Welfare reform and children's well-being

an analysis of Proposition 165

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Author: Michael Wald,Rene Bowser,Stanford Center for the Study of Families, Children, and Youth

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aid to families with dependent children programs

Page: 49

View: 2248

Family and Child Well-Being after Welfare Reform

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Author: Douglas Besharov

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412813999

Category: Social Science

Page: 305

View: 9659

Since their historic high in 1994, welfare caseloads in the United States have dropped an astounding 59 percent--more than 5 million fewer families receive welfare. Family and Child Well-Being after Welfare Reform, now in paperback, explores how low-income children and their families are faring in the wake of welfare reform. Contributors to the volume include leading social researchers. Can existing surveys and other data be used to measure trends in the area? What key indicators should be tracked? What are the initial trends after welfare reform? What other information or approaches would be helpful? The book covers a broad range of topics: an update on welfare reform (Douglas J. Besharov and Peter Germanis); ongoing major research (Peter H. Rossi); material well-being, such as earnings, benefits, and consumption (Richard Bavier); family versus household (Wendy D. Manning); fatherhood, cohabitation, and marriage (Wade F. Horn); teenage sex, pregnancy, and nonmarital births (Isabel V. Sawhill); child maltreatment and foster care (Richard J. Gelles); homelessness and housing (John C. Weicher); child health and well-being (Lorraine V. Klerman); nutrition, food security, and obesity (Harold S. Beebout); crime, juvenile delinquency, and dysfunctional behavior (Lawrence W. Sherman); drug use (Peter Reuter); mothers' work and child care (Julia B. Isaacs); and the activities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (Don Winstead and Ann McCormick). When welfare reform was first debated, many people feared that it would hurt the poor, especially children. The contributors find little evidence to suggest this has occurred. As time limits and other programmatic requirements take hold, more information will be needed to assess the condition of low-income families after welfare reform. This informative volume establishes a baseline for that assessment.

Safeguarding and Promoting the Well-being of Children, Families and Communities

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Author: Jane Scott,Harriet Ward

Publisher: Jessica Kingsley Publishers

ISBN: 9781846422461

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 7310

Improving the well-being of children is more effective when social care professionals work with the children's parents, families and communities. This collection brings together innovative interventions designed to nurture children's health and welfare, and analyses which types of programmes are most effective and why. The contributors explore the impact of poverty on children's development and assess national initiatives set up to assess and reduce need. They present examples from the UK, US, Canada and Australia of specific interventions to counter or prevent difficulties in the domains of child development, parenting capacity and wider environmental factors. Many contributions demonstrate the importance of engaging with service users and helping communities to shape and direct their own programmes for change. The final section of the book presents useful approaches to assessing and evaluating services. Demonstrating the need for close inter-agency collaboration and `joined up' services, this book is essential reading for policy makers, managers and practitioners in child welfare agencies, and social work academics and students.

Indicators of Children's Well-Being

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Author: Robert M. Hauser,Brett V. Brown,William R. Prosser

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610442768

Category: Social Science

Page: 532

View: 5373

The search for reliable information on the well-being of America's young is vital to designing programs to improve their lives. Yet social scientists are concerned that many measurements of children's physical and emotional health are inadequate, misleading, or outdated, leaving policymakers ill-informed. Indicators of Children's Well-Being is an ambitious inquiry into current efforts to monitor children from the prenatal period through adolescence. Working with the most up-to-date statistical sources, experts from multiple disciplines assess how data on physical development, education, economic security, family and neighborhood conditions, and social behavior are collected and analyzed, what findings they reveal, and what improvements are needed to create a more comprehensive and policy-relevant system of measurement. Today's climate of welfare reform has opened new possibilities for program innovation and experimentation, but it has also intensified the need for a clearly defined and wide-ranging empirical framework to pinpoint where help is needed and what interventions will succeed. Indicators of Children's Well-Being emphasizes the importance of accurate studies that address real problems. Essays on children's material well-being show why income data must be supplemented with assessments of housing, medical care, household expenditure, food consumption, and education. Other contributors urge refinements to existing survey instruments such as the Census and the Current Population Survey. The usefulness of records from human service agencies, child welfare records, and juvenile court statistics is also evaluated.

For Better and For Worse

Welfare Reform and the Well-Being of Children and Families

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Author: Greg J. Duncan,Lindsay P. Chase-Lansdale

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610448286

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 592

The 1996 welfare reform bill marked the beginning of a new era in public assistance. Although the new law has reduced welfare rolls, falling caseloads do not necessarily mean a better standard of living for families. In For Better and For Worse, editors Greg J. Duncan and P. Lindsay Chase-Lansdale and a roster of distinguished experts examine the evidence and evaluate whether welfare reform has met one of its chief goals-improving the well-being of the nation's poor children. For Better and For Worse opens with a lively political history of the welfare reform legislation, which demonstrates how conservative politicians capitalize on public concern over such social problems as single parenthood to win support for the radical reforms. Part I reviews how individual states redesigned, implemented, and are managing their welfare systems. These chapters show that most states appear to view maternal employment, rather that income enhancement and marriage, as key to improving child well-being. Part II focuses on national and multistate evaluations of the changes in welfare to examine how families and children are actually faring under the new system. These chapters suggest that work-focused reforms have not hurt children, and that reforms that provide financial support for working families can actually enhance children's development. Part III presents a variety of perspectives on policy options for the future. Remarkable here is the common ground for both liberals and conservatives on the need to support work and at the same time strengthen safety-net programs such as Food Stamps. Although welfare reform-along with the Earned Income Tax Credit and the booming economy of the nineties-has helped bring mothers into the labor force and some children out of poverty, the nation still faces daunting challenges in helping single parents become permanent members of the workforce. For Better and For Worse gathers the most recent data on the effects of welfare reform in one timely volume focused on improving the life chances of poor children.

Indicators of Children's Well-Being

Understanding Their Role, Usage and Policy Influence

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Author: Asher Ben-Arieh,Robert M. Goerge

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402042426

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 616

ROBERT C. GRANGER William T. Grant Foundation During the past 10 years or so, a number of researchers, policymakers, and prac- tioners have made important progress on the identi?cation and use of indicators of children’s well-being. The United States federal government, via the Department of Health and Human Services and the National Institutes of Health, as well as such private funders as the Annie E. Casey Foundation, have supported many of these efforts. During this time, the William T. Grant Foundation, who was not a primary funder of such activities, was nevertheless one of the many institutions bene?ting from the work. Fortunately, Asher Ben-Arieh, Larry Aber, and Bob Goerge persuaded us to support a working conference on how to assess the effects of indicator usage on policiesandprograms.Thisvolumeistheresultoftheirtalentsandtheclearthinking of many of their colleagues. It is my pleasure to introduce the volume with a few thoughts about its contributions and the questions that remain.

Children and Welfare Reform

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Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aid to families with dependent children programs

Page: 208

View: 9641

Changing Welfare

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Author: Rachel A. Gordon,Herbert J. Walberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144199274X

Category: Social Science

Page: 255

View: 3402

This book is concerned with the sweeping changes that took place in public assistance programs at the end of the 20th century and the way in which the original and reformed versions of these programs relate to the well-being of children and their families. It is a valuable reference for practitioners and policymakers who are concerned with children and child-related issues, psychologists, sociologists, social workers, social program administrators, and students in psychology, social work, sociology, political science, and education.

Just Don't Get Sick

Access to Health Care in the Aftermath of Welfare Reform

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Author: Karen Seccombe,Kim A. Hoffman

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 081354145X

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 4162

The ability to obtain health care is fundamental to the security, stability, and well-being of poor families. Government-sponsored programs provide temporary support, but as families leave welfare for work, they find themselves without access to coverage or care. The low-wage jobs that individuals in transition are typically able to secure provide few benefits yet often disqualify employees from receiving federal aid. Drawing upon statistical data and in-depth interviews with over five hundred families in Oregon, Karen Seccombe and Kim Hoffman assess the ways in which welfare reform affects the well-being of adults and children who leave the program for work. We hear of asthmatic children whose uninsured but working mothers cannot obtain the preventive medicines to keep them well, and stories of pregnant women receiving little or no prenatal care who end up in emergency rooms with life-threatening conditions. Representative of poor communities nationwide, the vivid stories recounted here illuminate the critical relationship between health insurance coverage and the ability to transition from welfare to work.

Key Indicators of Child and Youth Well-Being

Completing the Picture

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Author: Brett V. Brown

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136677046

Category: Psychology

Page: 528

View: 642

Indicators of child and youth well-being are indispensable tools for improving the lives of children. In this book, the nation’s leading development researchers review the recent progress made in the measurement, collection, dissemination, and use of indicators of child and youth well-being. In addition, they identify opportunities for future research to expand and improve on the indicator data available, so as to develop greater measures of positive development. The first eleven chapters cover key indicators in the areas of health, education, social, and emotional development and then social context indicators of the family, peers, school, and the community. The book then goes on to demonstrate the use of indicators for influencing policy at the state and local levels. One chapter discusses how social indicators were used to guide welfare reform and another recounts the use of the indicators to guide local planning. The volume concludes with a discussion of summary indices of well-being and the methodological challenges of constructing such indices. Written in an accessible manner for policy makers, practitioners, and researchers concerned with children’s well-being, including experts in developmental, social, community, and educational psychology, the book also serves as a supplementary text in public policy and the social sciences. The policy chapters will be of particular interest to those who use child and youth indicators to guide policy development.

Welfare Reform

Effects of a Decade of Change

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Author: Jeff GROGGER,Lynn A. Karoly,Jeff Grogger

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674037960

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 3746

In Welfare Reform, Jeffrey Grogger and Lynn Karoly assemble evidence from numerous studies to assess how welfare reform has affected behavior. To broaden our understanding of this wide-ranging policy reform, the authors evaluate the evidence in relation to an economic model of behavior.

From Generation to Generation

The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families

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Author: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on the Health and Adjustment of Immigrant Children and Families

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309173964

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 8998

Immigrant children and youth are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and so their prospects bear heavily on the well-being of the country. However, relevant public policy is shaped less by informed discussion than by politicized contention over welfare reform and immigration limits. From Generation to Generation explores what we know about the development of white, black, Hispanic, and Asian children and youth from numerous countries of origin. Describing the status of immigrant children and youth as "severely understudied," the committee both draws on and supplements existing research to characterize the current status and outlook of immigrant children. The book discusses the many factors--family size, fluency in English, parent employment, acculturation, delivery of health and social services, and public policies--that shape the outlook for the lives of these children and youth. The committee makes recommendations for improved research and data collection designed to advance knowledge about these children and, as a result, their visibility in current policy debates.

Achieving Permanence for Older Children and Youth in Foster Care

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Author: Benjamin Kerman,Madelyn Freundlich,Anthony Maluccio

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023151932X

Category: Social Science

Page: 262

View: 3452

Through a novel integration of child welfare data, policy analysis, and evidence-informed youth permanency practice, the essays in this volume show how to achieve and sustain family permanence for older children and youth in foster care. Researchers examine what is known about permanency outcomes for youth in foster care, how the existing knowledge base can be applied to improve these outcomes, and the directions that future research should take to strengthen youth permanence practice and policy. Part 1 examines child welfare data concerning reunification, adoption, and relative custody and guardianship and the implications for practice and policy. Part 2 addresses law, regulation, court reform, and resource allocation as vital components in achieving and sustaining family permanence. Contributors examine the impact of policy change created by court reform and propose new federal and state policy directions. Part 3 outlines a range of practices designed to achieve family permanence for youth in foster care: preserving families through community-based services, reunification, adoption, and custody and guardianship arrangements with relatives. As growing numbers of youth continue to "age out" of foster care without permanent families, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers have increasingly focused on developing evidence-informed policies, practices, services and supports to improve outcomes for youth. Edited by leading professionals in the field, this text recommends the most relevant and effective methods for improving family permanency outcomes for older youth in foster care.

Child care in the context of welfare "reform."

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Author: Columbia University. School of Social Work. Cross-National Studies Research Program

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 107

View: 2817

Trends in Welfare, Work and the Economic Well-being of Female-headed Families with Children

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Author: Thomas Gabe

Publisher: Nova Publishers

ISBN: 9781590335086

Category: Political Science

Page: 57

View: 7205

Sure to raise the hackles of many across the nation is any mention of welfare and federal entitlement programs. All agree that no one should be on welfare, but the question is what to do about those who really need the income provided by the federal government. In 1996, welfare reform legislation enacted the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, which is a block grant provided to the state with a chief purpose of ending the dependence of needy families on government assistance. Among the principal groups impacted by the welfare reform legislation are female headed families with children. Recent analyses have revealed that single mothers are more likely to be working than in the past and that welfare receipt among poor families with women at the head has declined. Despite these trends, single mothers' net income has shown no increase, suggesting that full-time work may not be enough to eliminate poverty and welfare dependency among female families. This book reports on several current trends in the economic status of female headed families, providing an overview of federal programs and their effects along with several useful charts based on Census Bureau information. The combination of statistics and evaluation make for an important contribution to the study of initiatives to defeat poverty and income deficiencies in a significant part of the population.

Education for Life and Work

Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century

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Author: Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills,Center for Education,Board on Testing and Assessment,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030925650X

Category: Education

Page: 229

View: 4076

Americans have long recognized that investments in public education contribute to the common good, enhancing national prosperity and supporting stable families, neighborhoods, and communities. Education is even more critical today, in the face of economic, environmental, and social challenges. Today's children can meet future challenges if their schooling and informal learning activities prepare them for adult roles as citizens, employees, managers, parents, volunteers, and entrepreneurs. To achieve their full potential as adults, young people need to develop a range of skills and knowledge that facilitate mastery and application of English, mathematics, and other school subjects. At the same time, business and political leaders are increasingly asking schools to develop skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and self-management - often referred to as "21st century skills." Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century describes this important set of key skills that increase deeper learning, college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher order thinking. These labels include both cognitive and non-cognitive skills- such as critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, effective communication, motivation, persistence, and learning to learn. 21st century skills also include creativity, innovation, and ethics that are important to later success and may be developed in formal or informal learning environments. This report also describes how these skills relate to each other and to more traditional academic skills and content in the key disciplines of reading, mathematics, and science. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century summarizes the findings of the research that investigates the importance of such skills to success in education, work, and other areas of adult responsibility and that demonstrates the importance of developing these skills in K-16 education. In this report, features related to learning these skills are identified, which include teacher professional development, curriculum, assessment, after-school and out-of-school programs, and informal learning centers such as exhibits and museums.

Beyond Common Sense

Child Welfare, Child Well-Being, and the Evidence for Policy Reform

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Author: John Landsverk

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351327984

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 3357

Helping vulnerable children develop their full potential is an attractive idea with broad common-sense appeal. However, child well-being is a broad concept, and the legislative mandate for addressing well-being in the context of the current child welfare system is not particularly clear. This volume asserts that finding a place for well-being on the list of outcomes established to manage the child welfare system is not as easy as it first appears. The overall thrust of this argument is that policy should be evidence-based, and the available evidence is a primary focus of the book. Because policymakers have to make decisions that allocate resources, a basic understanding of incidence in the public health tradition is important, as is evidence that speaks to the question of what works clinically. The rest of the book addresses the evidence. Chapter 2 integrates bio-ecological and public health perspectives to give the evidence base coherence. Chapters 3 and 4 combine evidence from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the Multistate Foster Care Data Archive, and the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being to offer an unprecedented profile of children as they enter the child welfare system. Chapters 5 and 6 address the broad question of what works. A concluding chapter focuses on policy and future directions, suggesting that children starting out, children starting school, and children starting adolescence are high-risk populations for which explicit strategies have to be formed. This timely volume offers useful insights into the child welfare system and will be of particular interest to policymakers, academics with an interest in Child Welfare Policy, Social Work educators, and Child Advocates.