Welfare, the Family, and Reproductive Behavior

Research Perspectives

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Population

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309174015

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 5551

The design of welfare programs in an era of reform and devolution to the states must take into account the likely effects of programs on demographic behavior. Most research on welfare in the past has examined labor market issues, although there have also been some important evaluations of the effects of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children Program on out-of-wedlock childbearing. Much less information is available on other issues equally central to the debate, including effects on abortion decisions, marriage and divorce, intrafamily relations, household formation, and living arrangements. This volume of papers contains reviews and syntheses of existing evidence bearing on the demographic impacts of welfare and ideas for how to evaluate new state-level reforms.

Marriage and Family

Perspectives and Complexities

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Author: Elizabeth Peters,Claire M. Kamp Dush

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231144083

Category: Social Science

Page: 414

View: 4720

Family life has been radically transformed over the past three decades. Half of all households are unmarried, while only a quarter of all married households have kids. A third of the nation's births are to unwed mothers, and a third of America's married men earn less than their wives. With half of all women cohabitating before they turn thirty and gay and lesbian couples settling down with increasing visibility, there couldn't be a better time for a book that tracks new conceptions of marriage and family as they are being formed. The editors of this volume explore the motivation to marry and the role of matrimony in a diverse group of men and women. They compare empirical data from several emerging family types (single, co-parent, gay and lesbian, among others) to studies of traditional nuclear families, and they consider the effect of public policy and recent economic developments on the practice of marriage and the stabilization--or destabilization--of family. Approaching this topic from a variety of perspectives, including historical, cross-cultural, gendered, demographic, socio-biological, and social-psychological viewpoints, the editors highlight the complexity of the modern American family and the growing indeterminacy of its boundaries. Refusing to adhere to any one position, the editors provide an unbiased account of contemporary marriage and family.

Changing Welfare

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Author: Rachel A. Gordon,Herbert J. Walberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144199274X

Category: Social Science

Page: 255

View: 3928

This book is concerned with the sweeping changes that took place in public assistance programs at the end of the 20th century and the way in which the original and reformed versions of these programs relate to the well-being of children and their families. It is a valuable reference for practitioners and policymakers who are concerned with children and child-related issues, psychologists, sociologists, social workers, social program administrators, and students in psychology, social work, sociology, political science, and education.

Ending Poverty in America

How to Restore the American Dream

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Author: John Edwards,Marion Crain,Arne Kalleberg

Publisher: The New Press

ISBN: 1595587322

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 9869

Is poverty a fact of life? Can the wealthiest nation in the world do nothing to combat the steadily rising numbers of Americans living in poverty—or the 50 million Americans living in “near poverty”? Senator John Edwards and some of the country’s most prominent scholars, businesspeople, and community activists say otherwise. Published in conjunction with one of the country’s leading anti-poverty centers, Ending Poverty in America brings together some of America’s most respected social scientists, including William Julius Wilson, Katherine S. Newman, and Richard B. Freeman, alongside journalists, neighborhood organizers, and business leaders. The voices heard here are both liberal and conservative, and tackle hot-button issues such as job creation, schools, housing, and family-friendly social policy. The contributors explain why poverty is growing and outline concrete steps that can be taken now to start turning the tide. In a political landscape seemingly bereft of daring and forward-thinking ideas, this new book lays out a path toward eliminating poverty in America—a template for a renewed public debate for an issue of intense urgency.

Generation Unbound

Drifting into Sex and Parenthood without Marriage

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Author: Isabel V. Sawhill

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 0815725590

Category: Social Science

Page: 212

View: 7440

Over half of all births to young adults in the United States now occur outside of marriage, and many are unplanned. The result is increased poverty and inequality for children. The left argues for more social support for unmarried parents; the right argues for a return to traditional marriage. In Generation Unbound, Isabel V. Sawhill offers a third approach: change "drifters" into "planners." In a well-written and accessible survey of the impact of family structure on child well-being, Sawhill contrasts "planners," who are delaying parenthood until after they marry, with "drifters," who are having unplanned children early and outside of marriage. These two distinct patterns are contributing to an emerging class divide and threatening social mobility in the United States. Sawhill draws on insights from the new field of behavioral economics, showing that it is possible, by changing the default, to move from a culture that accepts a high number of unplanned pregnancies to a culture in which adults only have children when they are ready to be a parent.

Population, Family, and Welfare

A Comparative Survey of European Attitudes

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Author: Hein G. Moors,Rossella Palomba

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198288428

Category: Political Science

Page: 287

View: 3412

In Europe, population changes are taking place which require increasing attention by policymakers as well as social scientists. The decline in fertility and the rise in longevity are changing the structure of the European population. In this situation, the PPA Surveys on Population Policy Attitudes and Acceptance were carried out in the early 1990s in nine European countries: Austria, the former Czechoslovakia, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Themain goal of these surveys was to analyse the values and attitudes affecting couples' decisions regarding procreation, the perception of the advantages of having children, Europeans aspirations in life, their favourite living arrangements and their preferences in the task of reconciling work and family for mothers. The impact of population-oriented policy on the workplace and family was also considered. Volume 1 of Population, Family and Welfare focused on the individual countries concerned. This second volume presents the results from the PPA surveys in a comparative perspective, analysing the common themes across the European spectrum. This comparison of values, attitudes, and preferences concerning the family and children in countries with similar population trends will lead to a better understanding of intentions and choices in the field of reproduction and of the role policy-makers can play.

India's Family Welfare Program

Moving to a Reproductive and Child Health Approach

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Author: Anthony R. Measham,Richard Heaver

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821334485

Category: Social Science

Page: 61

View: 5825

The 1995 conference continued the tradition of holding a roundtable discussion related to the subject of the forthcoming annual World Development Report (*), in this case, economies in transition. The conference addressed four themes: redistribution with growth; demographic change and development; aid and development; and fiscal decentralization. Among the articles included in the 1995 proceedings are: - Argentina's Miracle? From Hyperinflation to Sustained Growth. Domingo F. Cavallo and Guillermo Mondino - Inequality, Poverty, and Growth: Where Do We Stand? Albert Fishlow - Government Provision and Regulation of Economic Support in Old Age. Peter Diamond - Is Growth in Developing Countries Beneficial to Industrial Countries? Richard N. Cooper - Fiscal Federalism and Decentralization: A Review of Some Efficiency and Macroeconomic Aspects. Vito Tanzi.

Strong family and low fertility:a paradox?

New perspectives in interpreting contemporary family and reproductive behaviour

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Author: Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna,Giuseppe A. Micheli

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402028377

Category: Social Science

Page: 173

View: 8774

New perspectives in interpreting contemporary family and reproductive - haviour of Mediterranean Europe 1. THE NEW GEOGRAPHY OF FERTILITY AND THE FAMILY IN EUROPE The countries of southern Europe have begun to reduce conjugal fertility at a later date compared to most other nations in the west. This has been - plained by means of the category of delay: the backwardness of the pr- esses of accumulation and economic development being seen as the cause of the maintaining of the reproductive models of the past. Moreover, the inf- ence of the Catholic Church in Italy, Spain and Portugal is supposed to have delayed the processes of secularisation, rendering difficult the changes in mentality necessary for assuming modern patterns of reproductive behaviour not only for fertility, but also for the variables which are strictly linked to it, such as sexuality, contraception and abortion (Livi Bacci, 1977; Lesthaeghe and Wilson, 1986). 1. 1. The trends of very low fertility Now the panorama is very different. Since the mid-seventies, southern Europe has been washed by the tide of a lowest-low fertility (i. e. , TFR under 1. 5 for several a prolonged period, Billari et al. , 2003), which in some areas 1 has reached and maintained scarcely imaginable levels for years on end. Conversely, other areas of Europe, where fertility started to fall many d- ades earlier than in the regions of the sourth, have recovered or maintained considerably higher levels of fertility, often close to replacement level.

The Impact of Social Policy and Economic Activity Throughout the Fertility Decision Tree

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Author: Phillip B. Levine

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Abortion

Page: 45

View: 3040

This paper considers the impact of changes in abortion and welfare policies along with economic conditions over the 1985 to 1996 period at each stage of the fertility decision tree, including sexual activity, contraception, pregnancy, abortion, and birth. Examining the impact of policy at each stage of the decision tree represents a useful approach because consistent findings provide stronger evidence of a causal link than focusing on just one stage. The abortion policies considered are parental involvement laws and mandatory waiting periods; welfare policies include benefit generosity as well as state-level welfare waivers as a whole and the 'family cap.' State-level data over this period are used to examine abortion, birth, and pregnancy outcomes, while microdata from the 1988 and 1995 National Surveys of Family Growth are employed to examine sexual activity and contraception. For those policies that target certain subgroups of the population, estimates are provided separately for each group and compared to help further identify causality. I find that parental involvement laws increase contraception use among minors, leading to fewer pregnancies and, therefore, fewer abortions; teen births do not rise in response. Evidence regarding welfare policies does not consistently support any impact throughout the decision tree

Health and Welfare for Families in the 21st Century

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Author: Gordon Green,Kenneth Jaros

Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning

ISBN: 9780763718596

Category: Medical

Page: 586

View: 7049

2003 AJN BOOK OF THE YEAR AWARD WINNER! In Health and Welfare for Families in the 21st Century, Second Edition, leaders in the maternal and child health field analyze the revolutionizing effect of changes occurring today in the social, educational, political, and economic aspects of family health care. This authoritative collection of readings provides a basic overview of the health and social welfare systems, and the policy and insurance infrastructure surrounding those systems. In this edition, a major emphasis is placed on the effect of managed care on these systems, and the effect of new legislation on families and children.

Reproduction, Sexuality, and the Family

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Author: Karen J. Maschke

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780815325161

Category: Law

Page: 376

View: 3773

First published in 1997. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Family Welfare: Gender, Property, and Inheritance since the Seventeenth Century

Gender, Property, and Inheritance since the Seventeenth Century

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Author: David R. Green,Alastair Owens

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 0313058083

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 9220

The history of welfare provision has generally focused on the rise of the so-called welfare state and institutional provision for the poor. Recent studies have begun to look beyond the state to other ways in which assistance, care, and support were provided in the past, but the focus remains primarily on the poor. This work widens our understanding of welfare by focusing not on the poor but on those who have some wealth. It draws attention to the importance of family as part of a mixed economy of welfare provision that also incorporates the state, the market, and the voluntary sector. This book offers an exciting new approach to the history of welfare by focusing attention on the complex range of sources of support drawn on to meet family needs. The chapters highlight the significance of the family as a link in in the provision of assistance. They also focus on the role played by gender relations in shaping welfare strategies. An extensive introduction is followed by ten chapters presenting detailed studies of the provision of family welfare across western Europe and the United States over the past four hundred years.

Pregnancy and Power

A Short History of Reproductive Politics in America

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Author: Rickie Solinger

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814741193

Category: History

Page: 312

View: 7572

A sweeping chronicle of women's battles for reproductive freedom throughout American history, Pregnancy and Power explores the many forces—social, racial, economic, and political—that have shaped women’s reproductive lives in the United States. Leading historian Rickie Solinger argues that a woman’s control over her body involves much more than the right to choose an abortion. Reproductive politics were at play when slaveholders devised breeding schemes, when the U.S. government took Indian children from their families in the nineteenth century, and when doctors pressed Latina women to be sterilized in the 1970s. Tracing the diverse plot lines of women’s reproductive lives throughout American history, Solinger redefines the idea of reproductive freedom, putting race and class at the center of the effort to control sex and pregnancy in America over time. Solinger asks which women have how many children under what circumstances, and shows how reproductive experiences have been encouraged or coerced, rewarded or punished, honored or exploited over the last 250 years. Viewed in this way, the debate over reproductive rights raises questions about access to sex education and prenatal care, about housing laws, about access to citizenship, and about which women lose children to adoption and foster care. Pregnancy and Power shows that a complete understanding of reproductive politics must take into account the many players shaping public policy—lawmakers, educators, employers, clergy, physicians—as well as the consequences for women who obey and resist these policies. Tracing the diverse plotlines of women's reproductive lives throughout American history, Solinger redefines the idea of reproductive freedom, putting race and class at the center of the struggle to control sex and pregnancy in America.

AIDS and Women’s Reproductive Health

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Author: Lincoln C. Chen,Jaime Sepulveda Amor,Sheldon J. Segal

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461533546

Category: Medical

Page: 208

View: 1132

Over the past decade, the AIDS pandemic has propagated so widely and exerted such a dev astating impact that one may properly ask the question, Why not concentrate all AIDS efforts on disease control alone? Why link AIDS with women's reproductive health? What is the scientific basis for this linkage? And how might AID~ control and women's health objectives be promot ed simultaneously? These questions constitute the principal themes addressed in this monograph. The 15 chapters in this volume are intended to provide state-of-the-art reviews of key interac tions between AIDS and women's reproductive health for an audience of scientists and policy makers in the AIDS and population fields. Impetus for this monograph comes in pan from what we perceive to be an inadequate global response, thus far, to AIDS and women's health ;>roblems. A common platform has failed to emerge among the disparate professional communities working in the areas of AIDS, STDs, and family planning. As a result, endeavors in these fields have been isolated, and opportunities for joint action have been missed. An enormous and, as yet, unharnessed potential exists for power ful interdisciplinary collaborations that could strengthen policies and programs against these pressing health problems of humankind.

Gender, Welfare State and the Market

Towards a New Division of Labour

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Author: Thomas Boje,Arnlaug Leira

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134564376

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 5092

This volume represents the present state of theoretical debate in welfare state scholarship, drawing on research from western Europe, North America and Japan. It therefore provides a valuable balance of breadth and detail from the broad international overview to comparisons between specific welfare states and national case studies.

Demographic Trends and Patterns in the Soviet Union Before 1991

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Author: Wolfgang Lutz,Sergei Scherbov,Andrei Volkov

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113485319X

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 6038

This book provides an overview of demographic trends and patterns in the republics of the Soviet Union. The material presented provides a comprehensive and detailed review of fertility, marriage and the family, age and mortality. With data evaluated by leading Soviet and Western demographers, this book forms the first compendium of demographic research on the former Soviet republics through the twentieth century.

The Social Meaning of Children and Fertility Change in Europe

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Author: Anne Lise Ellingsaeter,An-Magritt Jensen,Merete Lie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135092133

Category: Social Science

Page: 188

View: 6071

Low fertility in Europe has given rise to the notion of a ‘fertility crisis’. This book shifts the attention from fertility decline to why people do have children, asking what children mean to them. It investigates what role children play in how young adults plan their lives, and why and how young adults make the choices they do. The book aims to expand our comprehension of the complex structures and cultures that influence reproductive choice, and explores three key aspects of fertility choices: the processes towards having (or not having) children, and how they are underpinned by negotiations and ambivalences how family policies, labour markets and personal relations interact in young adults’ fertility choices social differentiation in fertility choice: how fertility rationales and reasoning may differ among women and men, and across social classes Based on empirical studies from six nations – France, Scandinavia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Germany and Italy (representing the high and low end of European variation in fertility rates) – the book shows how different economic, political and cultural contexts interact in young adults' fertility rationales. It will be of interest to students and scholars of sociology, anthropology, demography and gender studies.