Search results for: algebraic-complexity-theory

Algebraic Complexity Theory

Author : Peter Bürgisser
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The algorithmic solution of problems has always been one of the major concerns of mathematics. For a long time such solutions were based on an intuitive notion of algorithm. It is only in this century that metamathematical problems have led to the intensive search for a precise and sufficiently general formalization of the notions of computability and algorithm. In the 1930s, a number of quite different concepts for this purpose were pro posed, such as Turing machines, WHILE-programs, recursive functions, Markov algorithms, and Thue systems. All these concepts turned out to be equivalent, a fact summarized in Church's thesis, which says that the resulting definitions form an adequate formalization of the intuitive notion of computability. This had and continues to have an enormous effect. First of all, with these notions it has been possible to prove that various problems are algorithmically unsolvable. Among of group these undecidable problems are the halting problem, the word problem theory, the Post correspondence problem, and Hilbert's tenth problem. Secondly, concepts like Turing machines and WHILE-programs had a strong influence on the development of the first computers and programming languages. In the era of digital computers, the question of finding efficient solutions to algorithmically solvable problems has become increasingly important. In addition, the fact that some problems can be solved very efficiently, while others seem to defy all attempts to find an efficient solution, has called for a deeper under standing of the intrinsic computational difficulty of problems.

Completeness and Reduction in Algebraic Complexity Theory

Author : Peter Bürgisser
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This is a thorough and comprehensive treatment of the theory of NP-completeness in the framework of algebraic complexity theory. Coverage includes Valiant's algebraic theory of NP-completeness; interrelations with the classical theory as well as the Blum-Shub-Smale model of computation, questions of structural complexity; fast evaluation of representations of general linear groups; and complexity of immanants.

Algebraic Complexity Theory

Author : Joachim Von zur Gathen
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Independence in Algebraic Complexity Theory

Author : Johannes Mittmann
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On Numerical Invariants in Algebraic Complexity Theory

Author : Martin Lotz
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Author : Peter Bürgisser
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Algebraic Systems of Equations and Computational Complexity Theory

Author : Z. Wang
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One service methematics has rendered 'Et moi, ... , si j'avait su comment en revenir, je n'y serais point alle.' the human race. It has put common sense JulesVerne back where it belongs, on the topmost shelf next to the dusty canister labelled The series is divergent; therefore we may 'discarded nonsecse'. be able to do something with it. Eric T. Bell O.Heaviside Mathematics is a tool for thought. A highly necessary tool in a world where both feedback and nonlinearities abound. Similarly, all kinds of parts of mathematics serve as tools for other parts and for other sciences. Applying a simple rewriting rule to the quote on the right above one finds such statements as: 'One service topology has rendered mathematical physics ... '; 'One service logic has rendered computer science ... '; 'One service category theory has rendered mathematics ... '. All arguable true. And all statements obtainable this way form part of the raison d'etre of this series.

Some Results in Algebraic Complexity Theory

Author : Ephraim Feig
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Geometry and Complexity Theory

Author : J. M. Landsberg
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Two central problems in computer science are P vs NP and the complexity of matrix multiplication. The first is also a leading candidate for the greatest unsolved problem in mathematics. The second is of enormous practical and theoretical importance. Algebraic geometry and representation theory provide fertile ground for advancing work on these problems and others in complexity. This introduction to algebraic complexity theory for graduate students and researchers in computer science and mathematics features concrete examples that demonstrate the application of geometric techniques to real world problems. Written by a noted expert in the field, it offers numerous open questions to motivate future research. Complexity theory has rejuvenated classical geometric questions and brought different areas of mathematics together in new ways. This book will show the beautiful, interesting, and important questions that have arisen as a result.

Algebraic Complexity Theory

Author : Peter Bürgisser
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The algorithmic solution of problems has always been one of the major concerns of mathematics. For a long time such solutions were based on an intuitive notion of algorithm. It is only in this century that metamathematical problems have led to the intensive search for a precise and sufficiently general formalization of the notions of computability and algorithm. In the 1930s, a number of quite different concepts for this purpose were pro posed, such as Turing machines, WHILE-programs, recursive functions, Markov algorithms, and Thue systems. All these concepts turned out to be equivalent, a fact summarized in Church's thesis, which says that the resulting definitions form an adequate formalization of the intuitive notion of computability. This had and continues to have an enormous effect. First of all, with these notions it has been possible to prove that various problems are algorithmically unsolvable. Among of group these undecidable problems are the halting problem, the word problem theory, the Post correspondence problem, and Hilbert's tenth problem. Secondly, concepts like Turing machines and WHILE-programs had a strong influence on the development of the first computers and programming languages. In the era of digital computers, the question of finding efficient solutions to algorithmically solvable problems has become increasingly important. In addition, the fact that some problems can be solved very efficiently, while others seem to defy all attempts to find an efficient solution, has called for a deeper under standing of the intrinsic computational difficulty of problems.

Algebraic Closures in Complexity Theory

Author : Elmar Böhler
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Time space Tradeoffs in Algebraic Complexity Theory

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Algebraic Systems of Equations and Computational Complexity Theory

Author : Tse-kʻo Wang
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Significant progress has been made during the last 15 years in the solution of nonlinear systems, particularly in computing fixed points, solving systems of nonlinear equations and applications to equilibrium models.

Algebraic Systems of Equations and Computational Complexity Theory

Author : Tse-kʻo Wang
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Significant progress has been made during the last fifteen years in the solution of nonlinear systems, particularly in computing fixed points, solving systems of nonlinear equations and applications to equilibrium models. This volume presents a self-contained account of recent work on simplicial and continuation methods applied to the solution of algebraic equations. The contents are divided into eight chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 deal with Kuhn's algorithm; Chapter 3 considers Newton's method, and a comparison between Kuhn's algorithm and Newton's method is presented in Chapter 4. The following four chapters discuss respectively, incremental algorithms and their cost theory, homotopy algorithms, zeros of polynomial mapping, and piecewise linear algorithms. For researchers and graduates interested in algebraic equations and computational complexity theory.

Complexity and Real Computation

Author : Lenore Blum
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The classical theory of computation has its origins in the work of Goedel, Turing, Church, and Kleene and has been an extraordinarily successful framework for theoretical computer science. The thesis of this book, however, is that it provides an inadequate foundation for modern scientific computation where most of the algorithms are real number algorithms. The goal of this book is to develop a formal theory of computation which integrates major themes of the classical theory and which is more directly applicable to problems in mathematics, numerical analysis, and scientific computing. Along the way, the authors consider such fundamental problems as: * Is the Mandelbrot set decidable? * For simple quadratic maps, is the Julia set a halting set? * What is the real complexity of Newton's method? * Is there an algorithm for deciding the knapsack problem in a ploynomial number of steps? * Is the Hilbert Nullstellensatz intractable? * Is the problem of locating a real zero of a degree four polynomial intractable? * Is linear programming tractable over the reals? The book is divided into three parts: The first part provides an extensive introduction and then proves the fundamental NP-completeness theorems of Cook-Karp and their extensions to more general number fields as the real and complex numbers. The later parts of the book develop a formal theory of computation which integrates major themes of the classical theory and which is more directly applicable to problems in mathematics, numerical analysis, and scientific computing.

A Complexity Theory Based on Boolean Algebra

Author : Sven Skyum
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Computational Complexity

Author : Sanjeev Arora
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This beginning graduate textbook describes both recent achievements and classical results of computational complexity theory. Requiring essentially no background apart from mathematical maturity, the book can be used as a reference for self-study for anyone interested in complexity, including physicists, mathematicians, and other scientists, as well as a textbook for a variety of courses and seminars. More than 300 exercises are included with a selected hint set. The book starts with a broad introduction to the field and progresses to advanced results. Contents include: definition of Turing machines and basic time and space complexity classes, probabilistic algorithms, interactive proofs, cryptography, quantum computation, lower bounds for concrete computational models (decision trees, communication complexity, constant depth, algebraic and monotone circuits, proof complexity), average-case complexity and hardness amplification, derandomization and pseudorandom constructions, and the PCP theorem.

Geometric Complexity Theory Tensor Rank and Littlewood Richardson Coefficients

Author : Christian Ikenmeyer
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On Circuit Complexity Classes and Iterated Matrix Multiplication

Author : Fengming Wang
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In this thesis, we study small, yet important, circuit complexity classes within NC^1, such as ACC^0 and TC^0. We also investigate the power of a closely related problem called Iterated Matrix Multiplication and its implications in low levels of algebraic complexity theory. More concretely, 1. We show that extremely modest-sounding lower bounds for certain problems can lead to non-trivial derandomization results. a. If the word problem over S_5 requires constant-depth threshold circuits of size n^{1+epsilon} for some epsilon> 0, then any language accepted by uniform polynomial-size probabilistic threshold circuits can be solved in subexponential time (and more strongly, can be accepted by a uniform family of deterministic constant-depth threshold circuits of subexponential size.) b. If there are no constant-depth arithmetic circuits of size n^{1+epsilon} for the problem of multiplying a sequence of n 3-by-3 matrices, then for every constant d, black-box identity testing for depth-d arithmetic circuits with bounded individual degree can be performed in subexponential time (and even by a uniform family of deterministic constant-depth AC circuits of subexponential size). 2. ACC_m circuits are circuits consisting of unbounded fan-in AND, OR and MOD_m gates and unary NOT gates, where m is a fixed integer. We show that there exists a language in non-deterministic exponential time which can not be computed by any non-uniform family of ACC_m circuits of quasi-polynomial size and o(loglog n) depth, where $m$ is an arbitrarily chosen constant. 3. We show that there are families of polynomials having small depth-two arithmetic circuits that cannot be expressed by algebraic branching programs of width two. This clarifies the complexity of the problem of computing the product of a sequence of two-by-two matrices, which arises in several settings.

The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra and Complexity Theory

Author : S. Smale
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