Search results for: a-history-of-ancient-mathematical-astronomy

A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy

Author : O. Neugebauer
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From the reviews: "This monumental work will henceforth be the standard interpretation of ancient mathematical astronomy. It is easy to point out its many virtues: comprehensiveness and common sense are two of the most important. Neugebauer has studied profoundly every relevant text in Akkadian, Egyptian, Greek, and Latin, no matter how fragmentary; [...] With the combination of mathematical rigor and a sober sense of the true nature of the evidence, he has penetrated the astronomical and the historical significance of his material. [...] His work has been and will remain the most admired model for those working with mathematical and astronomical texts. D. Pingree in Bibliotheca Orientalis, 1977 "... a work that is a landmark, not only for the history of science, but for the history of scholarship. HAMA [History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy] places the history of ancient Astronomy on a entirely new foundation. We shall not soon see its equal. N.M. Swerdlow in Historia Mathematica, 1979

A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy

Author : O. Neugebauer
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From the reviews: "This monumental work will henceforth be the standard interpretation of ancient mathematical astronomy. It is easy to point out its many virtues: comprehensiveness and common sense are two of the most important. Neugebauer has studied profoundly every relevant text in Akkadian, Egyptian, Greek, and Latin, no matter how fragmentary; [...] With the combination of mathematical rigor and a sober sense of the true nature of the evidence, he has penetrated the astronomical and the historical significance of his material. [...] His work has been and will remain the most admired model for those working with mathematical and astronomical texts. D. Pingree in Bibliotheca Orientalis, 1977 "... a work that is a landmark, not only for the history of science, but for the history of scholarship. HAMA [History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy] places the history of ancient Astronomy on a entirely new foundation. We shall not soon see its equal. N.M. Swerdlow in Historia Mathematica, 1979

A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy

Author : Otto Neugebauer
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A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy

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A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy Appendices and indices

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A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy

Author : Otto Neugebauer
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A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy V 3

Author : Otto Neugebauer
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A history of ancient mathematical astronomy

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A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy

Author : Otto Neugebauer
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Astronomy and History Selected Essays

Author : O. Neugebauer
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The collection of papers assembled here on a variety of topics in ancient and medieval astronomy was originally suggested by Noel Swerdlow of the University of Chicago. He was also instrumental in making a selection* which would, in general, be on the same level as my book The Exact Sciences in Antiquity. It may also provide a general background for my more technical History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy and for my edition of Astronomi cal Cuneiform Texts. Several of these republished articles were written because I wanted to put to rest well-entrenched historical myths which could not withstand close scrutiny of the sources. Examples are the supposed astronomical origin of the Egyptian calendar (see [9]), the discovery of precession by the Babylonians [16], and the "simplification" of the Ptolemaic system in Copernicus' De Revolutionibus [40]. In all of my work I have striven to present as accurately as I could what the original sources reveal (which is often very different from the received view). Thus, in [32] discussion of the technical terminology illuminates the meaning of an ancient passage which has been frequently misused to support modern theories about ancient heliocentrism; in [33] an almost isolated instance reveals how Greek world-maps really looked; and in [43] the Alexandrian Easter computus, held in awe by many historians, is shown from Ethiopic sources to be based on very simple procedures.

The Exact Sciences in Antiquity

Author : Otto Neugebauer
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Based on a series of lectures delivered at Cornell University in the fall of 1949, and since revised, this is the standard non-technical coverage of Egyptian and Babylonian mathematics and astronomy, and their transmission to the Hellenistic world. Entirely modern in its data and conclusions, it reveals the surprising sophistication of certain areas of early science, particularly Babylonian mathematics. After a discussion of the number systems used in the ancient Near East (contrasting the Egyptian method of additive computations with unit fractions and Babylonian place values), Dr. Neugebauer covers Babylonian tables for numerical computation, approximations of the square root of 2 (with implications that the Pythagorean Theorem was known more than a thousand years before Pythagoras), Pythagorean numbers, quadratic equations with two unknowns, special cases of logarithms and various other algebraic and geometric cases. Babylonian strength in algebraic and numerical work reveals a level of mathematical development in many aspects comparable to the mathematics of the early Renaissance in Europe. This is in contrast to the relatively primitive Egyptian mathematics. In the realm of astronomy, too, Dr. Neugebauer describes an unexpected sophistication, which is interpreted less as the result of millennia of observations (as used to be the interpretation) than as a competent mathematical apparatus. The transmission of this early science and its further development in Hellenistic times is also described. An Appendix discusses certain aspects of Greek astronomy and the indebtedness of the Copernican system to Ptolemaic and Islamic methods. Dr. Neugebauer has long enjoyed an international reputation as one of the foremost workers in the area of premodern science. Many of his discoveries have revolutionized earlier understandings. In this volume he presents a non-technical survey, with much material unique on this level, which can be read with great profit by all interested in the history of science or history of culture. 14 plates. 52 figures.

A HISTORYOF ANCIENT MATHEMATICAL ASTRONOMY

Author : O. Neugebauer
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Mathematical Astronomy in Copernicus De Revolutionibus

Author : N.M. Swerdlow
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When I first laid out the framework for A History of Ancient Mathe matical Astronomy, I intended to carry the discussion down to the last applications of Greek astronomical methodology, i. e. Copernicus, Brahe, and Kepler. But as the work proceeded, it became evident that this plan was much too ambitious, and so I decided to terminate my History with late antiquity, well before Islam. Nevertheless, I did not discard the running commentary that I had prepared when studying De revolutionibus in its relation to the methodology of the Almagest. Only recently, E. S. Kennedy and his collaborators had opened access to the" Maragha School" (mainly Ibn ash-Shalir), revealing close parallels to Copernicus's procedures. Accordingly, it seemed useful to make available a modern analysis of De revolutionibus, and thus in 1975 I prepared for publication "Notes on Copernicus. " In the meantime, however, Noel Swerdlow, also starting from Greek astronomy, not only extended his work into a deep analysis of De revolu tionibus, but also systematically investigated its sources and predecessors (Peurbach, Regiomontanus, etc. ). I was aware of these studies through his publications as well as from numerous conversations on the subject at The Institute for Advanced Study and at Brown University. It became clear to me that my own investigations lay at too superficial a level, and I therefore withdrew my manuscript and suggested to Swerdlow that he undertake a thoroughgoing revision and amplification of my "Notes. " His acceptance of my proposal initiated the present publication.

From Eudoxus to Einstein

Author : C. M. Linton
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Since humans first looked towards the heavens, they have attempted to predict and explain the motions of the sun, moon, and planets. This book describes the theories of planetary motion that have been developed through the ages, from the homocentric spheres of Eudoxus to Einstein's general theory of relativity. It emphasizes the interaction between progress in astronomy and in mathematics, demonstrating how the two have been inextricably linked since Babylonian times.

Babylonian Mathematical Astronomy Procedure Texts

Author : Mathieu Ossendrijver
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This book contains new translations and a new analysis of the procedure texts of Babylonian mathematical astronomy, the earliest known form of mathematical astronomy of the ancient world. The translations are based on a modern approach incorporating recent insights from Assyriology and translation science. The work contains updated and expanded interpretations of the astronomical algorithms and investigations of previously ignored linguistic, mathematical and other aspects of the procedure texts. Special attention is paid to issues of mathematical representation and over 100 photos of cuneiform tablets dating from 350-50 BCE are presented. In 2-3 years, the author intends to continue his study of Babylonian mathematical astronomy with a new publication which will contain new editions and reconstructions of approx. 250 tabular texts and a new philological, astronomical and mathematical analysis of these texts. Tabular texts are end products of Babylonian math astronomy, computed with algorithms that are formulated in the present volume, Procedure Texts.

A Mathematician s Journeys

Author : Alexander Jones
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This book explores facets of Otto Neugebauer's career, his impact on the history and practice of mathematics, and the ways in which his legacy has been preserved or transformed in recent decades, looking ahead to the directions in which the study of the history of science will head in the twenty-first century. Neugebauer, more than any other scholar of recent times, shaped the way we perceive premodern science. Through his scholarship and influence on students and collaborators, he inculcated both an approach to historical research on ancient and medieval mathematics and astronomy through precise mathematical and philological study of texts, and a vision of these sciences as systems of knowledge and method that spread outward from the ancient Near Eastern civilizations, crossing cultural boundaries and circulating over a tremendous geographical expanse of the Old World from the Atlantic to India.

Astronomical Cuneiform Texts

Author : O. Neugebauer
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THE MOON IX PREFACE TO THE SPRINGER EDITION When this collection of Babylonian astronomical purpose of column of the lunar ephemerides (by texts was published in 1955 (a date omitted by Aaboe) and the explanation of the method of computing the eclipse text ACT No. 6o (by Hamilton mistake from the title page), it contained all texts of this type that I could lay my hands on. As was to be and Aaboe). Some of these advances I have tried to incorporate into my History of Ancient Mathematical expected, the past 25 years provided more fragments, identified by A. Sachs and A. Aaboe in the British Astronomy (1975), which should be used as a guide to Museum and listed below. Also, some new joins the more recent literature. could be made and some errors of mine corrected. My sincerest thanks go to Springer-Verlag for Nevertheless, I think one still can consider the making this work again available to students of material of 1955 to be representative of what has been ancient astronomy. The Institute for Advanced preserved of the mathematical astronomy of the Study, which together with Brown University has Seleucid period. supported my work for more than four decades, has In the meantime, far more progress has been made graciously given its permission for this reprint. in our understanding of Babylonian astronomy, mainly by the publications of Aaboe, Hamilton, Maeyama, Sachs, van der Waerden, and others. As an Princeton 0.

Astronomical Cuneiform Texts

Author : O. Neugebauer
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THE MOON IX PREFACE TO THE SPRINGER EDITION When this collection of Babylonian astronomical purpose of column of the lunar ephemerides (by texts was published in 1955 (a date omitted by Aaboe) and the explanation of the method of computing the eclipse text ACT No. 6o (by Hamilton mistake from the title page), it contained all texts of this type that I could lay my hands on. As was to be and Aaboe). Some of these advances I have tried to incorporate into my History of Ancient Mathematical expected, the past 25 years provided more fragments, identified by A. Sachs and A. Aaboe in the British Astronomy (1975), which should be used as a guide to Museum and listed below. Also, some new joins the more recent literature. could be made and some errors of mine corrected. My sincerest thanks go to Springer-Verlag for Nevertheless, I think one still can consider the making this work again available to students of material of 1955 to be representative of what has been ancient astronomy. The Institute for Advanced preserved of the mathematical astronomy of the Study, which together with Brown University has Seleucid period. supported my work for more than four decades, has In the meantime, far more progress has been made graciously given its permission for this reprint. in our understanding of Babylonian astronomy, mainly by the publications of Aaboe, Hamilton, Maeyama, Sachs, van der Waerden, and others. As an Princeton 0.

The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

Author : James Evans
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Birth of astronomy -- Celestial sphere -- Some applications of spherics -- Calendars and time reckoning -- Solar theory -- Fixed stars -- Planetary theory -- Frequently used tables -- Appendix : patterns for models.

Greek Astronomy

Author : Thomas Little Heath
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Superb scholarly study documents extraordinary contributions of Pythagoras, Aristarchus, Hipparchus, Anaxagoras, many other thinkers in laying the foundations of scientific astronomy. Essential reading for scholars and students of astronomy and the history of science. Accessible to the science-minded layman. Introduction.