Search results for: a-reference-grammar-of-mbili

A Reference Grammar of Mbili

Author : Funwi F. Ayuninjam
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A Reference Grammar of Mbili explores the major linguistic components of the Mbili language from a primarily descriptive point of view and within the cultural context of this Bantu language spoken in Cameroon. It presents a detailed and accessible account of the roots and history of the language, clearly situated within both the Niger Congo language group in general and the Grassfield Bantu language sub group specifically. The language portion begins with a descriptive introduction to the sound segments of Mbili and the methods of combining them. It then moves into the suprasegments of the language, including tone, stress, and intonation; it investigates the interaction of tone, tense, and mood, as well as the distribution of tone and intonation in Mbili. Segmental and suprasegmental phonemes are related in terms of what they require, tolerate, and exclude. The next presentation deals with the morphology of nouns and verbs. On the one hand it establishes a structural identification of the noun classes and determines a functional and semantic categorization of the classifiers; on the other hand it identifies and relates the temporal, aspectual, and modal categories of Mbili, and also studies the semantics of the verb through a case grammar analysis. Finally, the book approaches syntax through a clause and sentence level of analysis to explain the nature of sentence structure in a manner related to English sentence structure. The appendix contains a lexicon as well as traditional folk stories and their translations to convey aspects of Cameroonian culture and examples of the nature of the Mbili language.

Negation Patterns in West African Languages and Beyond

Author : Norbert Cyffer
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This volume deals with issues on negation patterns in languages of West Africa and the adjacent north and east. The first aim is to provide data on various aspects of negation in African languages. Although the topics addressed here reflect a great diversity of negation patterns, the following typological features have been identified to be prominent in our region: conflict or even incompatibility between negation and focus, use of other indirect means of negating non-indicative mood (covered under the term ‘Prohibitive’), different negation patterns in different Tense-Aspect-Moods (e.g. Imperfective vs. Perfective), lack of negative indefinites, and disjunctive negative marking (often referred to as ‘double negation’). The articles presented here show that areal factors have played a significant role in the development of negation strategies in the languages of West Africa and beyond. On the other hand genetic factors seem to be less prominent.

Functional Structure from Top to Toe

Author : Peter Svenonius
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This volume consists of nine original chapters on central issues in theoretical syntax, all written by distinguished authors who have made major contributions to generative syntax, plus an introductory chapter by the editor. Dedicated to Tarald Taraldsen, the collection reflects the diverse energies that have pushed the cartographic program forward over the last decade. The first three papers deal with subject extraction, the que/qui alternation, and relative clause formation. Luigi Rizzi presents arguments that subjects are 'criterial' and that subject extraction is highly restricted. Hilda Koopman and Dominique Sportiche concur, suggesting that what appears to be subject extraction in French has been misanalyzed, and involves a relative structure. Adriana Belletti shows that children avoid using object relatives, preferring subject relatives, even when it requires passivization. The fourth paper, by Ian Roberts, analyzes the loss of pro-drop in the history of French and Brazilian Portuguese. The papers by M. Rita Manzini and Richard S. Kayne both present novel analyses of complementizers, suggesting that they are essentially nominal, rather than verbal. The final three papers address the relationship of morphology to syntax. The first two argue for a syntactic approach to word formation, Guglielmo Cinque's in a typological context and Anders Holmberg's within an analysis of Finnish focus constructions. The final paper, by Edwin Williams, presents an argument for the limitations of the syntactic approach to word formation.

The Paradigmatic Structure of Person Marking

Author : Michael Cysouw
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This book explores person markers, the linguistic elements that provide points of reference to speech-act participants. Michael Cysouw develops a new framework for the typology of person marking based on the rejection of the notion of plurality for its analysis. When a mother says "Mummy is going to say goodnight now", Mummy is the person marker in a way that in English is confined to motherese but which is used more commonly in some other languages and may also be characteristic of much earlier forms. Dr Cysouw divides the person markers of 400 languages into paradigms. He considers how the structure of these person paradigms relates to their function. His investigation provides a clear account of how person markers work syntactically, pragmatically, and semantically as well as giving fresh insights into aspects of linguistic change, language-relatedness, and the interfaces between discourse, syntax, and semantics. The combination of a typological and a comparative approach results in the first outline of a cognitive map of the paradigmatic structure of person marking.

Coordination and Subordination

Author : Sandra Pereira
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Recent studies on the syntax and semantics of complex sentences have dealt with several challenges to the traditional boundaries between coordination and subordination. Some constructions belong to one of the two types according to syntactic criteria but relate to the other type on semantic grounds, whereas other constructions are not compatible with either the canonical syntactic or semantic tests traditionally employed to establish this distinction. Other constructions, by contrast, seem to have evolved in such a way that they now cross the divide between both types. The collection of papers in this volume delves further into the theoretical implications of previous analyses and focuses on a wide array of data from different languages, taking those challenges as a point of departure to develop innovative perspectives and to advance thought-provoking ideas.

Focus Strategies in African Languages

Author : Enoch Oladé Aboh
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Over the last two decades, focus has become a prominent topic in major fields in linguistic research (syntax, semantics, phonology). Focus Strategies in African Languages contributes to the ongoing discussion of focus by investigating focus-related phenomena in a range of African languages, most of which have been under-represented in the theoretical literature on focus. The articles in the volume look at focus strategies in Niger-Congo and Afro-Asiatic languages from several theoretical and methodological perspectives, ranging from detailed generative analysis to careful typological generalization across languages. Their common aim is to deepen our understanding of whether and how the information-structural category of focus is represented and marked in natural language. Topics investigated are, among others, the relation of focus and prosody, the effects of information structure on word order, ex situ versus in situ strategies of focus marking, the inventory of focus marking devices, focus and related constructions, focus-sensitive particles. The present inquiry into the focus systems of African languages has repercussions on existing theories of focus. It reveals new focus strategies as well as fine-tuned focus distinctions that are not discussed in the theoretical literature, which is almost exclusively based on well-documented intonation languages.

Youth Language Practices and Urban Language Contact in Africa

Author : Rajend Mesthrie
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An up-to-date, theoretically informed study of male, in-group, street-aligned, youth language practice in various urban centres in Africa.

Human Language Technology Challenges for Computer Science and Linguistics

Author : Zygmunt Vetulani
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Jahrbuch des Phonogrammarchivs der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 4

Author : Gerda Lechleitner
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Relationships of speech tone and music have been intriguing me since my early studies in ethnomusicology and linguistics. Conducting fieldwork in Botswana in 1997 brought me in contact with a Bantu tone language of two tones, but in those days I had neither a matching methodology nor linguistic records that would have allowed me to focus on their relationship to singing and music – a recurring situation that is mentioned, among others, in Catherine Ingram’s contribution. The chance to participate in a DoBeS project in Upper Assam, India, documenting endangered Tai and Tibeto-Burman languages (isolating tone languages with contour tone) with project leader linguist Stephen Morey was a welcome challenge that taught me about the spectrum of possible relationships between speech tone and musics across different cultures. The “Workshop Relationships of Speech Tone and Music” in Vienna in 2012 developed out of the discourse between Stephen Morey and myself, and has become an important mile stone in what I see as an interdisciplinary basic research endeavour. Volumes dealing with this topic in a comparative way have previously been published, for example Thomas A. Sebeok & Donna Jean Umiker-Sebeok (1976) or Bonnie Wade (1993), but none of them targeted it as directly as the present one. The most valuable bibliography on the relation of speech tone and music is currently maintained online by Murray Schellenberg (2013); I had the pleasure of contributing a few items irregularly in the past.

Curriculum Internationalization and the Future of Education

Author : Dikli, Semire
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In an effort to enhance the quality of education, universities and colleges are developing programs that help faculty and staff internationalize curriculum. These programs will purposefully develop the intercultural perspectives of students. Curriculum Internationalization and the Future of Education is a critical scholarly resource that examines the steps taken to diversify a number of courses from various disciplines and addresses the challenges with curriculum internationalization. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics, such as active learning, student engagement, and grounded globalism, this book is geared towards academics, upper-level students, educators, professionals, and practitioners seeking current research on curriculum internalization.