Search results for: active-volcanoes-of-the-southwest-indian-ocean

Active Volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean

Author : Patrick Bachelery
File Size : 51.11 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 369
Read : 215
Download »
Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala are both shield volcanoes in the southwest Indian Ocean. This publication summarizes the work done on these very active basaltic volcanoes. Piton de la Fournaise has a long history of scientific research and monitoring, with many data collected during recent eruptions. It is certainly one of the most studied volcanoes in the world. The work presented in this monograph includes geological, geophysical, geochemical and petrological aspects, but also studies on physical geography, natural hazards and the sociological and behavioural approaches.' The Karthala volcano may be less well known, but it serves as an interesting comparison to Piton de la Fournaise. Although situated close to the volcanoes of Hawaii, it differs from them by its more alkaline magmas and less frequent activity. It was also monitored for more than 25 years, producing extraordinary eruptions in recent years.

Active Volcanoes of the Southwest Indian Ocean

Author : Patrick Bachelery
File Size : 87.63 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 766
Read : 1130
Download »
Piton de la Fournaise and Karthala are both shield volcanoes in the southwest Indian Ocean. This publication summarizes the work done on these very active basaltic volcanoes. Piton de la Fournaise has a long history of scientific research and monitoring, with many data collected during recent eruptions. It is certainly one of the most studied volcanoes in the world. The work presented in this monograph includes geological, geophysical, geochemical and petrological aspects, but also studies on physical geography, natural hazards and the sociological and behavioural approaches.' The Karthala volcano may be less well known, but it serves as an interesting comparison to Piton de la Fournaise. Although situated close to the volcanoes of Hawaii, it differs from them by its more alkaline magmas and less frequent activity. It was also monitored for more than 25 years, producing extraordinary eruptions in recent years.

Hawaiian Volcanoes

Author : Rebecca Carey
File Size : 29.34 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 174
Read : 1216
Download »
Hawaiian Volcanoes, From Source to Surface is the outcome of an AGU Chapman Conference held on the Island of Hawai‘i in August 2012. As such, this monograph contains a diversity of research results that highlight the current understanding of how Hawaiian volcanoes work and point out fundamental questions requiring additional exploration. Volume highlights include: Studies that span a range of depths within Earth, from the deep mantle to the atmosphere Methods that cross the disciplines of geochemistry, geology, and geophysics to address issues of fundamental importance to Hawai‘i’s volcanoes Data for use in comparisons with other volcanoes, which can benefit from, and contribute to, a better understanding of Hawai‘i Discussions of the current issues that need to be addressed for a better understanding of Hawaiian volcanism Hawaiian Volcanoes, From Source to Surface will be a valuable resource not only for researchers studying basaltic volcanism and scientists generally interested in volcanoes, but also students beginning their careers in geosciences. This volume will also be of great interest to igneous petrologists, geochemists, and geophysicists.

Hazards and Monitoring of Volcanic Activity 1

Author : Jean-François Lénat
File Size : 70.3 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 277
Read : 1152
Download »
The impact of natural disasters has become an important and ever-growing preoccupation for modern societies. Volcanic eruptions are particularly feared due to their devastating local, regional or global effects. Relevant scientific expertise that aims to evaluate the hazards of volcanic activity and monitor and predict eruptions has progressively developed since the start of the 20th century. The further development of fundamental knowledge and technological advances over this period have allowed scientific capabilities in this field to evolve. Hazards and Monitoring of Volcanic Activity groups a number of available techniques and approaches to render them easily accessible to teachers, researchers and students. This volume is dedicated to geological and historical approaches. The assessment of hazards and monitoring strategies is based primarily on knowledge of a volcano’s past behavior or that of similar volcanoes. The book presents the different types of volcanic hazards and various approaches to their mapping before providing a history of monitoring techniques.

Ocean Island Volcanoes Genesis Evolution and Impact

Author : Adriano Pimentel
File Size : 45.48 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 390
Read : 676
Download »
Ocean island volcanoes constitute some of the most prominent and rapidly-formed features on Earth, and yet they cannot be explained by conventional plate tectonics. Although typically associated with intraplate settings (hotspots), these volcanoes also occur in different geodynamic settings (near mid-ocean ridges). The nature of ocean island magmatism is still the subject of intense debate within the geological community. Traditionally it has been linked to the presence of mantle plumes at depth (e.g. Hawaii), although the interaction with plate tectonics is also recognized to play a significant role (e.g. Azores, Galápagos). Magma compositions may range from basaltic to more differentiated, which consequently is accompanied by striking changes in the eruption style from effusive-dominated to highly explosive volcanism. Understanding how these magmas evolve and how volcanic processes act at ocean island volcanoes are key issues of modern volcanology. Moreover, the growth of ocean island volcanoes from their rise on the seafloor as seamounts, to island emergence and subsequent formation of shield volcanoes (and in some cases large caldera volcanoes) is governed by multiple interrelated changes. It is well known that competing processes model ocean island volcanoes during alternating and/or coeval periods of construction and destruction. The geological evolution of these volcanoes results from the balance among volcanism, intrusions, tectonics, subsidence/uplift, mass wasting, sedimentation, and subaerial and wave erosion. A better knowledge of the interplay between these processes is crucial to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the evolution of such volcanoes, and to the eventual formulation of a unified model for ocean island evolution. Ocean islands are especially vulnerable to volcanic eruptions and other geological hazards on account of their typical small size, rough topography and isolation, which make risk management and evacuation difficult. Volcanic eruptions, in particular, may have a significant impact on local populations, infrastructures, economy and even on the global climate. It is therefore fundamental to monitor these volcanoes with complementary geophysical, geodetic and geochemical techniques in order to forecast future eruptions and their impacts. However, the assessment of volcanic hazards on ocean islands is challenging due to the large variety of phenomena involved (e.g. lava flows, tephra fallout, pyroclastic density currents, lahars, gas emissions). Different approaches are used to assess volcanic hazards, either based on empirical methods or sophisticated numerical models, focusing on a single phenomenon or the combination of different hazards. This Frontiers Research Topic aims to promote discussion within the scientific community, representing an important step forward in our knowledge of ocean island volcanoes in order to serve as a reference for future research.

Observing the Volcano World

Author : Carina J. Fearnley
File Size : 49.65 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 165
Read : 563
Download »
This open access book provides a comprehensive overview of volcanic crisis research, the goal being to establish ways of successfully applying volcanology in practice and to identify areas that need to be addressed for future progress. It shows how volcano crises are managed in practice, and helps to establish best practices. Consequently the book brings together authors from all over the globe who work with volcanoes, ranging from observatory volcanologists, disaster practitioners and government officials to NGO-based and government practitioners to address three key aspects of volcanic crises. First, the book explores the unique nature of volcanic hazards, which makes them a particularly challenging threat to forecast and manage, due in part to their varying spatial and temporal characteristics. Second, it presents lessons learned on how to best manage volcanic events based on a number of crises that have shaped our understanding of volcanic hazards and crises management. Third, it discusses the diverse and wide-ranging aspects of communication involved in crises, which merge old practices and new technologies to accommodate an increasingly challenging and globalised world. The information and insights presented here are essential to tapping established knowledge, moving towards more robust volcanic crises management, and understanding how the volcanic world is perceived from a range of standpoints and contexts around the globe.

Volumes Timescales and Frequency of Magmatic Processes in the Earth s Lithosphere Part I and II

Author : Mattia Pistone
File Size : 65.46 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download : 105
Read : 764
Download »

Islands in a Cosmopolitan Sea

Author : Iain Walker
File Size : 78.31 MB
Format : PDF, ePub, Docs
Download : 917
Read : 1100
Download »
Many people today have never heard of the Comoros, but these islands were once part of a prosperous regional trading economy that stretched halfway around the world. A key node in the trading networks of the Indian Ocean, the Comoros prospered by exchanging slaves and commodities with Arab and Indian merchants. By the sixteenth century, the archipelago served as an important supply point on the route from Europe to Asia. The twentieth century brought the establishment of French colonial rule and a plantation economy. Since declaring its independence in 1975, the Comoros has been blighted by more than twenty coups, a radical revolutionary government and a mercenary regime. Today, the island nation suffers chronic mismanagement and relies on remittances from a diaspora community in France. Nonetheless, the Comoros is largely peaceful and culturally vibrant-- connected to the outside world in the internet age, but, at the same time, still slightly apart. Iain Walker traces the history and unique culture of these enigmatic islands, from their first settlement by Africans, Arabs and Austronesians, through their heyday within the greater Swahili world, to their decline as a forgotten outpost of the French colonial empire.

Detecting Modelling and Responding to Effusive Eruptions

Author : A.J.L. Harris
File Size : 55.19 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
Download : 667
Read : 972
Download »
For effusive volcanoes in resource-poor regions, there is a pressing need for a crisis response-chain bridging the global scientific community to allow provision of standard products for timely humanitarian response. As a first step in attaining this need, this Special Publication provides a complete directory of current operational capabilities for monitoring effusive eruptions. This volume also reviews the state-of-the-art in terms of satellite-based volcano hot-spot tracking and lava-flow simulation. These capabilities are demonstrated using case studies taken from well-known effusive events that have occurred worldwide over the last two decades at volcanoes such as Piton de la Fournaise, Etna, Stromboli and Kilauea. We also provide case-type response models implemented at the same volcanoes, as well as the results of a community-wide drill used to test a fully-integrated response focused on an operational hazard-GIS. Finally, the objectives and recommendations of the ‘Risk Evaluation, Detection and Simulation during Effusive Eruption Disasters’ working group are laid out in a statement of community needs by its members.

Field Data Models and Uncertainty in Hazard Assessment of Pyroclastic Density Currents and Lahars Global Perspectives

Author : Pablo Tierz
File Size : 48.28 MB
Format : PDF
Download : 880
Read : 763
Download »