Search results for: analogy-and-structure

Analogy as Structure and Process

Author : Esa Itkonen
File Size : 80.69 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 482
Read : 905
Download »
The concept of analogy is of central concern to modern cognitive scientists, whereas it has been largely neglected in linguistics in the past four decades. The goal of this thought-provoking book is (1) to introduce a cognitively and linguistically viable notion of analogy; and (2) to re-establish and build on traditional linguistic analogy-based research. As a starting point, a general definition of analogy is offered that makes the distinction between analogy-as-structure and analogy-as-process. Chapter 2 deals with analogy as used in traditional linguistics. It demonstrates how phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and diachronic linguistics make use of analogy and discusses linguistic domains in which analogy does or did not work. The appendix gives a description of a computer program, which performs such instances of analogy-based syntactic analysis as have long been claimed impossible. Chapter 3 supports the ultimate (non-modular) ‘unity of the mind’ and discusses the existence of pervasive analogies between language and such cognitive domains as vision, music, and logic. The final chapter presents evidence for the view that the cosmology of every culture is based on analogy. At a more abstract level, the role of analogy in scientific change is scrutinized, resulting in a meta-analogy between myth and science.

Analogy and Structure

Author : R. Skousen
File Size : 78.84 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 270
Read : 1023
Download »
Analogy and Structure provides the necessary foundation for understanding the nature of analogical and structuralist (or rule-based) approaches to describing behavior. In the first part of this book, the mathematical properties of rule approaches are developed; in the second part, the analogical alternative to rules is developed. This book serves as the mathematical basis for Analogical Modeling of Language (Kluwer, 1989). Features include: A Natural Measure of Uncertainty: The disagreement between randomly chosen occurences avids the difficulties of using entropy as the measure of uncertainty. Optimal Descriptions: The implicit assumption of structuralist descriptions (namely, that descriptions of behavior should be corrected and minimal) can be derived from more fundamental statements about the uncertainty of rule systems. Problems with Rule Approaches: The correct description of nondeterministic behavior leads to an atomistic, analog alternative to structuralist (or rule-based) descriptions. Natural Statistics: Traditional statistical tests are eliminated in favor of statistically equivalent decision rules that involve little or no mathematical calculation. Psycholinguistic Factors: Analogical models, unlike, neural networks, directly account for probabilistic learning as well as reaction times in world-recognition experiments.

Analogy as Structure and Process

Author : Esa Itkonen
File Size : 45.42 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 986
Read : 159
Download »
The concept of analogy is of central concern to modern cognitive scientists, whereas it has been largely neglected in linguistics in the past four decades. The goal of this thought-provoking book is (1) to introduce a cognitively and linguistically viable notion of analogy; and (2) to re-establish and build on traditional linguistic analogy-based research. As a starting point, a general definition of analogy is offered that makes the distinction between analogy-as-structure and analogy-as-process. Chapter 2 deals with analogy as used in traditional linguistics. It demonstrates how phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and diachronic linguistics make use of analogy and discusses linguistic domains in which analogy does or did not work. The appendix gives a description of a computer program, which performs such instances of analogy-based syntactic analysis as have long been claimed impossible. Chapter 3 supports the ultimate (non-modular) 'unity of the mind' and discusses the existence of pervasive analogies between language and such cognitive domains as vision, music, and logic. The final chapter presents evidence for the view that the cosmology of every culture is based on analogy. At a more abstract level, the role of analogy in scientific change is scrutinized, resulting in a meta-analogy between myth and science.

Evidence for a Structure mapping Theory of Analogy and Metaphor

Author : Dedre Gentner
File Size : 30.70 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
Download : 226
Read : 588
Download »

Evidence for a Structure mapping Theory of Analogy and Metaphor

Author : Dedre Gentner
File Size : 58.26 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 237
Read : 1001
Download »

Structure Mapping

Author : Dedre Gentner
File Size : 35.1 MB
Format : PDF, Mobi
Download : 421
Read : 1095
Download »
A theory of analogy must describe how the meaning of an analogy is derived from the meanings of its parts. In the structure-mapping theory, the interpretation rules are characterized as implicit rules for mapping knowledge about a base domain into a target domain. Two important features of the theory are (1) the rules depend only on syntactic properties of the knowledge representation, and not on the specific content of the domains; and (2) the theoretical framework allows analogies to be distinguished cleanly from literal similarity statements, applications of general laws, and other kinds of comparisons.

The Structure of Analogical Models in Science

Author : Dedre Gentner
File Size : 59.59 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 465
Read : 1292
Download »
Analogical models can be powerful aids to reasoning, as when light is explained in terms of water waves; or they can be misleading, as when chemical processes are thought of in terms of life processes such as putrefaction. This paper proposes a structural characterization of good science analogy using a theoretical approach in which complex metaphors and analogies are treated as structure-mappings between domains. To delineate good from poor science analogy, a series of comparisons is made. First, metaphor and analogy are contrasted with literal similarity; then, explanatory-predictive analogy is contrasted with expressive metaphor; finally, within science, good explanatory analogy is contrasted with poor explanatory analogy. Analogies of historical importance are analyzed and empirical findings are discussed. (Author).

Computation for Metaphors Analogy and Agents

Author : Chrystopher L. Nehaniv
File Size : 76.42 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 430
Read : 336
Download »
This volume brings together the work of researchers from various disciplines where aspects of descriptive, mathematical, computational or design knowledge concerning metaphor and analogy, especially in the context of agents, have emerged. The book originates from an international workshop on Computation for Metaphors, Analogy, and Agents (CMAA), held in Aizu, Japan in April 1998. The 19 carefully reviewed and revised papers presented together with an introduction by the volume editor are organized into sections on Metaphor and Blending, Embodiment, Interaction, Imitation, Situated Mapping in Space and Time, Algebraic Engineering: Respecting Structure, and a Sea-Change in Viewpoints.

Keeping in Touch With Pragma Dialectics

Author : Eveline T. Feteris
File Size : 35.68 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 890
Read : 579
Download »
"Keeping in touch with Pragma-Dialectics" is written to honor Frans van Eemeren and his work in the field of argumentation theory on the occasion of his retirement. The volume contains 17 contributions from teams of authors consisting of a combination of a pragma-dialectician and one or two researchers with a different background in the field of argumentation. In this volume, comparisons between the pragma-dialectical approach and other approaches are made, aspects of strategic maneuvering such as the use of presentational techniques, adaptation to the audience and the selection of topics are dealt with and the influence of specific institutional contexts such as politics, medicine and internet forums on strategic maneuvering are discussed.

The Eclectic review vol 1 New 8th

Author :
File Size : 82.98 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
Download : 165
Read : 1247
Download »