. Fourteen chapters survey earlier and later periods as well as developments in regions previously neglected in Axial Age discussions. The conclusion? There was no identifiable Axial Age confined to a few Eurasian hotspots in the last millennium BCE. However, "axiality" as a cluster of traits emerged time and again whenever societies reached a certain threshold of scale and level of complexity. Co-editors Daniel Hoyer and Jenny Reddish paired some of the world's leading historians, archaeologists, and anthropologists with members of the Seshat team. Hoyer, Project Manager with Seshat, is a historian and social scientist specializing in cross-cultural historical analysis. Reddish, Seshat's Lead Editor, is an anthropologist working on the material correlates of cultural systems from societies around the world. She is based at the Complexity Science Hub, Vienna. Seshat: Global History Databank was founded in 2011 to bring together the most current and comprehensive knowledge about human history in one place, collecting what is known about the social and political organization of human societies to track how civilizations have evolved over time. Seshat History of the Axial Age is the first entry in the Seshat Histories series.

Practicing Transcendence

Author : Christopher Peet
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This book introduces readers to the concept of the Axial Age and its relevance for a world in crisis. Scholars have become increasingly interested in philosopher Karl Jaspers’ thesis that a spiritual revolution in consciousness during the first millennium BCE decisively shaped world history. Axial ideas of transcendence develop into ideologies for world religions and civilizations, in turn coalescing into a Eurasian world-system that spreads globally to become the foundation of our contemporary world. Alongside ideas and ideologies, the Axial Age also taught spiritual practices critically resisting the new scale of civilizational power: in small counter-cultural communities on the margins of society, they turn our conscious focus inward to transform ourselves and overcome the destructive potentials within human nature. Axial spiritualities offer humanity a practical wisdom, a profound psychology, and deep hope: to transform despair into resilience, helping us face with courage the ecological and political challenges confronting us today.

Islam in Process

Author : Johann P. Arnason
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The articles included in this Yearbook of the Sociology of Islam are focused on two perspectives: Some link the comparative analysis of Islam to ongoing debates on the Axial Age and its role in the formation of major civilizational complexes, while others are more concerned with the historical constellations and sources involved in the formation of Islam as a religion and a civilization. More than any other particular line of inquiry, new historical and sociological approaches to the Axial Age revived the idea of comparative civilizational analysis and channeled it into more specific projects. A closer look at the very problematic place of Islam in this context will help to clarify questions about the Axial version of civilizational theory as well as issues in Islamic studies and sociological approaches to modern Islam. Contributors among others: Said Arjomand, Shmuel N. Eisenstadt, Josef van Ess and Raif G. Khoury.

Nordic Paths to Modernity

Author : Jóhann Páll Árnason
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Within the growing attention to the diverse forms and trajectories of modern societies, the Nordic countries are now widely seen as a distinctive and instructive case. While discussions have centred on the 'Nordic model' of the welfare state and its record of adaptation to the changing global environment of the late twentieth century, this volume's focus goes beyond these themes. The guiding principle here is that a long-term historical-sociological perspective is needed to make sense of the Nordic paths to modernity; of their significant but not complete convergence in patterns, which for some time were perceived as aspects of a model to be emulated in other settings; and of the specific features that still set the five countries in question (Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Iceland) apart from one another. The contributors explore transformative processes, above all the change from an absolutistmilitary state to a democratic one with its welfarist phase, as well as the crucial experiences that will have significant implications on future developments.

Our Axial Age

Author : Kent Augustson
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This work is an original rendering of world history directly relevant to today. It's about an appreciation of its whole in three hundred pages. After eons of development, humanity's progress from knowledge unto intelligence happened almost overnight in historical terms with the formation of civilizations in the three or four centuries on either side of 3000 BC. Twenty-five hundred years later, in the two or three centuries on each side of 500 BC, love/wisdom manifested with the morality and spirituality taught by the great prophets of the age, principally Zoroaster, the Buddha, Confucius, and Socrates. Each separately in their flung corners of Eurasia preached a version of the Golden Rule and a concept of the "Way." This was Karl Jasper's first Axial Age. Out of this age emerged, in time, four major civilizations with their great defining religions--Confucian China, Hindu India, the Muslim Middle East, and the Christian West. Historians have long recognized that the only way to think about the people of the world as a whole is in terms of civilizations. It has been the interactions of these four major civilizations over the past nine hundred years that have carved out where we are today. Accounting for up to 85 percent of the world's population, to know their story, even in relief, is to know the world. Another twenty-five hundred years later, we are in the midst of a second Axial Age that has to do with will/power which relates, in terms of our civilizations, to governance. Our Axial Age's essential expression has been the historically sudden emergence of republics worldwide over the last two hundred years or so. In 1800 there was only one genuine republic in the world. In just two brief centuries, 85 percent of the members of the United Nations are republics or at least feel compelled to call themselves republics. The progression is not precise, but regular as is human evolvement. After setting the stage, our story pieces together how all this came to be over these many centuries by using colorful vignettes and memorable, innovative interpretations of periods of time. The penultimate chapter notes numerous very curious harmonies of history and interprets them consistent with Carl Jung's "meaningful coincidences" in his Theory of Synchronicity. The last chapter assesses where we are today, offers suggestions including a crucial one in accord with Immanuel Kant's essay, To Perpetual Peace, and looks to the future given our progression.

What Are the Humanities For

Author : Willem B. Drees
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What are the humanities for? The question has perhaps never seemed more urgent. While student numbers have grown in higher education, universities and colleges increasingly have encouraged students to opt for courses in STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) or take programs in applied subjects like business and management. When tertiary learning has taken such a notably utilitarian turn, the humanities are judged to have lost their centrality. Willem B. Drees has no wish nostalgically to prioritize the humanities so as to retrieve some lost high culture. But he does urge us to adopt a clearer conception of the humanities as more than just practical vehicles for profit or education. He argues that these disciplines, while serving society, are also intrinsic to our humanity. His bold ideas about how to think with greater humanistic coherence mark this topical book out as unmissable reading for all those involved in academe, especially those in higher educational policy or leadership positions.

The Labyrinth of Modernity

Author : Johann P Arnason
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This important new book by a major voice in the Social Imaginaries movement offers the most systematic attempt to establish conceptual and historical links between the idea of modernity as a new civilization and the notion of multiple modernities. Arnason demonstrates a theory of globalization that is still compatible with the emphasis on unity and diversity of modernity as a civilization.--Wolfgang Knöbl, Hamburg Institute for Social Research and Leuphana University Lueneburg

Civilizations in World Politics

Author : Peter J. Katzenstein
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A highly original and readily accessible examination of the cultural dimension of international politics, this book provides a sophisticated and nuanced account of the relevance of cultural categories for the analysis of world politics. The book’s analytical focus is on plural and pluralist civilizations. Civilizations exist in the plural within one civilization of modernity; and they are internally pluralist rather than unitary. The existence of plural and pluralist civilizations is reflected in transcivilizational engagements, intercivilizational encounters and, only occasionally, in civilizational clashes. Drawing on the work of Eisenstadt, Collins and Elias, Katzenstein’s introduction provides a cogent and detailed alternative to Huntington’s. This perspective is then developed and explored through six outstanding case studies written by leading experts in their fields. Combining contemporary and historical perspectives while addressing the civilizational politics of America, Europe, China, Japan, India and Islam, the book draws these discussions together in Patrick Jackson’s theoretically informed, thematic conclusion. Featuring an exceptional line-up and representing a diversity of theoretical views within one integrative perspective, this work will be of interest to all scholars and students of international relations, sociology and political science.

The Roman Empire in Context

Author : Johann P. Arnason
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Through a series of original essays by leading international scholars, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives offers a comparative historical analysis of the Roman empire’s role and achievement and, more broadly, establishes Rome’s significance within comparative studies. Fills a gap in comparative historical analysis of the Roman empire’s role and achievement Features contributions from more than a dozen distinguished scholars from around the world Explores the relevance of important comparativist themes of state, empire, and civilization to ancient Rome

From World Religions to Axial Civilizations and Beyond

Author : Saïd Amir Arjomand
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Essays in the field of comparative world religions and corresponding axial civilizations. The post–World War II idea of the Axial Age by Karl Jaspers, and as elaborated into the sociology of axial civilizations by S. N. Eisenstadt in the later twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, continues to be the subject of intense scholarly debate. Examples of this can be found in recent works of Hans Joas and Jürgen Habermas. In From World Religions to Axial Civilizations and Beyond, an internationally distinguished group of scholars discuss, advance, and criticize the Jaspers-Eisenstadt thesis, and go beyond it by bringing in the critical influence of Max Weber’s sociology of world religions and by exploring intercivilizational encounters in key world regions. The essays within this volume are of unusual interest for their original analysis of relatively neglected civilizational zones, especially Islam and the Islamicate civilization and the Byzantine civilization, and its continuation in Orthodox Russia. Saïd Amir Arjomand is Distinguished Professor of Sociology Emeritus at Stony Book University, State University of New York. Stephen Kalberg is Professor of Sociology Emeritus, Boston University.

Shaping a Humane World

Author : Oliver Kozlarek
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The generation of meaning is the primary precondition for acting and thinking. The essays in this volume contribute to a discourse on this matter with a decentred, globalized world in mind. The notions civilization, humanism and modernity - far from being exclusively Western ideas - may facilitate joint efforts of reflecting on the universality of current human conditions, particularly since such reflexion is possible from particular cultural perspectives. Modernity presents us with a second Axial Time in which the quest for a plural, but shared, humane world is the challenge.

World History and the Eonic Effect

Author : John C. Landon
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At a time when theories of evolution are undergoing renewed controversy, the study of the Eonic Effect can break the deadlock, by looking at world history in the light of ‘evolution’. The assumption that evolution occurs at random is the crux of the dispute, and one confused with issues of religion and secularism. We can detect a non-random pattern in the record of civilization itself, to see ‘evolution in action’ on a stupendous scale. We live in the first generations with enough data to detect this phenomenon. In the confusion of evolutionary theories, the unexpected discovery of deep level structure can allow us to deconstruct ‘fl at history’, and assess claims of directionality in evolution. In the process the theory of natural selection applied to human evolution is seen to fail a photo finish test. The book provides a new model for the study of the overlap of history and evolution, and a critique of current views of the descent of man.

The Axial Ages of World History

Author : Ken Baskin
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Our world today has become so globalized, so socially and technologically complex that current ideas and institutions haven't enabled us to address our most pressing problems. From global warming to possible food, water, and energy shortages, these challenges demand international cooperation; yet, that cooperation has proven impossible among today's nations. This is not the first time in world history that existing societies could not address the challenges of rapid change. In The Axial Ages of World History, Ken Baskin and Dmitri M. Bondrenko compare the modern world's dilemma with that of a similar period, the Axial Age (800-200 BCE). In both the Axial Age and Modernity (1500 CE-present), forces of increasing social and technological complexity drove the societies moving through them to transform the way people in them thought about the world and governed themselves. The book explores how this transformation, from the chaos of failed institutions to the order of newly evolved ways of living together, occurred in axial Greece and China and in modern Western Europe-in waves of horrific wars, experiments in new types of government, and in radical spiritual renewals. While the authors emphasize that there is no way to predict which of many possible outcomes will occur, in the book's conclusion, they share some thoughts on actions people can begin taking today to improve that outcome, whatever it might be.

The Axial Age Rise of Transcendental Visions the Emergence of Intellectuals and of Clerics and the Structuring of World History

Author : Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt
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World Civilizations And History Of Human Development

Author : Robert Holton
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World Civilizations and History of Human Development is a component of Encyclopedia of Social Sciences and Humanities in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty Encyclopedias. The Theme on World Civilizations and History of Human Development discusses the essential aspects such as Civilizational Analysis: A Paradigm in the Making; The European Civilizational Constellation: A Historical Sociology, African Civilizations: From the Pre-colonial to the Modern Day; Industrial Civilization; Global Civilization - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow; Islamic Civilizations; War, Peace And Civilizations; History: The Meaning and Role of History in Human Development; Role of Human Societies in the History of The Biosphere; Environmentalism; Role of Gender and Family Identities in Human History; Modern Approaches to the Teaching of History; Developing Dialogues: The Value of Oral History; Historical Knowledge. Nature and Man: Orientations to Historical Time; Big History This volume is aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs.

Concise Encyclopedia of Comparative Sociology

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This book is a collection of essays intended to communicate effectively the current state of knowledge in comparative sociology, the major aim of which is to identify similarities and differences between and among societies. Forty significant biographies are included.

The Three Axial Ages

Author : John Torpey
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How should we think about the “shape” of human history since the birth of cities, and where are we headed? Sociologist and historian John Torpey proposes that the “Axial Age” of the first millennium BCE, when some of the world’s major religious and intellectual developments first emerged, was only one of three such decisive periods that can be used to directly affect present social problems, from economic inequality to ecological destruction. Torpey’s argument advances the idea that there are in fact three “Axial Ages,” instead of one original Axial Age and several subsequent, smaller developments. Each of the three ages contributed decisively to how humanity lives, and the difficulties it faces. The earliest, or original, Axial Age was a moral one; the second was material, and revolved around the creation and use of physical objects; and the third is chiefly mental, and focused on the technological. While there are profound risks and challenges, Torpey shows how a worldview that combines the strengths of all three ages has the potential to usher in a period of exceptional human freedom and possibility.