Who Decides the Budget?

A Political Economy Analysis of the Budget Process in Latin America

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Author: Carlos G. Scartascini,Ernesto Stein

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9781597820899

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 7984

The budget is the main tool used to allocate scarce public resources, and it is in the context of the budget process that politicians must make trade-offs between different policy priorities. This volume describes the budget practices, both formal and informal, in ten countries of Latin America and explains fiscal results in terms of these four features.

Institutions and public agricultural investments

A qualitative study of state and local government spending in Nigeria

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Author: Mogues, Tewodaj,Olofinbiyi, Tolulope

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 27

View: 5173

This paper makes a contribution to this literature by drawing on the framework of actor-centered institutionalism (Scharpf 1997) to empirically examine how political and budget institutions affect the incentives of actors involved in the public agricultural finance process, structures the interactions between them, and ultimately shapes expenditure allocations

The Politics of Policies

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Author: Ernesto Stein

Publisher: IDB

ISBN: 9781597820103

Category: History

Page: 290

View: 6050

This study analyzes how the workings of the policymaking process affect the quality of policy outcomes. It looks beyond a purely technocratic approach, arguing that the political and policymaking processes are inseparable. It offers a wide variety of examples and case studies, and yields useful insights for the design of effective policy reform.

The Oxford Handbook of Latin American Political Economy

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Author: Javier Santiso,Jeff Dayton-Johnson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199909245

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 648

View: 688

Latin America's recent development performance calls for a multidisciplinary analytical tool kit. This handbook accordingly adopts a political-economy perspective to understand Latin American economies. This perspective is not new to the region; indeed, this volume consciously follows the approach pioneered by political economist Albert O. Hirschman a half century ago. But the nature of the political and economic processes at work in Latin America has changed dramatically since Hirschman's critical contribution. Military dictatorships have given way to an uneven democratic consolidation; agricultural or primary-product producers have transformed into middle-income, diversified economies, some of which are leading examples of emerging markets. So, too, the tools of political-economy have developed by leaps and bounds. It is therefore worthwhile to take stock of, and considerably extend, the explosion of recent scholarship on the two-way interaction between political processes and economic performance. A unique feature of the book is that it begins with a group of chapters written by high-level academic experts on Latin American economics and policies who also happen to be current or past economic policy makers in the region, including Fernando Henrique Cardoso (former president of Brazil), Andr?s Velasco (former Chilean finance minister), Luis Carranza (former Peruvian finance minister), Mart?n Redrado (former governor of the Argentina central bank) and Luciano Coutinho (president of Brazil's national development bank). These contributors draw upon their academic expertise to understand their experience in the trenches of policy making.

Policymaking in Latin America

How Politics Shapes Policies

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Author: Pablo T. Spiller,Ernesto H. Stein,Mariano Tommasi,Carlos Scartascini,Marcus André Melo,Bernardo Mueller,Carlos Pereira,Cristóbal Aninat,John Londregan,Patricio Navia,Joaquín Vial,Mauricio Cárdenas,Mónica Pachón,Andrés Mejía Acosta,María Caridad Araujo,Aníbal Pérez-Liñán,Sebastián Saiegh,Fabrice Lehoucq,Gabriel Negretto,Francisco Javier Aparicio,Benito Nacif,Allyson Lucinda Benton,José R. Molinas,Marcela Montero,Francisco Monaldi,Rosa Amelia González de Pacheco,Richard Obuchi,Michael Penfold

Publisher: Inter-American Development Bank

ISBN: 159782061X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 516

View: 7819

What determines the capacity of countries to design, approve and implement effective public policies? To address this question, this book builds on the results of case studies of political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in eight Latin American countries. The result is a volume that benefits from both micro detail on the intricacies of policymaking in individual countries and a broad cross-country interdisciplinary analysis of policymaking processes in the region.

Unclogging the Arteries

The Impact of Transport Costs on Latin American and Caribbean Trade

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Author: Maurício Mesquita Moreira,Juan S. Blyde

Publisher: Harvard Univ David Rockefeller

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 168

View: 3613

This book explores the impact of transport costs on trade in Latin America and the Caribbean, and argues that transport costs have assumed an unprecedented strategic importance to the region. The region can no longer rely solely on trade agreements, proximity, labor costs, and an abundant supply of natural resources to give it a competitive advantage in international trade. The book finds that countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have transport costs that are generally higher than those of the developed world, largely because of deficiencies in infrastructure and weak competition in shipping services. It concludes that a broader and more balanced trade agenda would bring the long-neglected issue of transport costs to the center of the policy debate.

Governing the Metropolis

Principles and Cases

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Author: Eduardo Rojas,Juan R. Cuadrado Roura,Jose Miguel Fernandez Guell

Publisher: Harvard Univ David Rockefeller

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 296

View: 3781

This book explores key metropolitan management issues, presents practical principles of good governance as they apply to the metropolis, and unfolds cases of institutional and programmatic arrangements to tackle such issues.

La negociación política del presupuesto en México 1997-2012

el impacto sobre la composición y ejecución del gasto público

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Author: Luis Carlos Ugalde

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Budget process

Page: 146

View: 2260

Analysis of reasons and ramifications of wrangling over federal budget that ensued when long-dominant PRI party lost control of congress three years before it lost presidency. Explains impact of newly found pluralism on nature of budget, highlighting political reasoning that limits efficiency and integrity of public spending in Mexico. Author is consultant, political commentator and former chairman of Federal Electoral Institute, 2003-2007.

Is Geography Destiny?

Lessons from Latin America

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Author: John Luke Gallup,Alejandro Gaviria,Eduardo Lora

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821383671

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 186

View: 8372

For decades, the prevailing sentiment was that, since geography is unchangeable, there is no reason why public policies should take it into account. In fact, charges that geographic interpretations of development were deterministic, or even racist, made the subject a virtual taboo in academic and policymaking circles alike. 'Is Geography Destiny?' challenges that premise and joins a growing body of literature studying the links between geography and development. Focusing on Latin America, the book argues that based on a better understanding of geography, public policy can help control or channel its influence toward the goals of economic and social development.

Regional Public Goods

From Theory to Practice

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Author: Antoni Estevadeordal,Brian Frantz,Tam Robert Nguyen

Publisher: IDB

ISBN: 9781931003858

Category: Political Science

Page: 444

View: 5690

Building Cities

Neighbourhood Upgrading and Urban Quality of Life

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Author: Eduardo Rojas

Publisher: Heritage Capital Corporation

ISBN: 9781597821087

Category: Architecture

Page: 251

View: 3459

This volume provides a synthesis of the lessons learned and challenges confronted in implementing neighbourhood improvement programs, based on the practical experiences of designing, implementing, and evaluating these types of programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. The book provides a wide panorama of the most complex problems that the cities of the LAC region currently face and shows--with examples of projects under execution--that it is possible to solve them through the expansion of the scale of interventions. The volume is structured in seven thematic chapters that present the "state of the art" on the knowledge and challenges in each theme. The book is of interest to policymakers, government officials, practitioners, and scholars working in this field in the LAC region and around the world.

Veto Players

How Political Institutions Work

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Author: George Tsebelis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400831456

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 7854

Political scientists have long classified systems of government as parliamentary or presidential, two-party or multiparty, and so on. But such distinctions often fail to provide useful insights. For example, how are we to compare the United States, a presidential bicameral regime with two weak parties, to Denmark, a parliamentary unicameral regime with many strong parties? Veto Players advances an important, new understanding of how governments are structured. The real distinctions between political systems, contends George Tsebelis, are to be found in the extent to which they afford political actors veto power over policy choices. Drawing richly on game theory, he develops a scheme by which governments can thus be classified. He shows why an increase in the number of "veto players," or an increase in their ideological distance from each other, increases policy stability, impeding significant departures from the status quo. Policy stability affects a series of other key characteristics of polities, argues the author. For example, it leads to high judicial and bureaucratic independence, as well as high government instability (in parliamentary systems). The propositions derived from the theoretical framework Tsebelis develops in the first part of the book are tested in the second part with various data sets from advanced industrialized countries, as well as analysis of legislation in the European Union. Representing the first consistent and consequential theory of comparative politics, Veto Players will be welcomed by students and scholars as a defining text of the discipline. From the preface to the Italian edition: ? "Tsebelis has produced what is today the most original theory for the understanding of the dynamics of contemporary regimes. . . . This book promises to remain a lasting contribution to political analysis."--Gianfranco Pasquino, Professor of Political Science, University of Bologna

The State of State Reforms in Latin America

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Author: Eduardo Lora

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821365762

Category: Political Science

Page: 470

View: 8081

Latin America suffered a profound state crisis in the 1980s, which prompted not only the wave of macroeconomic and deregulation reforms known as the Washington Consensus, but also a wide variety of institutional or 'second generation' reforms. 'The State of State Reform in Latin America' reviews and assesses the outcomes of these less studied institutional reforms. This book examines four major areas of institutional reform: a. political institutions and the state organization; b. fiscal institutions, such as budget, tax and decentralization institutions; c. public institutions in charge of sectoral economic policies (financial, industrial, and infrastructure); and d. social sector institutions (pensions, social protection, and education). In each of these areas, the authors summarize the reform objectives, describe and measure their scope, assess the main outcomes, and identify the obstacles for implementation, especially those of an institutional nature.

Progress, Poverty and Exclusion

An Economic History of Latin America in the 20th Century

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Author: Rosemary Thorp

Publisher: IDB

ISBN: 9781886938359

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 369

View: 6311

This economic history examines the political, institutional and economic forces that shaped Latin America's complex and often paradoxical development process over the 20th century. Quantitative data is examined alongside the region's political economies to provide a context for the successes and failures of the Latin American countries. A Statistical Appendix provides regionwide and country-by-country data in such areas as GDP, manufacturing, sector productivity, prices, trade, income distribution and living standards. Moving chronologically through the century, the book focuses on two dramatic waves of expansion that shaped regional growth: first, an export boom as the century began, and second, import-substitution industrialization corresponding to renewed expansion of the international economy following the depression and the two World Wars.

How Democracy Works

Political Institutions, Actors, and Arenas in Latin American Policymaking

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Author: Carlos G. Scartascini,Ernesto Stein,Mariano Tommasi

Publisher: Melinda Inn

ISBN: 9781597821094

Category: Political Science

Page: 333

View: 7533

In the past thirty years, democratic freedom and competitive electoral processes have taken hold as never before in Latin America. This book zeroes in on the intricate workings of democratic institutions (such as political party systems and the legislature), the actors that participate in democratic systems (such as governors, judges, bureaucrats, and other members of civil society), and the arenas in which political and policy interactions take place (which may be formal, such as the legislature, or informal). The focus is on how those institutions, actors, and arenas affect the policymaking processes of Latin American countries for better or worse. In its scope and complexity, the volume moves well beyond stylized views of the political systems in Latin America.

Escaping the Poverty Trap

Investing in Children in Latin America

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Author: Amartya Sen,Inter-American Development Bank

Publisher: IDB

ISBN: 9781931003568

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 122

View: 2754

The process by which poor parents pass on their poverty and disadvantage occurs primarily during their children's earliest years of life, perpetuating an underclass, and in so doing impairing the basis for a fair and stable society. This intergenerational transmission of poverty (ITP) is a particularly powerful force in today's Latin America, where economies are in crisis and unequal distribution of income emblematic. Escaping the Poverty Trap examines and proposes early childhood investment policies that could decisively change the prospects for the next generation of the poor in Latin America. Contributing authors include Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen and Gro Harlem Brundtland, director-general of the World Health Organization. In examining the effects of family background on ITP in 16 Latin American countries, the study emphasizes that conception through preschool is the period when vulnerability to lifetime damage is greatest, but also when there is the most potential for cost-effective interventions to break out of that destructive cycle. Insufficient education is cited as the primal vector of poverty throughout the life cycle and across generations. The authors find that interventions that offer quality childcare and complementary services not only provide a healthy and nurturing environment for children, but also open up opportunities for their parents to earn a better living. The book outlines basic principles to guide the design of early childhood care and development programs, including the need to empower parents, address all of children's unmet development needs, adjust to the local socioeconomic context, intervene preventively, make programs financially sustainable, and focus resources on households where the development outlook of children would most likely be improved.