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This volume marks a departure from earlier descriptive archaeological summaries of the Holy Land. Taking an anthropological and socio-economic perspective, many of the leading archaeologists who work in Israel and Jordan today present timely and concise summaries of the archaeology of this region. Chronologically organized, each chapter outlines the major cultural transitions which occurred in a given archaeological period. To explain the processes which were responsible for culture change, a review is made of the most recent research concerning settlement patterns, innovations and technology, religion and ideology, and social organization. The material culture of every period of human history in the Holy Land is explored from the earliest prehistoric hominids, through the Biblical and historical periods and up to modern (20th century) times. Each chapter is accompanied by settlement pattern maps and a plate highlighting the major artifacts which archaeologists use to identify the material culture of the period. In addition, windows are presented which focus on major social issues and controversies such as "The Agricultural Revolution", the "Israelite Conquest of Canaan" and "Ancient Metal Working and Social Change". This volume should provide students and the general reader with a useful reference volume concerning the archaeology of societies which lived and live in the Holy Land.