Zooarchaeology

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Author: Elizabeth J. Reitz,Elizabeth S. Wing

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139467743

Category: Social Science

Page: 558

View: 7762

This is an introductory text for students interested in identification and analysis of animal remains from archaeological sites. The emphasis is on animals whose remains inform us about the relationship between humans and their natural and social environments, especially site formation processes, subsistence strategies, the processes of domestication, and paleoenvironments. Examining examples from all over the world, from the Pleistocene period up to the present, this volume is organized in a way that is parallel to faunal study, beginning with background information, bias in a faunal assemblage, and basic zooarchaeological methods. This revised edition reflects developments in zooarchaeology during the past decade. It includes sections on enamel ultrastructure and incremental analysis, stable isotyopes and trace elements, ancient genetics and enzymes, environmental reconstruction, people as agents of environmental change, applications of zooarchaeology in animal conservation and heritage management, and a discussion of issues pertaining to the curation of archaeofaunal materials.

Vertebrate Taphonomy

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Author: R. Lee Lyman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316154173

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 8991

Taphonomy studies the transition of organic matter from the biosphere into the geological record. It is particularly relevant to zooarchaeologists and paleobiologists, who analyse organic remains in the archaeological record in an attempt to reconstruct hominid subsistence patterns and paleoecological conditions. In this user-friendly, encyclopedic reference volume for students and professionals, R. Lee Lyman, a leading researcher in taphonomy, reviews the wide range of analytical techniques used to solve particular zooarchaeological problems, illustrating these in most cases with appropriate examples. He also covers the history of taphonomic research and its philosophical underpinnings. Logically organised and clearly written, the book is an important update on all previous publications on archaeological faunal remains.

Fishes

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Author: Alwyne Wheeler,Andrew K. G. Jones

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521304078

Category: Social Science

Page: 210

View: 7990

Fishes is a practical introduction to the study of fish remains from archaeological sites, designed for archaeologists and archaezoologists working in the field and in the laboratory. It provides clear guidelines for the identification of remains and how to interpret them. The identification and analysis of fish remains unearthed in archaeological excavations are invaluable factors in the reconstruction of climate, economic strategy, diet and trade. In this manual the authors discuss the importance of fishes in past economies and in archaeological research. They describe methods of extraction, fish anatomy and classification with the aid of numerous line drawings. The book also includes a survey of fishes most likely to be represented in archaeological sites and describes the biology of fishes in order to help archaeozoologists make informed judgements about methods of exploitation, size of fish caught and meat yield. This study is unique in making a realistic assessment of both the potential and limitations of the use of fish remains in archaeological interpretation.

Shells

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Author: Cheryl Claassen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521578523

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 9985

This book contains everything students and professional archaeologists could possibly want to know about the practicalities of shell analysis in archaeology, as well as the biology of freshwater and marine molluscs. The author also, however, discusses the potential of this class of evidence to tell us surprising things about seasonal patterns of life, the woods around a long-forgotten burial mound and the swirling patterns of life which circled around the humblest of creatures; the snail.

Quantitative Paleozoology

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Author: R. Lee Lyman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139471120

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 623

Quantitative Paleozoology describes and illustrates how the remains of long-dead animals recovered from archaeological and paleontological excavations can be studied and analyzed. The methods range from determining how many animals of each species are represented to determining whether one collection consists of more broken and more burned bones than another. All methods are described and illustrated with data from real collections, while numerous graphs illustrate various quantitative properties.

Social Zooarchaeology

Humans and Animals in Prehistory

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Author: Nerissa Russell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139504347

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 2790

This is the first book to provide a systematic overview of social zooarchaeology, which takes a holistic view of human-animal relations in the past. Until recently, archaeological analysis of faunal evidence has primarily focused on the role of animals in the human diet and subsistence economy. This book, however, argues that animals have always played many more roles in human societies: as wealth, companions, spirit helpers, sacrificial victims, totems, centerpieces of feasts, objects of taboos, and more. These social factors are as significant as taphonomic processes in shaping animal bone assemblages. Nerissa Russell uses evidence derived from not only zooarchaeology, but also ethnography, history and classical studies, to suggest the range of human-animal relationships and to examine their importance in human society. Through exploring the significance of animals to ancient humans, this book provides a richer picture of past societies.

Quantitative Methods in Archaeology Using R

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Author: David L. Carlson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107040213

Category: Social Science

Page: 440

View: 4721

The first step-by-step guide to the quantitative analysis of archaeological data using the R statistical computing system.

Birds

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Author: Dale Serjeantson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521866170

Category: Science

Page: 486

View: 9122

Birds is the first book to examine bird remains in archaeology and anthropology. Providing a thorough review of the literature on this topic, it also serves as a guide to the methods of study of bird remains from the past and covers a wide range of topics, including anatomy and osteology, taphonomy, eggs, feathers, and, bone tools. Dale Serjeantson is a Research Fellow in Archaeology in the School of Humanities, University of Southampton, UK. She is the co-author, with Alan Cohen, of Manual for the Identification of Bird Bones from Archaeological Sites and has contributed papers on birds and other zooarchaeological topics in journals and popular magazines. She is an Associate Editor of the International Journal of Osteoarchaeology and a member of the Institute of Field Archaeologists, the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, the Association for Environmental Archaeology, and L'homme et l'animal: Societié de recherche interdisciplinaire.

The Analysis of Animal Bones from Archeological Sites

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Author: Richard G. Klein,Kathryn Cruz-Uribe

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226439587

Category: Social Science

Page: 266

View: 8047

In growing numbers, archeologists are specializing in the analysis of excavated animal bones as clues to the environment and behavior of ancient peoples. This pathbreaking work provides a detailed discussion of the outstanding issues and methods of bone studies that will interest zooarcheologists as well as paleontologists who focus on reconstructing ecologies from bones. Because large samples of bones from archeological sites require tedious and time-consuming analysis, the authors also offer a set of computer programs that will greatly simplify the bone specialist's job. After setting forth the interpretive framework that governs their use of numbers in faunal analysis, Richard G. Klein and Kathryn Cruz-Uribe survey various measures of taxonomic abundance, review methods for estimating the sex and age composition of a fossil species sample, and then give examples to show how these measures and sex/age profiles can provide useful information about the past. In the second part of their book, the authors present the computer programs used to calculate and analyze each numerical measure or count discussed in the earlier chapters. These elegant and original programs, written in BASIC, can easily be used by anyone with a microcomputer or with access to large mainframe computers.

Photography in Archaeology and Conservation

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Author: Peter G. Dorrell

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521455541

Category: Photography

Page: 266

View: 9307

Describes the use and methods of photography in field archaeology, surveys, conservation and archaeological laboratories.

Sampling in Archaeology

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Author: Clive Orton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521566667

Category: History

Page: 261

View: 6002

The first overview of sampling for archaeologists for over twenty years, this manual offers a comprehensive account of the application of statistical sampling theory that is essential to modern archaeological practice, at a range of scales, from the regional to the microscopic. It includes a discussion of the relevance of sampling theory to archaeological interpretation, and considers its fundamental place in fieldwork and post excavation study. It demonstrates the vast range of techniques that are available, only some of which are widely used by archaeologists. A section on statistical theory also reviews the latest developments in the field, and the presentation is clear and user friendly. The formal mathematics is available in an appendix, which is cross-referenced with the main text.

Teeth

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Author: Simon Hillson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521837019

Category: Medical

Page: 373

View: 8841

An examination of dental studies in archaeology and related disciplines, first published in 2005.

Geographical Information Systems in Archaeology

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Author: James Conolly,Mark Lake

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521793300

Category: Social Science

Page: 338

View: 740

Geographical Information Systems has moved from the domain of the computer specialist into the wider archaeological community, providing it with an exciting new research method. This clearly written but rigorous book provides a comprehensive guide to that use. Topics covered include: the theoretical context and the basics of GIS; data acquisition including database design; interpolation of elevation models; exploratory data analysis including spatial queries; statistical spatial analysis; map algebra; spatial operations including the calculation of slope and aspect, filtering and erosion modeling; methods for analysing regions; visibility analysis; network analysis including hydrological modeling; the production of high quality output for paper and electronic publication; and the use and production of metadata. Offering an extensive range of archaeological examples, it is an invaluable source of practical information for all archaeologists, whether engaged in cultural resource management or academic research. This is essential reading for both the novice and the advanced user.

The Archaeology of Animals

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Author: Simon J. M. Davis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135106592

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 9879

Ever since the discovery of fossil remains of extinct animals associated with flint implements, bones and other animal remains have been providing invaluable information to the archaeologist. In the last 20 years many archaeologists and zoologists have taken to studying such "archaeofaunal" remains, and the science of "zoo-archaeology" has come into being. What was the nature of the environment in which our ancestors lived? In which season were sites occupied? When did our earliest ancestors start to hunt big game, and how efficient were they as hunters? Were early humans responsible for the extinction of so many species of large mammals 10-20,000 years ago? When, where and why were certain animals first domesticated? When did milking and horse-riding begin? Did the Romans influence our eating habits? What were sanitary conditions like in medieval England? And could the terrible pestilence which afflicted the English in the seventh century AD have been plague? These are some of the questions dealt with in this book. The book also describes the nature and development of bones and teeth, and some of the methods used in zoo-archaeology.

Archaeology, Ritual, Religion

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Author: Timothy Insoll

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415253130

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 9727

This book re-examines the definitions of 'religion' and 'ritual' through a range of archaeological examples drawn from around the world and across time. It serves as an introduction to the theory and methodology of the archaeology of religion.

A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites

As Developed by the Institut Für Palaeoanatomie, Domestikationsforschung und Geschichte Der Tiermedizin of the University of Munich

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Author: Angela von den Driesch

Publisher: Peabody Museum Press

ISBN: 0873659503

Category: Social Science

Page: 149

View: 5641

Von den Driesch's handbook is the standard tool used by faunal analysts working on animal and bird assemblages from around the world. Developed for the instruction of students working on osteoarchaeological theses at the University of Munich, the guide has standardized how animal bones recovered from prehistoric and early historic sites are measured.

Mammal Bones and Teeth

An Introductory Guide to Methods of Identification

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Author: Simon Hillson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315424991

Category: Social Science

Page: 132

View: 4667

This guide is designed as an introduction to the basic methods for identifying mammal bones and teeth. It is intended to highlight for beginners the main points on which identifications can be made on the bulk of bones and teeth from a small range of common Old World mammals.

Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones

A Manual

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Author: April M. Beisaw

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 162349026X

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 5008

Offering a field-tested analytic method for identifying faunal remains, along with helpful references, images, and examples of the most commonly encountered North American species, Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones: A Manual provides an important new reference for students, avocational archaeologists, and even naturalists and wildlife enthusiasts. Using the basic principles outlined here, the bones of any vertebrate animal, including humans, can be identified and their relevance to common research questions can be better understood. Because the interpretation of archaeological sites depends heavily on the analysis of surrounding materials—soils, artifacts, and floral and faunal remains—it is important that non-human remains be correctly distinguished from human bones, that distinctions between domesticated and wild or feral animals be made correctly, and that evidence of the reasons for faunal remains in the site be recognized. But the ability to identify and analyze animal bones is a skill that is not easy to learn from a traditional textbook. In Identifying and Interpreting Animal Bones, veteran archaeologist and educator April Beisaw guides readers through the stages of identification and analysis with sample images and data, also illustrating how specialists make analytical decisions that allow for the identification of the smallest fragments of bone. Extensive additional illustrative material, from the author’s own collected assemblages and from those in the Archaeological Analytical Research Facility at Binghamton University in New York, are also available in the book’s online supplement. There, readers can view and interact with images to further understanding of the principles explained in the text.

Demography in Archaeology

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Author: Andrew T. Chamberlain

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139455346

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 9855

Demography in Archaeology, first published in 2006, is a review of current theory and method in the reconstruction of populations from archaeological data. Starting with a summary of demographic concepts and methods, the book examines historical and ethnographic sources of demographic evidence before addressing the methods by which reliable demographic estimates can be made from skeletal remains, settlement evidence and modern and ancient biomolecules. Recent debates in palaeodemography are evaluated, new statistical methods for palaeodemographic reconstruction are explained, and the notion that past demographic structures and processes were substantially different from those pertaining today is critiqued. The book covers a wide span of evidence, from the evolutionary background of human demography to the influence of natural and human-induced catastrophes on population growth and survival. This is essential reading for any archaeologist or anthropologist with an interest in relating the results of field and laboratory studies to broader questions of population structure and dynamics.

The Archaeology of Animal Bones

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Author: Terence Patrick O'Connor,Terry O'Connor

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 9781603440844

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 7987

Animal ecologists can observe the present and reconstruct the last one or two centuries from historical sources, but the study of animal bones adds valuable insight into the peoples and landscapes of the past while telling much about the evolution of human-animal relationships. In this standard work, now available in paperback, O’Connor offers a detailed overview of the study of animal bones. He analyzes bone composition and structure and the archaeological evidence left by the processes of life, death, and decomposition. He goes on to look at how bone is excavated, examined, described, identified, measured, and reassembled into skeletons. The bulk of the book is devoted to the interpretation of bone fragments, which tell much about the animals themselves—their health, growth, diet, injuries, and age at death.