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One of the most cherished principles in American journalism is the notion that unpopular and even hated ideas deserve First Amendment protection and fair-handed treatment from journalists. But has this principle always existed, and how are hated ideas treated during times of crisis, such as war?In this book, media historians Hazel Dicken-Garcia and Giovanna Dell?Orto find some of the answers by analyzing newspaper coverage of hated ideas ? such as abolitionism to some and slavery to others ? during the American Civil War. They found that the Civil War strengthened the idea of journalism?s responsibility to the public; editors often had eloquent free speech discussions; and opposition presses were sometimes defended.However, the data also showed that tolerance was the exception rather than the rule. ?[E]ditors consistently supported the larger political system over any professional journalism ideology, the 'common good? over individual rights, and military 'discretion? over constitutional principles,? the authors write.