Active Defense

China's Military Strategy since 1949

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Author: M. Taylor Fravel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 069118559X

Category: Political Science

Page: 396

View: 1062

What changes in China’s modern military policy reveal about military organizations and strategy Since the 1949 Communist Revolution, China has devised nine different military strategies, which the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) calls “strategic guidelines.” What accounts for these numerous changes? Active Defense offers the first systematic look at China’s military strategy from the mid-twentieth century to today. Exploring the range and intensity of threats that China has faced, M. Taylor Fravel illuminates the nation’s past and present military goals and how China sought to achieve them, and offers a rich set of cases for deepening the study of change in military organizations. Drawing from diverse Chinese-language sources, including memoirs of leading generals, military histories, and document collections that have become available only in the last two decades, Fravel shows why transformations in military strategy were pursued at certain times and not others. He focuses on the military strategies adopted in 1956, 1980, and 1993—when the PLA was attempting to wage war in a new kind of way—to show that China has pursued major change in its strategic guidelines when there has been a significant shift in the conduct of warfare in the international system and when China’s Communist Party has been united. Delving into the security threats China has faced over the last seven decades, Active Defense offers a detailed investigation into how and why states alter their defense policies.

Active Defense Mechanisms in Plants

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Author: R. Wood

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461583098

Category: Science

Page: 381

View: 3165

A NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Active Defence Mechanisms in Plants" was held at Cape Sounion, Greece, 21 April - 3 May 1981. It succeeded a similar Institute held at Porte Conte, Sardinia in 1975 on "Specificity in Plant Diseases. " What are active defence mechanisms in the context of plant disease in which a plant, the host, may be damaged by a pathogen? Defence mechanisms comprise properties of the host that decrease this damage. The mechanisms are passive when they are independent of the pathogen. They are active when they follow changes in the host caused by the pathogen. Thus for a fungal pathogen, cell walls of a higher plant which are lignified before infection would be a passive defence mechanism if they decreased damage by impeding growth of the fungus. Cell walls known to become lignified as a response to the pathogen would be an active defence mechanism if it were established that this response decreased damage. The papers and discussions at this Advanced Study Institute were about active defence mechanisms in higher plants, mainly econo mically important crop plants, against fungi, bacteria and viruses as pathogens. Taking the microorganisms first it is a truism but one that bears repeating that although plants almost always grow in close association with a wide variety of fungi and bacteria, often of types that can be pathogens, they rarely become diseased, at least not sufficiently so as to attract notice.

Aggressive Network Self-Defense

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Author: Neil R. Wyler

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080488295

Category: Computers

Page: 560

View: 2682

Over the past year there has been a shift within the computer security world away from passive, reactive defense towards more aggressive, proactive countermeasures. Although such tactics are extremely controversial, many security professionals are reaching into the dark side of their tool box to identify, target, and suppress their adversaries. This book will provide a detailed analysis of the most timely and dangerous attack vectors targeted at operating systems, applications, and critical infrastructure and the cutting-edge counter-measures used to nullify the actions of an attacking, criminal hacker. *First book to demonstrate and explore controversial network strike back and countermeasure techniques. *Provides tightly guarded secrets to find out WHO is really attacking you over the internet. *Provides security professionals and forensic specialists with invaluable information for finding and prosecuting criminal hackers.

Modeling and Analysis of Conventional Defense in Europe

Assessment of Improvement Options

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Author: Reiner K. Huber

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461321751

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 6976

This book presents a collection of contributions to a workshop on "Long-teY'fr/ Development of NATO's Conventional Forrward Defense" to which the GERMAN STRATEGY FORUM (DSF*» had invited some 50 systems analysts and defense experts of the United States, the United Kingdom, the Federal Republic of Germany and the SHAPE Technical Centre. Held in Bonn from 2 to 4 December 1984, this workshop was to provide a forum for the dis cussion, at a non-political expert level and in the light of available analysis results, of proposals for the improvement of NATO's conventional defense capabilities. In addition, it aimed at arriving at some recommenda tions as to which of these proposals deserve to be studied further and what methodological deficiencies must be alleviated and information gaps closed for an adequate assessment. The idea to organize this workshop has been discussed ever since 1980 with several defense systems analysts in the US and the UK who shared the opinion that, with a view to the immense global build-up of the Soviet threat on one hand and the stringency of defense resources in most NATO countries on the other, there is no reason that could permit us to dismiss any proposal promising improvement without careful study.

The Threat of Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East

Active Defense and Counter-measures

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Author: Arie Stav

Publisher: ISBS

ISBN: 9781845190019

Category: History

Page: 298

View: 6421

The potential threat from primitive, inexpensive ballistic missiles, especially when armed with means of mass destruction, represents a major development in the arms race. The accelerated escalation in the number, range, and load-carrying capabilities of the missiles in the last decade has occurred because the technologies required to manufacture a missile of the Scud type and its derivatives are simple, cheap, and readily available. In contrast, interception requires technologies found only at the forefront of twenty-first century military science. This disparity, favoring the aggressor, forms a tremendous temptation for Arab states in the Middle East - such as Egypt, Libya, Syria and Iran - to build up stocks of missiles. ... The Threat of Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East addresses the complex issue of defense against ballistic missiles by intercepting them at various stages of their trajectory: during launching - such as the Boost Phase Interception (BPI) project being developed by RAFAEL; in the middle of their trajectory, outside the atmosphere - such as the THAAD project of the US Army and the AEGIS project of the US Navy; or in the final stage, when the missile is approaching the target - such as the Israeli Arrow project. ... This volume poses both technical and conceptual questions regarding the issue of missile-to-missile interception, in contrast to the doctrines of second-strike retaliatory capability and pre-emptive strike. The specific threats posed by ballistic missles to the State of Israel are examined, albeit the security constraints involved in the discussion of many issues which must remain shrouded in secrecy. The 16 research articles, written by leading experts in Israel, the US, and Britain, represent the first serious inquiry to address the specifics of the urgent ballistic missile proliferation and threat in the Middle East. Published in association with The Ariel Center for Policy Research

Civil Defense

Project Harbor Summary Report

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Author: N.A

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Civil defense

Page: 39

View: 954