Welfare Reform in Rural Places

Comparative Perspectives


Author: Paul Milbourne,Terry Marsden

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1849509182

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 946

Intends to significantly extend previous research work on the rural impacts of national welfare reform and position it in a broader context. This title provides a comprehensive and comparative account of the rural dimensions of welfare in a number of developed countries.

Poverty in America

A Handbook


Author: John Iceland

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520956796

Category: Social Science

Page: 226

View: 2437

The United States is among the most affluent nations in the world and has its largest economy; nevertheless, it has more poverty than most countries with similar standards of living. Growing income inequality and the Great Recession have made the problem worse. In this thoroughly revised edition of Poverty in America, Iceland takes a new look at this issue by examining why poverty remains pervasive, what it means to be poor in America today, which groups are most likely to be poor, the root causes of poverty, and the effects of policy on poverty. This new edition also includes completely updated data and extended discussions of poverty in the context of the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street movements as well as new chapters on the Great Recession and global poverty. In doing so this book provides the most recent information available on patterns and trends in poverty and engages in an open and accessible manner in current critical debates.

Welfare, Work, and Poverty

Social Assistance in China


Author: Qin Gao

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190682124

Category: Social Science

Page: 168

View: 8278

Welfare, Work, and Poverty provides the first systematic and comprehensive evaluation of the impacts and effectiveness of China's primary social assistance program -- Minimum Livelihood Guarantee, or Dibao -- since its inception in 1993. Dibao serves the dual function of providing a basic safety net for the poor and maintaining social and political stability. Despite currently being the world's largest welfare program in terms of population coverage, evidence on Dibao's performance has been lacking. This book offers important new empirical evidence and draws policy lessons that are timely and useful for both China and beyond. Specifically, author Qin Gao addresses the following questions: · How effective has Dibao been in targeting the poor and alleviating poverty? · Have the Dibao recipients been dependent on welfare or able to move from welfare to work? · How has Dibao affected recipients' consumption patterns and subjective well-being? · Do they use the Dibao subsidy to meet survival needs (such as food, clothing, and shelter) or invest in human capital (such as health and education)? · Are they distressed by the stigma associated with receiving Dibao or do they become more optimistic about future and enjoy greater life satisfaction because of the Dibao support? · And finally, what policy lessons can we learn from the existing evidence in order to strengthen and improve Dibao in the future? Answers to these questions not only help us gain an in-depth understanding of Dibao's performance, but also add the Chinese case to the growing international literature on comparative welfare studies. Welfare, Work, and Poverty is essential reading for political scientists, economists, sociologists, public policy researchers, and social workers interested in learning about and understanding contemporary China.

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology


Author: Edwin Amenta,Kate Nash,Alan Scott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444355074

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 2743

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology is a complete reference guide, reflecting the scope and quality of the discipline, and highlighting emerging topics in the field. Global in focus, offering up-to-date topics from an interdisciplinary, international set of scholars addressing key issues concerning globalization, social movements, and citizenship The majority of chapters are new, including those on environmental politics, international terrorism, security, corruption, and human rights Revises and updates all previously published chapters to include new themes and topics in political sociology Provides an overview of scholarship in the field, with chapters working independently and collectively to examine the full range of contributions to political sociology Offers a challenging yet accessible and complete reference guide for students and scholars

Appalachian Legacy

Economic Opportunity after the War on Poverty


Author: James P. Ziliak

Publisher: Brookings Institution Press

ISBN: 081572215X

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 3209

In 1964 President Lyndon Johnson traveled to Kentucky's Martin County to declare war on poverty. The following year he signed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, creating a state-federal partnership to improve the region's economic prospects through better job opportunities, improved human capital, and enhanced transportation. As the focal point of domestic antipoverty efforts, Appalachia took on special symbolic as well as economic importance. Nearly half a century later, what are the results? Appalachian Legacy provides the answers. Led by James P. Ziliak, prominent economists and demographers map out the region's current status. They explore important questions, including how has Appalachia fared since the signing of ARDA in 1965? How does it now compare to the nation as a whole in key categories such as education, employment, and health? Was ARDA an effective place-based policy for ameliorating hardship in a troubled region, or is Appalachia still mired in a poverty trap? And what lessons can we draw from the Appalachian experience? In addition to providing the reports of important research to help analysts, policymakers, scholars, and regional experts discern what works in fighting poverty, Appalachian Legacy is an important contribution to the economic history of the eastern United States.

America's Poor and the Great Recession


Author: Kristin S. Seefeldt,John David Graham,Gordon Abner

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253009677

Category: Political Science

Page: 158

View: 5851

Millions have entered poverty as a result of the Great Recession's terrible toll of long-term unemployment. Kristin S. Seefeldt and John D. Graham examine recent trends in poverty and assess the performance of America's "safety net" programs. They consider likely scenarios for future developments and conclude that the well-being of low-income Americans, particularly the working poor, the near poor, and the new poor, is at substantial risk despite economic recovery.

Families, Poverty, and Welfare Reform

Confronting a New Policy Era


Author: Lawrence B. Joseph

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780962675553

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 5353

Can welfare encourage self-sufficiency, or does it merely foster ongoing dependence on the system? What hope can be placed in welfare reform? This essential volume combines essays by prominent public policy scholars with comments by social project directors who speak from their experience in the field. Essays include critical assessments of the effects of poverty on children and families, policies to reduce dependency on welfare, and welfare reform, as well as a more specific look at welfare reform in the state of Illinois.

The moral construction of poverty

welfare reform in America


Author: Joel F. Handler,Yeheskel Hasenfeld

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc


Category: Political Science

Page: 269

View: 2043

When allocating resources, why are distinctions made between the deserving and undeserving poor? What role does gender, class, or race play in designing welfare programs? Why are welfare policies so charged with moral and political controversy? Discussing these and other significant issues, The Moral Construction of Poverty provides an in-depth look at the historical and philosophical roots of the American welfare system, the strategies used to cope with our welfare crisis, and current reform efforts. Most importantly, Handler and Hasenfeld furnish rare insight into the forces that shape social welfare policy and their consequences for welfare recipients and society at large. The Moral Construction of Poverty is invaluable to all professionals and students in the areas of social work, law, policy studies, political science, and sociology. "This book is a significant contribution to sociological practice. . . . Handler and Hasenfeld have provided a very good piece of sociological history, linking poverty, work, and welfare to gender, race, and ethnicity. . . . This book does an excellent job of uniting sociology and history into a strong, critical analysis of recent welfare policy. Its strength lies in its willingness to meet the welfare debate head on. It also brings useful historical analyses (Katz, Kessler-Harris, and Orloff) into the debate over sociological practice. Advanced undergraduate and graduate students in sociology, as well as those in social welfare and social policy courses, will find this an important case history in the political economy of public policy." --Contemporary Sociology "The book presents a fascinating analysis of the symbolic functions of welfare policy. Handler and Hasenfeld mount a powerful intellectual argument that illuminates how myths and ceremonies are employed in welfare policy to affirm cultural beliefs about the poor. This is a provocative work that offers valuable insights into the normative implications of social policy. I would recommend it most highly to students and scholars interested in social welfare policy." --Neil Gilbert, University of California, Berkeley "A stunning piece of work! Finally, an interesting, well-documented and well-balanced assessment of the work/welfare dilemma faced by American policy makers. A major contribution to understanding why AFDC welfare reform has been--and will continue to be--almost impossible to achieve. A book for the intelligent lay public, the policy maker, and the scholar. Will be of immense value to those teaching the history of American social welfare policy as well as for those who teach about contemporary social programs, policy analysis and research." --Ronald B. Dear, D.S.W., University of Washington "The Moral Construction of Poverty is an erudite and valuable addition to the social policy and welfare reform literatures. The authors are lucid, well organized, reasonable, and humane, and their argument is enriched by exceptional sophistication and depth of insight. The book could serve well as a basic text in social policy courses as well as a source of intellectual stimulation and wisdom for both doctoral students and experienced scholars." Laurence E. Lynn, Jr., in Social Service Review "The greatest strength of this work is the extensive and careful analysis of the data to extract and specify the inseparability of the meanings of welfare from the meanings of work. Handler and Hasenfeld succeed in effectively demonstrating that the usually unspoken major purpose of welfare is labor discipline. . . . This timely work sets the basis for a "forward-looking" analysis, as the industrial and commercial base of North American nations is once again undergoing major structural shifts. . . . Finally, the critical analytical framework Handler and Hasenfeld employ is one that can be--and ought to be--applied to the development of Canadian welfare." --Canadian Social Work Review "The Moral Construction of Poverty is well written and interesting. Moreover, Handler and Hasenfeld should be commended or shaping a broad topic into a coherent and readable tract. The depth of the research and the thought that went into this book is obvious. Moreover, it is refreshing to read a scholarly and sophisticated treatise on social policy that also reflects commitment and passion on the part of its authors." --The Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare

Early Care and Education for Children in Poverty

Promises, Programs, and Long-Term Results


Author: W. Steven Barnett,Sarane Spence Boocock

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 0791495817

Category: Education

Page: 352

View: 8507

Establishes the power of early care and education to change children's lives, particularly children in poverty.

Welfare Reform in America

Perspectives and Prospects


Author: P.M. Sommers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400973896

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 254

View: 2377

This is the second in a series of books growing out of the annual Mid dlebury College Conference on Economic Issues. The second confer ence, held in April 1980, focused on goals and realities of welfare reform. The objectives of the conference were threefold: (1) evaluation of the antipoverty effort so far; (2) discussion of welfare reform alternatives; and (3) prediction of how new initiatives would change work behavior and productivity. During the time this country has been engaged in a "war on poverty," two massive efforts to reform welfare, Richard M. Nixon's Family As sistance Plan (FAP) and Jimmy Carter's Program for Better Jobs and Income (PBJI), were proposed. Both defined national benefit levels and featured a negative income tax. Both measures were defeated in Congress. More modest efforts at reform have, however, changed the economic landscape. Because of the rapid growth in cash and in-kind transfer programs, income poverty is no longer the serious problem that it was in 1964. In fact, looking at the proliferation of programs and the substantial surge in participation rates, some politicians have even advocated a period of government retrenchment. In 1971, the governor of California vii viii INTRODUCTION proposed (and implemented) a major welfare reform in an attempt to stem the rapid growth of welfare caseloads that began in his state in 1967-68. He argued that savings from administrative improvements could be used to raise benefits for the "truly needy.

Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform


Author: Bruce A. Weber,Greg J. Duncan,Leslie A. Whitener

Publisher: W.E. Upjohn Institute

ISBN: 0880992409

Category: Political Science

Page: 499

View: 4250

This volume presents the first comprehensive look at how welfare reforms enacted in 1996 are affecting caseloads, employment, earnings, and family well-being in rural areas.

Faces of Poverty

Portraits of Women and Children on Welfare


Author: Jill Duerr Berrick

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198025818

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 8121

Most Americans are insulated from the poor; it's hard to imagine the challenges of poverty, the daily fears of crime and victimization, the frustration of not being able to provide for a child. Instead, we are often exposed to the rhetoric and hyperbole about the excesses of the American welfare system. These messages color our perception of the welfare problem in the United States and they close the American mind to a full understanding of the complexity of family poverty. But who are these poor families? What do we know about how they arrived in such desperate straits? Is poverty their fate for a lifetime or for only a brief period? In Faces of Poverty, Jill Duerr Berrick answers these questions as she dispels the misconceptions and myths about welfare and the welfare population that have clouded the true picture of poverty in America. Over the course of a year, Berrick spent numerous hours as a participant-observer with five women and their families, documenting their daily activities, thoughts, and fears as they managed the strains of poverty. We meet Ana, Sandy, Rebecca, Darlene, and Cora, all of whom, at some point, have turned to welfare for support. Each represents a wider segment of the welfare population--ranging from Ana (who lost a business, injured her back, and temporarily lost her job, all in a short period of time) to Cora (who was raised in poverty, spent ten years in an abusive relationship, and now struggles to raise six children in a drug-infested neighborhood). And as Berrick documents these women's experiences, she also debunks many of the myths about welfare: she reveals that welfare is not generous (welfare families remain below the poverty line even with government assistance); that the majority of women on welfare are not long-term welfare dependents; that welfare does not run in families; that "welfare mothers" do not keep having children to increase their payments (women on welfare have, on average, two children); and that almost half of all women on welfare turned to it after a divorce. At a time when welfare has become a hotly debated political issue, Faces of Poverty gives us the facts. The debate surrounding welfare will continue as each of the 50 states struggles to reform their welfare programs, and this debate will turn on the public's perception of the welfare population. Berrick offers insight into each of the reforms under consideration and starkly demonstrates their implications for poor women and children. She provides a window into these women's lives, brilliantly portraying their hopes and fears and their struggle to live with dignity.

Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society


Author: Richard T. Schaefer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412926947

Category: Social Science

Page: 1622

View: 8464

This three volume reference set offers a comprehensive look at the roles race and ethnicity play in society and in our daily lives. General readers, students, and scholars alike will appreciate the informative coverage of intergroup relations in the United States and the comparative examination of race and ethnicity worldwide. These volumes offer a foundation to understanding as well as researching racial and ethnic diversity from a multidisciplinary perspective. Over a hundred racial and ethnic groups are described, with additional thematic essays offering insight into broad topics that cut across group boundaries and which impact on society. The encyclopedia has alphabetically arranged author-signed essays with references to guide further reading. Numerous cross-references aid the reader to explore beyond specific entries, reflecting the interdependent nature of race and ethnicity operating in society. The text is supplemented by photographs, tables, figures and custom-designed maps to provide an engaging visual look at race and ethnicity. An easy-to-use statistical appendix offers the latest data with carefully selected historical comparisons to aid study and research in the area

Poverty, Welfare and the Disciplinary State


Author: Chris Jones,Tony Novak

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415182898

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 9861

A forward-looking appraisal of the welfare state which examines issues such as poverty in Britain, demonisation of the poor in areas of social policy and other related topics.

Praxis for the Poor

Piven and Cloward and the Future of Social Science in Social Welfare


Author: Sanford Schram

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814798171

Category: Political Science

Page: 303

View: 6374

Richard Cloward and Frances Fox Pivin stand as models of politically engaged academics. In this compelling new book, the author examines the careers of Piven and Colward, along with nineteenth century feminist social reformer Jane Addams, to suggest--and demonstrate--how a more politically-active scholarship can contribute to struggles for social justice.

Escape from Poverty

What Makes a Difference for Children?


Author: P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale,Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521629850

Category: Political Science

Page: 342

View: 3309

Escape from Poverty addresses the recent increase of child poverty within the USA and suggests specific modes of change.

Long-Term Government Funded Programs

A Study of Their Impact on Poverty in the United States


Author: Rogette Harris

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1581123205

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 154

View: 8101

Several policymakers, public administrators, the media, and others have celebrated the "success" of the latest anti-poverty policy reforms. Is success a type of economic form or an assessment of the quality of one s life? Success is often defined in some type of economic form, even though it does not always provide a true sense of the effect of policy changes. Assessing the human impact of policy change requires more. It requires knowing about the resources of beneficiaries of social services and their conditions of life from various perspectives; therefore, we must strive to understand the socio-cultural aspects of people s lives that create the whole person, which evaluates one s quality of life. This study examines long-term government funded social programs. More significantly, it answers the question: Have long-term anti-poverty policies alleviated poverty in the U.S.' This study also outlines poverty s major root causes, current strategies, and presents a brief historical background on poverty in the United States. Both qualitative and quantitative data were used for this study compiled by the U.S. Census Bureau and other affiliated agencies. Library resources included electronic and computer database searches. Policy analysis research studies from Democrat, Republican, and Independent Think Tanks, economists, and scholars were assessed. The main research question is: What is the impact of long-term anti-poverty policies in the United States? The sub-questions are: What are major historical perspectives and arguments on government funded anti-poverty policies? What are the major root causes of poverty in the United States? What is the relationship between the economy and government, and does it result in income disparity? What are major anti-poverty strategies implemented to decrease U.S. poverty? When the U.S. government waged war on poverty in the 1960s, poverty was defined by income. Therefore, the obvious solution was to correct the income shortfall. This brings us to an equation seen throughout this study: POVERTY + MORE MONEY = RELIEF. Decades of research and experience with antipoverty programs have made it clear that poverty involves more complex, interrelated and sometimes-intractable socioeconomic, family, and individual issues; in addition, putting millions of dollars into long-term government funded programs is not the absolute solution. In reality, this money put into social programs have in many ways led to more poverty, as well as state and federal deficits. John F. Kennedy once stated in the early 1960s: Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country." The more long-term social programs are increased, the more chances generations of Americans will continue to be trapped in a continuous cycle of becoming more needy, dependent, and poor, which does not help the individual, their family, the American public, and certainly not the United States economy.

The Promise of Welfare Reform

Political Rhetoric and the Reality of Poverty in the Twenty-First Century


Author: Elizabeth Segal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136748938

Category: Medical

Page: 360

View: 8178

Find out how—and why—legislation has made economic rights more important than human rights Since 1996, politicians and public officials in the United States have celebrated the “success” of welfare reform legislation despite little, if any, evidence to support their claims. The Promise of Welfare Reform: Political Rhetoric and the Reality of Poverty in the Twenty-First Century presents articles from 23 community practitioners and researchers who challenge the “reform” that has turned public aid from a right to a privilege. The authors transcend conventional academic writing, offering careful and thoughtful analysis that examines the history of welfare reform, its connection to poverty, family issues, and the impact of racism on poverty and on the treatment of the poor. The Promise of Welfare Reform analyzes the consequences over the past ten years of legislative changes made to the public assistance program formerly known as Aid to Families with Dependant Children (AFDC). This powerful book examines the social, political, and economic context of welfare reform, including the elimination of poverty as a societal goal, how racial and ethic groups have been targeted, popular stereotypes about the poor and their work ethic, anti-immigrant hostility, the struggles of single mothers with children, domestic violence, and marriage as a realistic escape from poverty. The book’s authors address the need for empathy and understanding to change public sentiments about welfare and poverty. Contributors to The Promise of Welfare Reform include: Elizabeth A. Segal and Keith M. Kilty, co-founding editors of the Journal of Poverty (Haworth) Frances Fox Piven, co-author of Regulating the Poor: The Functions of Public Welfare Ann Withorn, co-editor of For Crying Out Loud: Women’s Poverty in the United States Mimi Abramovitz, author of Under Attack, Fighting Back: Women and Welfare in the United States Joel Blau, co-author with Mimi Abramovitz of The Dynamics of Social Welfare Policy Margaret K. Nelson, author of The Social Economy of Single Mothers: Raising Children in Rural America Gwendolyn Mink, co-editor of Welfare: A Documentary History of U.S. Policy and Politics Kenneth J. Neubeck, co-author of Welfare Racism: Playing the Race Card Against America’s Poor Lynn Fujiwara, author of Sanctioning Immigrants: Asian Immigrant Women and the Racial Politics of Welfare Reform Nancy C. Jurik, author of Bootstrap Dreams: U.S. Microenterprise Developments in an Era of Welfare Reform and much more! The Promise of Welfare Reform challenges current views on welfare reform and promotes alternative methods to alleviate poverty. It is an essential resource for sociologists, political scientists, economists, public policy and management specialists, social welfare and human services workers, and anyone else concerned about changes made to public assistance by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.