Who Decides the Budget?

A Political Economy Analysis of the Budget Process in Latin America


Author: Carlos G. Scartascini,Ernesto Stein

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9781597820899

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 519

The budget is the main tool used to allocate scarce public resources, and it is in the context of the budget process that politicians must make trade-offs between different policy priorities. This volume describes the budget practices, both formal and informal, in ten countries of Latin America and explains fiscal results in terms of these four features.

Institutions and public agricultural investments

A qualitative study of state and local government spending in Nigeria


Author: Mogues, Tewodaj,Olofinbiyi, Tolulope

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst


Category: Political Science

Page: 27

View: 8918

This paper makes a contribution to this literature by drawing on the framework of actor-centered institutionalism (Scharpf 1997) to empirically examine how political and budget institutions affect the incentives of actors involved in the public agricultural finance process, structures the interactions between them, and ultimately shapes expenditure allocations

The Politics of Policies


Author: Ernesto Stein

Publisher: IDB

ISBN: 9781597820103

Category: History

Page: 290

View: 9164

This study analyzes how the workings of the policymaking process affect the quality of policy outcomes. It looks beyond a purely technocratic approach, arguing that the political and policymaking processes are inseparable. It offers a wide variety of examples and case studies, and yields useful insights for the design of effective policy reform.

The Oxford Handbook of Latin American Political Economy


Author: Javier Santiso,Jeff Dayton-Johnson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199909245

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 648

View: 9342

Latin America's recent development performance calls for a multidisciplinary analytical tool kit. This handbook accordingly adopts a political-economy perspective to understand Latin American economies. This perspective is not new to the region; indeed, this volume consciously follows the approach pioneered by political economist Albert O. Hirschman a half century ago. But the nature of the political and economic processes at work in Latin America has changed dramatically since Hirschman's critical contribution. Military dictatorships have given way to an uneven democratic consolidation; agricultural or primary-product producers have transformed into middle-income, diversified economies, some of which are leading examples of emerging markets. So, too, the tools of political-economy have developed by leaps and bounds. It is therefore worthwhile to take stock of, and considerably extend, the explosion of recent scholarship on the two-way interaction between political processes and economic performance. A unique feature of the book is that it begins with a group of chapters written by high-level academic experts on Latin American economics and policies who also happen to be current or past economic policy makers in the region, including Fernando Henrique Cardoso (former president of Brazil), Andr?s Velasco (former Chilean finance minister), Luis Carranza (former Peruvian finance minister), Mart?n Redrado (former governor of the Argentina central bank) and Luciano Coutinho (president of Brazil's national development bank). These contributors draw upon their academic expertise to understand their experience in the trenches of policy making.

Policymaking in Latin America

How Politics Shapes Policies


Author: Ernesto Stein,Mariano Tommasi,Carlos G. Scartascini,Pablo Tomas Spiller

Publisher: Harvard Univ David Rockefeller

ISBN: 9781597820615

Category: History

Page: 500

View: 567

Political institutions, policymaking, and policy: an introduction / Pablo T. Spiller, Ernesto Stein, and Mariano Tommasi -- Who's who in the PMP: an overview of actors, incentives, and the roles they play / Carlos Scartascini -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Argentina / Pablo T. Spiller and Mariano Tommasi -- On the road to good governance: recovering from economic and political shocks in Brazil / Lee J. Alston ... [et. al] -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Chile / Cristóbal Aninat ... [et. al] -- Political institutions and policy outcomes in Colombia: the effects of the 1991 constitution / Mauricio Cárdenas, Roberto Junguito, Mónica Pachòn -- Veto players, fickle institutions, and low-quality policies: the policymaking process in Ecuador / Andrés Mejia Acosta ... [et. al] -- Policymaking in Mexico under one-party hegemony and divided government / Fabrice Lehoucq ... [et. al] -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Paraguay / José Molinas ... [et. al] -- Political institutions and policymaking in Venezuela: the rise and collapse of political cooperation / Francisco Monaldi ... [et. al].

Rents to Riches?

The Political Economy of Natural Resource-Led Development


Author: Naazneen Barma,Kai Kaiser,Tuan Minh Le

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821384805

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 276

View: 9561

Rents to Riches> focuses on the political economy of the detailed decisions that governments make at each step of the natural resource management (NRM) value chain. Many resource-dependent developing countries pursue seemingly shortsighted and suboptimal policies when extracting, taxing, and investing resource rents. The book contextualizes these micro-level outcomes with an emphasis on two central political economy dimensions: the degree to which governments can make credible intertemporal commitments to both resource developers and citizens, and the degree to which governments and inclined to turn resource rents into public goods. Almost 1.5 billion people live in the more than 50 World Bank client countries classified as resource-dependent. A detailed understanding of the way political economy characteristics affect the NRM decisions made in these countries by governments, extractive developers, and society can improve the design of interventions to support welfare-enhancing policy making and governance in the natural resource sectors. Featuring case study work from Africa (Angola, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria), East Asia and Pacific (the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Mongolia, Timor-Leste), and Latin America and the Caribbean (Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Trinidad an dTobago_, the book provides guidance for government clients, domestic stakeholders, and development partners committed to transforming natural resource into sustainable development riches.

The State of State Reforms in Latin America


Author: Eduardo Lora

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821365762

Category: Political Science

Page: 470

View: 8677

Latin America suffered a profound state crisis in the 1980s, which prompted not only the wave of macroeconomic and deregulation reforms known as the Washington Consensus, but also a wide variety of institutional or 'second generation' reforms. 'The State of State Reform in Latin America' reviews and assesses the outcomes of these less studied institutional reforms. This book examines four major areas of institutional reform: a. political institutions and the state organization; b. fiscal institutions, such as budget, tax and decentralization institutions; c. public institutions in charge of sectoral economic policies (financial, industrial, and infrastructure); and d. social sector institutions (pensions, social protection, and education). In each of these areas, the authors summarize the reform objectives, describe and measure their scope, assess the main outcomes, and identify the obstacles for implementation, especially those of an institutional nature.

Is Geography Destiny?

Lessons from Latin America


Author: John Luke Gallup,Alejandro Gaviria,Eduardo Lora

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821383671

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 186

View: 871

For decades, the prevailing sentiment was that, since geography is unchangeable, there is no reason why public policies should take it into account. In fact, charges that geographic interpretations of development were deterministic, or even racist, made the subject a virtual taboo in academic and policymaking circles alike. 'Is Geography Destiny?' challenges that premise and joins a growing body of literature studying the links between geography and development. Focusing on Latin America, the book argues that based on a better understanding of geography, public policy can help control or channel its influence toward the goals of economic and social development.

Regional Public Goods

From Theory to Practice


Author: Antoni Estevadeordal,Brian Frantz,Tam Robert Nguyen

Publisher: IDB

ISBN: 9781931003858

Category: Political Science

Page: 444

View: 7726

Democracies in Development

Politics and Reform in Latin America


Author: J. Mark Payne,Inter-American Development Bank

Publisher: IDB

ISBN: 1931003319

Category: Political Science

Page: 339

View: 4774

The spread of democracy over the past two decades in Latin America has contributed significantly to ensuring fundamental political freedom, civil liberties and human rights. Democracies in Development -- published in cooperation with the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance -- makes it clear that a legitimate and effective democracy is also essential for sustainable economic and social development. The book analyzes the effects of institutions on democratic systems, identifies regional trends in democratic reform, and assesses efforts to enhance governance. Chapters focus on the quality of democratic politics; citizen support for democracy and electoral participation; presidential democracy; political party systems; the balance of power between the executive and legislature; the authority of accountability agencies; and mechanisms to facilitate more direct citizen participation. Appendices outline the institutional structures of the region's democracies and examine voter turnout since 1978. The accompanying CD-ROM features country-by-country election results for presidential and legislative elections. International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance

Building Cities

Neighbourhood Upgrading and Urban Quality of Life


Author: Eduardo Rojas

Publisher: Heritage Capital Corporation

ISBN: 9781597821087

Category: Architecture

Page: 251

View: 9121

This volume provides a synthesis of the lessons learned and challenges confronted in implementing neighbourhood improvement programs, based on the practical experiences of designing, implementing, and evaluating these types of programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. The book provides a wide panorama of the most complex problems that the cities of the LAC region currently face and shows--with examples of projects under execution--that it is possible to solve them through the expansion of the scale of interventions. The volume is structured in seven thematic chapters that present the "state of the art" on the knowledge and challenges in each theme. The book is of interest to policymakers, government officials, practitioners, and scholars working in this field in the LAC region and around the world.



Author: David Rockefeller

Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks

ISBN: 0812969731

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 521

View: 1770

The youngest son of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller narrates the story of his life, from his youth and Harvard education, through his military service during World War II, to his career in business and finance, and chronicles his varied roles as financier, philanthropist, and unofficial international envoy. Reprint. 75,000 first printing.

Export Pioneers in Latin America


Author: Ricardo Hausmann,Ernesto Stein

Publisher: Harvard Univ David Rockefeller


Category: Business & Economics

Page: 314

View: 3415

Why do some export activities succeed while others fail? Here, research teams analyze export endeavors in Latin American countries to learn how export pioneers are born and jump-start a process leading to economic transformation. Case studies range from blueberries in Argentina and flowers in Colombia to aircraft in Brazil and software in Uruguay.

Going Universal

How 24 Developing Countries are Implementing Universal Health Coverage from the Bottom Up


Author: Daniel Cotlear,Somil Nagpal,Owen Smith,Ajay Tandon,Rafael Cortez

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 146480611X

Category: Medical

Page: 286

View: 3471

This book is about 24 developing countries that have embarked on the journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) following a bottom-up approach, with a special focus on the poor and vulnerable, through a systematic data collection that provides practical insights to policymakers and practitioners. Each of the UHC programs analyzed in this book is seeking to overcome the legacy of inequality by tackling both a “financing gap†? and a “provision gap†?: the financing gap (or lower per capita spending on the poor) by spending additional resources in a pro-poor way; the provision gap (or underperformance of service delivery for the poor) by expanding supply and changing incentives in a variety of ways. The prevailing view seems to indicate that UHC require not just more money, but also a focus on changing the rules of the game for spending health system resources. The book does not attempt to identify best practices, but rather aims to help policy makers understand the options they face, and help develop a new operational research agenda. The main chapters are focused on providing a granular understanding of policy design, while the appendixes offer a systematic review of the literature attempting to evaluate UHC program impact on access to services, on financial protection, and on health outcomes.

How Democracy Works

Political Institutions, Actors, and Arenas in Latin American Policymaking


Author: Carlos G. Scartascini,Ernesto Stein,Mariano Tommasi

Publisher: Melinda Inn

ISBN: 9781597821094

Category: Political Science

Page: 333

View: 1178

In the past thirty years, democratic freedom and competitive electoral processes have taken hold as never before in Latin America. This book zeroes in on the intricate workings of democratic institutions (such as political party systems and the legislature), the actors that participate in democratic systems (such as governors, judges, bureaucrats, and other members of civil society), and the arenas in which political and policy interactions take place (which may be formal, such as the legislature, or informal). The focus is on how those institutions, actors, and arenas affect the policymaking processes of Latin American countries for better or worse. In its scope and complexity, the volume moves well beyond stylized views of the political systems in Latin America.

Progress, Poverty and Exclusion

An Economic History of Latin America in the 20th Century


Author: Rosemary Thorp

Publisher: IDB

ISBN: 9781886938359

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 369

View: 9528

This economic history examines the political, institutional and economic forces that shaped Latin America's complex and often paradoxical development process over the 20th century. Quantitative data is examined alongside the region's political economies to provide a context for the successes and failures of the Latin American countries. A Statistical Appendix provides regionwide and country-by-country data in such areas as GDP, manufacturing, sector productivity, prices, trade, income distribution and living standards. Moving chronologically through the century, the book focuses on two dramatic waves of expansion that shaped regional growth: first, an export boom as the century began, and second, import-substitution industrialization corresponding to renewed expansion of the international economy following the depression and the two World Wars.