Search results for: antarctic-subglacial-aquatic-environments

Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments

Author : National Research Council
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Antarctica is renowned for its extreme cold; yet surprisingly, radar measurements have revealed a vast network of lakes, rivers, and streams several kilometers beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Sealed from Earth's atmosphere for millions of years, they may provide vital information about microbial evolution, the past climate of the Antarctic, and the formation of ice sheets, among other things. The next stage of exploration requires direct sampling of these aquatic systems. However, if sampling is not done cautiously, the environmental integrity and scientific value of these environments could be compromised. At the request of the National Science Foundation, this National Research Council assesses what is needed to responsibly explore subglacial lakes. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments concludes that it is time for research on subglacial lakes to begin, and this research should be guided by internationally agreed upon protocols. The book suggests an initial protocol, which includes full characterization of the lakes by remote sensing, and minimum standards for biological and other types of contamination.

Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments

Author : Martin J. Siegert
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of theGeophysical Monograph Series, Volume 192. Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments is the first volumeon this important and fascinating subject. With its underlyingtheme of bridging existing knowledge to future research, it is abenchmark in the history of subglacial lake exploration and study,containing up-to-date discussions about the history and backgroundof subglacial aquatic environments and future exploration. The maintopics addressed are identification, location, physiography, andhydrology of 387 subglacial lakes; protocols for environmentalstewardship and protection of subglacial lake environments; detailsof three programs aiming to explore Vostok Subglacial Lake,Ellsworth Subglacial Lake, and Whillans Subglacial Lake over thenext 3–5 years; assessment of technological requirements forexploration programs based on best practices for environmentalstewardship and scientific success; and knowledge of subglaciallakes as habitats for microbial life and as recorders of pastclimate and ice sheet change. Its uniqueness, breadth, andinclusiveness will appeal to microbiologists and those interestedin life in extreme environments, paleoclimatologists and thoseinterested in sedimentary records of past changes, glaciologistsstriving to understand how water beneath glaciers affects theirflow, and those engaged in developing technology to undertakedirect measurement and sampling of extreme environments on Earthand in the solar system.

Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments

Author : Committee on Principles of Environmental Stewardship for the Exploration and Study of Subglacial Environments
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Antarctica is renowned for its extreme cold; yet surprisingly, radar measurements have revealed a vast network of lakes, rivers, and streams several kilometers beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Sealed from Earth's atmosphere for millions of years, they may provide vital information about microbial evolution, the past climate of the Antarctic, and the formation of ice sheets, among other things. The next stage of exploration requires direct sampling of these aquatic systems. However, if sampling is not done cautiously, the environmental integrity and scientific value of these environments could be compromised. At the request of the National Science Foundation, this National Research Council assesses what is needed to responsibly explore subglacial lakes. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments concludes that it is time for research on subglacial lakes to begin, and this research should be guided by internationally agreed upon protocols. The book suggests an initial protocol, which includes full characterization of the lakes by remote sensing, and minimum standards for biological and other types of contamination.

Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments

Author : Martin J. Siegert
File Size : 24.22 MB
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Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 192. Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments is the first volume on this important and fascinating subject. With its underlying theme of bridging existing knowledge to future research, it is a benchmark in the history of subglacial lake exploration and study, containing up-to-date discussions about the history and background of subglacial aquatic environments and future exploration. The main topics addressed are identification, location, physiography, and hydrology of 387 subglacial lakes; protocols for environmental stewardship and protection of subglacial lake environments; details of three programs aiming to explore Vostok Subglacial Lake, Ellsworth Subglacial Lake, and Whillans Subglacial Lake over the next 3–5 years; assessment of technological requirements for exploration programs based on best practices for environmental stewardship and scientific success; and knowledge of subglacial lakes as habitats for microbial life and as recorders of past climate and ice sheet change. Its uniqueness, breadth, and inclusiveness will appeal to microbiologists and those interested in life in extreme environments, paleoclimatologists and those interested in sedimentary records of past changes, glaciologists striving to understand how water beneath glaciers affects their flow, and those engaged in developing technology to undertake direct measurement and sampling of extreme environments on Earth and in the solar system.

Polar Lakes and Rivers

Author : Warwick F. Vincent
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This book provides an overview of the ecology of high latitude lakes, rivers and glacial environments in both the North and South polar regions. It describes each ecosystem type, the remarkable aquatic life that thrives in these extreme habitats, and the similarities and differences between Arctic and Antarctic waters.

Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments

Author : National Research Council
File Size : 64.43 MB
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Antarctica is renowned for its extreme cold; yet surprisingly, radar measurements have revealed a vast network of lakes, rivers, and streams several kilometers beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. Sealed from Earth's atmosphere for millions of years, they may provide vital information about microbial evolution, the past climate of the Antarctic, and the formation of ice sheets, among other things. The next stage of exploration requires direct sampling of these aquatic systems. However, if sampling is not done cautiously, the environmental integrity and scientific value of these environments could be compromised. At the request of the National Science Foundation, this National Research Council assesses what is needed to responsibly explore subglacial lakes. Exploration of Antarctic Subglacial Aquatic Environments concludes that it is time for research on subglacial lakes to begin, and this research should be guided by internationally agreed upon protocols. The book suggests an initial protocol, which includes full characterization of the lakes by remote sensing, and minimum standards for biological and other types of contamination.

The Antarctic Legal System

Author : Gianfranco Tamburelli
File Size : 81.12 MB
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Life in Extreme Environments

Author : Guido di Prisco
File Size : 45.72 MB
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From deep ocean trenches and the geographical poles to outer space, organisms can be found living in remarkably extreme conditions. This book provides a captivating account of these systems and their extraordinary inhabitants, 'extremophiles'. A diverse, multidisciplinary group of experts discuss responses and adaptations to change; biodiversity, bioenergetic processes, and biotic and abiotic interactions; polar environments; and life and habitability, including searching for biosignatures in the extraterrestrial environment. The editors emphasize that understanding these systems is important for increasing our knowledge and utilizing their potential, but this remains an understudied area. Given the threat to these environments and their biota caused by climate change and human impact, this timely book also addresses the urgency to document these systems. It will help graduate students and researchers in conservation, marine biology, evolutionary biology, environmental change and astrobiology better understand how life exists in these environments and their susceptibility or resilience to change.

Exploration of Subsurface Antarctica

Author : M.J. Siegert
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Our appreciation of glaciological processes in Antarctica suffers from a lack of observations in regions where numerical models indicate the ice sheet to be susceptible to ocean and/or atmospheric warming. The solution lies in the use and development of glacier geophysics. In this volume we present a series of papers that demonstrate how geophysics can be deployed in Antarctica to comprehend: (1) boundary conditions that influence ice flow such as subglacial topography, the distribution of basal water and ice-sheet rheology; (2) phenomena that might affect ice-flow processes, such as complex internal ice-sheet structures and the proposition of large stores of hitherto unappreciated groundwater; and (3) how glacigenic sediments and formerly glaciated terrain on, and surrounding, the continent can inform us about past ice-sheet dynamics. The volume also takes a historical view on developments leading to current knowledge, examines active ice-sheet processes, and points the way forward on how geophysics can advance quantitative understanding of Antarctic ice-sheet behaviour.

Evolving Subglacial Water Systems in East Antarctica from Airborne Radar Sounding

Author : Sasha Peter Carter
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Deep Subsurface Microbiology

Author : Andreas Teske
File Size : 43.95 MB
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Deep subsurface microbiology is a highly active and rapidly advancing research field at the interface of microbiology and the geosciences; it focuses on the detection, identification, quantification, cultivation and activity measurements of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes that permeate the subsurface biosphere of deep marine sediments and the basaltic ocean and continental crust. The deep subsurface biosphere abounds with uncultured, only recently discovered and – at best - incompletely understood microbial populations. In spatial extent and volume, Earth's subsurface biosphere is only rivaled by the deep sea water column. So far, no deep subsurface sediment has been found that is entirely devoid of microbial life; microbial cells and DNA remain detectable at sediment depths of more than 1 km; microbial life permeates deeply buried hydrocarbon reservoirs, and is also found several kilometers down in continental crust aquifers. Severe energy limitation, either as electron acceptor or donor shortage, and scarcity of microbially degradable organic carbon sources are among the evolutionary pressures that have shaped the genomic and physiological repertoire of the deep subsurface biosphere. Its biogeochemical role as long-term organic carbon repository, inorganic electron and energy source, and subduction recycling engine continues to be explored by current research at the interface of microbiology, geochemistry and biosphere/geosphere evolution. This Research Topic addresses some of the central research questions about deep subsurface microbiology and biogeochemistry: phylogenetic and physiological microbial diversity in the deep subsurface; microbial activity and survival strategies in severely energy-limited subsurface habitats; microbial activity as reflected in process rates and gene expression patterns; biogeographic isolation and connectivity in deep subsurface microbial communities; the ecological standing of subsurface biospheres in comparison to the surface biosphere – an independently flourishing biosphere, or mere survivors that tolerate burial (along with organic carbon compounds), or a combination of both? Advancing these questions on Earth’s deep subsurface biosphere redefines the habitat range, environmental tolerance, activity and diversity of microbial life.

Antarctic Lakes

Author : Johanna Laybourn-Parry
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The Antarctic continent carries the greatest diversity of lake environments on the planet: freshwater and saline lakes, tidal freshwater epishelf lakes, lakes on ice shelves and glacier surfaces, and over three hundred subglacial lakes; extraordinary ecosystems that have been separated from the atmosphere for up to millions of years. This book provides a unique and cutting edge synthesis of Antarctic limnology, drawing together current knowledge on geomorphology, morphometry, chemistry, community structure and function. It emphasises throughout the value of these near-pristine ecosystems as barometers of climate change, showing how responsive and vulnerable they are to the indirect impacts of anthropogenic activity. Antarctic Lakes begins with an introduction to their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, providing a basis for understanding the subsequent detailed chapters on different lake types, and ends with a chapter considering the application of new technologies to polar limnology as well as identifying future research directions. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in Antarctic and polar limnology, and will also be of broad interest to researchers working in the areas of polar science, microbial ecology (and extremophiles), climatology, glaciology, and astrobiology.

Life at Extremes

Author : Elanor Bell
File Size : 89.65 MB
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From arid deserts to icy poles, outer space to the depths of the sea, this exciting new work studies the remarkable life forms that have made these inhospitable environments their home. Covering not only micro-organisms, but also higher plants and animals such as worms, fish and polar plants, this book details the ecological, biological and biogeochemical challenges these organisms face and unifying themes between environments. Equally useful for the expert, student and casual scientific reader, this book also explores the impact of climate change, rapid seasonal changes and pollution on these extraordinary creatures.

The Ecology of Snow and Ice Environments

Author : Johanna Laybourn-Parry
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Draws together the current knowledge on life in snow and ice environments. It describes these often complex and highly productive ecosystems, their physical and chemical conditions, and the nature and activity of the organisms that have colonised them.

Polar Microbiology

Author : Robert V. Miller
File Size : 53.33 MB
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Sheds new light on the microbial ecology and physiology of the Earth’s polar regions. • Examines the microbial investigations during the International Polar Year of 2008 focusing on the Arctic and Antarctic, along with earlier investigations on critical environmental issues such as climate change, ozone depletion, and elemental cycling. • Offers a survey of what is known and unknown about the microbial inhabitants of polar environments, addresses the adaptations and physiology of cold-adapted microorganisms, and explores the ecological role that polar microbial communities play in biogeochemical cycling. • Presents the challenges that polar and subpolar microorganisms face and describes the lowest temperatures in which microbial life can exist—and the prospects for life on other planets. Recommended for a general microbiology audience as well as for scientists and students in all areas of biology and geomicrobiology.

Transboundary Water Resources Management

Author : Jacques Ganoulis
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Based on an international symposium addressing a key issue in global development, this reference includes both the latest methodologies for and practical examples of effective management of transboundary water resources. Its multidisciplinary approach combines hydrology and environmental science with economic and political approaches, in line with new UNESCO and EU recommendations, which have been formulated and implemented with the active involvement of all three editors. By providing a theoretical framework as well as abundant case studies from southern Europe, Africa, Asia and South America, this handbook provides hydrologists, geologists, engineers and decision-makers with all the knowledge they need for their daily work.

Exploring the Last Continent

Author : Daniela Liggett
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This multi-disciplinary book will cater to students and those who want to have a more critical look behind the scenes of Antarctic science. This book will take a systems approach to providing insights into Antarctic ecosystems and the geophysical environment. Further, the book will link these insights to a discussion of current issues, such as climate change, bio prospecting, environmental management and Antarctic politics. It will be written and edited by experienced Antarctic researchers and scientists from a wide range of disciplines. Academic references will be included for those who wish to delve deeper into the topics discussed in the book.

When Biospheres Collide

Author : Michael Meltzer
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Antarctica

Author : Gabrielle Walker
File Size : 62.91 MB
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The acclaimed science writer presents a wide-ranging exploration of Antarctica’s history, nature, and global significance in this “rollicking good read” (Kirkus). From the early expeditions of Ernest Shackleton to David Attenborough’s documentary series Frozen Planet, the continent of Antarctica has captured the world’s imagination. After the Antarctic Treaty of 1961, decades of scientific research revealed the true extent of its many mysteries. Now former Nature magazine staff writer Gabrielle Walker tells the full story of Antarctica—from its fascinating history to its uncertain future and the international teams of researchers who brave its forbidding climate. Drawing on her broad travels across the continent, Walker weaves all the significant threads of life on the vast ice sheet into a multifaceted narrative, illuminating what it really feels like to be there and why it draws so many different kinds of people. She chronicles cutting-edge science experiments, visits to the South Pole, and unsettling portents about our future in an age of global warming. “We are all anxious Antarctic watchers now, and Walker's book is the essential primer.”—The Guardian, UK

Past Glacial Environments

Author : John Menzies
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Past Glacial Environments, Second Edition, presents a revised and updated version of the very successful first edition of Menzies’ book, covering a breadth of topics with a focus on the recognition and analysis of former glacial environments, including the pre-Quaternary glaciations. The book is made up of chapters written by various geological experts from across the world, with the editor’s expertise and experience bringing the chapters together. This new and updated volume includes at least 45% new material, along with five new chapters that include a section on techniques and methods. Additionally, this new edition is presented in full color and features a large collection of photographs, line diagrams, and tables with examples of glacial environments and landscapes that are drawn from a worldwide perspective. Informative knowledge boxes and case studies are included, helping users better understand critical issues and ideas. Provides the most complete reference concerning the study of glacial processes and their geological, sedimentological, and geomorphological products Comprised of chapters written by various geological experts from across the world Includes specific case studies to alert readers to important ideas and issues Uses text boxes throughout to explain key concepts from glacial literature Presents full color photographs, line diagrams, and tables throughout