Wednesday Is Indigo Blue

Discovering the Brain of Synesthesia


Author: Richard E. Cytowic,David M. Eagleman,Dmitri Nabokov

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262260557

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 3514

A person with synesthesia might feel the flavor of food on her fingertips, sense the letter "J" as shimmering magenta or the number "5" as emerald green, hear and taste her husband's voice as buttery golden brown. Synesthetes rarely talk about their peculiar sensory gift -- believing either that everyone else senses the world exactly as they do, or that no one else does. Yet synesthesia occurs in one in twenty people, and is even more common among artists. One famous synesthete was novelist Vladimir Nabokov, who insisted as a toddler that the colors on his wooden alphabet blocks were "all wrong." His mother understood exactly what he meant because she, too, had synesthesia. Nabokov's son Dmitri, who recounts this tale in the afterword to this book, is also a synesthete -- further illustrating how synesthesia runs in families. In Wednesday Is Indigo Blue, pioneering researcher Richard Cytowic and distinguished neuroscientist David Eagleman explain the neuroscience and genetics behind synesthesia's multisensory experiences. Because synesthesia contradicted existing theory, Cytowic spent twenty years persuading colleagues that it was a real -- and important -- brain phenomenon rather than a mere curiosity. Today scientists in fifteen countries are exploring synesthesia and how it is changing the traditional view of how the brain works. Cytowic and Eagleman argue that perception is already multisensory, though for most of us its multiple dimensions exist beyond the reach of consciousness. Reality, they point out, is more subjective than most people realize. No mere curiosity, synesthesia is a window on the mind and brain, highlighting the amazing differences in the way people see the world.

The Brain

Die Geschichte von dir


Author: David Eagleman

Publisher: Pantheon Verlag

ISBN: 3641183154

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 9568

Unterhaltend und fundiert: Ein Pageturner über die Hirnforschung Die Hirnforschung macht rasante Fortschritte, aber nur selten treten wir einen Schritt zurück und fragen uns, was es heißt, ein Lebewesen und Mensch zu sein. Der renommierte Neurowissenschaftler David Eagleman nimmt uns mit auf die Reise durch das Gewirr aus Milliarden von Hirnzellen und Billionen von Synapsen – und zu uns selbst. Das sonderbare Rechengewebe in unserem Schädel ist der Apparat, mit dem wir uns in der Welt orientieren, Entscheidungen treffen und Vorstellungen entwickeln. Seine unendlich vielen Zellen bringen unser Bewusstsein und unsere Träume hervor. In diesem Buch baut Bestsellerautor David Eagleman eine Brücke zwischen der Hirnforschung und uns, den Besitzern eines Gehirns. Er hilft uns, uns selbst zu verstehen. Denn ein besseres Verständnis unseres inneren Kosmos wirft auch ein neues Licht auf unsere persönlichen Beziehungen und unser gesellschaftliches Zusammenleben: wie wir unser Leben lenken, warum wir lieben, was wir für wahr halten, wie wir unsere Kinder erziehen, wie wir unsere Gesellschaftspolitik verbessern und wie wir den menschlichen Körper auf die kommenden Jahrhunderte vorbereiten können.

Oxford Handbook of Synesthesia


Author: Julia Simner,Edward M. Hubbard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199603324

Category: Art

Page: 1077

View: 2376

Synesthesia is a fascinating phenomenon which has captured the imagination of scientists and artists alike. This title brings together a broad body of knowledge about this condition into one definitive state-of-the-art handbook.

Developing Synaesthesia


Author: Nicolas Rothen,Julia Simner,Beat Meier

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 2889195791


Page: N.A

View: 3876

Synaesthesia is a condition in which a stimulus elicits an additional subjective experience. For example, the letter E printed in black (the inducer) may trigger an additional colour experience as a concurrent (e.g., blue). Synaesthesia tends to run in families and thus, a genetic component is likely. However, given that the stimuli that typically induce synaesthesia are cultural artefacts, a learning component must also be involved. Moreover, there is evidence that synaesthetic experiences not only activate brain areas typically involved in processing sensory input of the concurrent modality; synaesthesia seems to cause a structural reorganisation of the brain. Attempts to train non-synaesthetes with synaesthetic associations have been successful in mimicking certain behavioural aspects and posthypnotic induction of synaesthetic experiences in non-synaesthetes has even led to the according phenomenological reports. These latter findings suggest that structural brain reorganization may not be a critical precondition, but rather a consequence of the sustained coupling of inducers and concurrents. Interestingly, synaesthetes seem to be able to easily transfer synaesthetic experiences to novel stimuli. Beyond this, certain drugs (e.g., LSD) can lead to synaesthesia-like experiences and may provide additional insights into the neurobiological basis of the condition. Furthermore, brain damage can both lead to a sudden presence of synaesthetic experiences in previously non-synaesthetic individuals and a sudden absence of synaesthesia in previously synaesthetic individuals. Moreover, enduring sensory substitution has been effective in inducing a kind of acquired synaesthesia. Besides informing us about the cognitive mechanisms of synaesthesia, synaesthesia research is relevant for more general questions, for example about consciousness such as the binding problem, about crossmodal correspondences and about how individual differences in perceiving and experiencing the world develop. Hence the aim of the current Research Topic is to provide novel insights into the development of synaesthesia both in its genuine and acquired form. We welcome novel experimental work and theoretical contributions (e.g., review and opinion articles) focussing on factors such as brain maturation, learning, training, hypnosis, drugs, sensory substitution and brain damage and their relation to the development of any form of synaesthesia.

Cognition, Brain, and Consciousness

Introduction to Cognitive Neuroscience


Author: Bernard J. Baars,Nicole M. Gage

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123814401

Category: Psychology

Page: 672

View: 763

Cognition, Brain, and Consciousness, Second Edition, provides students and readers with an overview of the study of the human brain and its cognitive development. It discusses brain molecules and their primary function, which is to help carry brain signals to and from the different parts of the human body. These molecules are also essential for understanding language, learning, perception, thinking, and other cognitive functions of our brain. The book also presents the tools that can be used to view the human brain through brain imaging or recording. New to this edition are Frontiers in Cognitive Neuroscience text boxes, each one focusing on a leading researcher and their topic of expertise. There is a new chapter on Genes and Molecules of Cognition; all other chapters have been thoroughly revised, based on the most recent discoveries. This text is designed for undergraduate and graduate students in Psychology, Neuroscience, and related disciplines in which cognitive neuroscience is taught. New edition of a very successful textbook Completely revised to reflect new advances, and feedback from adopters and students Includes a new chapter on Genes and Molecules of Cognition Student Solutions available at For Teachers: Rapid adoption and course preparation: A wide array of instructor support materials are available online including PowerPoint lecture slides, a test bank with answers, and eFlashcords on key concepts for each chapter. A textbook with an easy-to-understand thematic approach: in a way that is clear for students from a variety of academic backgrounds, the text introduces concepts such as working memory, selective attention, and social cognition. A step-by-step guide for introducing students to brain anatomy: color graphics have been carefully selected to illustrate all points and the research explained. Beautifully clear artist's drawings are used to 'build a brain' from top to bottom, simplifying the layout of the brain. For students: An easy-to-read, complete introduction to mind-brain science: all chapters begin from mind-brain functions and build a coherent picture of their brain basis. A single, widely accepted functional framework is used to capture the major phenomena. Learning Aids include a student support site with study guides and exercises, a new Mini-Atlas of the Brain and a full Glossary of technical terms and their definitions. Richly illustrated with hundreds of carefully selected color graphics to enhance understanding.

Stalking Nabokov


Author: Brian Boyd

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231530293

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 488

View: 7269

At the age of twenty-one, Brian Boyd wrote a thesis on Vladimir Nabokov that the famous author called "brilliant." After gaining exclusive access to the writer's archives, he wrote a two-part, award-winning biography, Vladimir Nabokov: The Russian Years (1990) and Vladimir Nabokov: The American Years (1991). This collection features essays written by Boyd since completing the biography, incorporating material he gleaned from his research as well as new discoveries and formulations. Boyd confronts Nabokov's life, career, and legacy; his art, science, and thought; his subtle humor and puzzle-like storytelling; his complex psychological portraits; and his inheritance from, reworking of, and affinities with Shakespeare, Pushkin, Tolstoy, and Machado de Assis. Boyd offers new ways of reading Nabokov's best English-language works: Lolita, Pale Fire, Ada, and the unparalleled autobiography, Speak, Memory, and he discloses otherwise unknown information about the author's world. Sharing his personal reflections, Boyd recounts the adventures, hardships, and revelations of researching Nabokov's biography and his unusual finds in the archives, including materials still awaiting publication. The first to focus on Nabokov's metaphysics, Boyd cautions against their being used as the key to unlock all of the author's secrets, showing instead the many other rooms in Nabokov's castle of fiction that need exploring, such as his humor, narrative invention, and psychological insight into characters and readers alike. Appreciating Nabokov as novelist, memoirist, poet, translator, scientist, and individual, Boyd helps us understand more than ever the author's multifaceted genius.

In touch with the future

The sense of touch from cognitive neuroscience to virtual reality


Author: Alberto Gallace,Charles Spence

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191501816

Category: Psychology

Page: 480

View: 8190

Out of all the human senses, touch is the one that is most often unappreciated, and undervalued. Yet, the surface of the human body, the skin, is actually one huge sheet of tactile receptors. It provides us with the means to connect with our surroundings. Despite the important role that vision plays in our everyday lives, it is the skin that constitutes both the oldest, and by far the largest of our sense organs. The skin protects our body from the external world and, at the same time, informs us about what occurs on its surface. In Touch With The Future explores the science of touch, bringing together the latest findings from cognitive neuroscience about the processing of tactile information in humans. The book provides a comprehensive overview of scientific knowledge regarding themes such as tactile memory, tactile awareness (consciousness), tactile attention, the role of touch in interpersonal and sexual interactions, and the neurological substrates of touch. It highlights the many ways in which our growing understanding of the world of touch can, and in some cases already are, being applied in the real world in everything from the development of virtual reality (VR) environments, tablet PCs, mobile phones, and even teledildonics - the ultimate frontier in terms of adult entertainment. In addition, the book shows how the cognitive neuroscience approach to the study of touch can be applied to help improve the design of many real-world applications/products as well as to many of our everyday experiences, such as those related to the appreciation of food, marketing, packaging design, the development of enhanced sensory substitution systems, art, and man-machine interfaces. Crucially, the authors makes a convincing argument for the view that one cannot really understand touch, especially not in a real-world context, without placing it in a multisensory context. That is, the senses interact to influence tactile perception in everything - from changing the feel of a surface or product by changing the sound it makes or the fragrance it has. For students and researchers in the brain sciences, this book presents a valuable and fascinating exploration into one of our least understood senses

Perception and Its Modalities


Author: Dustin Stokes,Mohan Matthen,Stephen Biggs

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199381615

Category: Philosophy

Page: 352

View: 7877

This volume is about the many ways we perceive. In nineteen new essays, philosophers and cognitive scientists explore the nature of the individual senses, how and what they tell us about the world, and how they interrelate. They consider how the senses extract perceptual content from receptoral information and what kinds of objects we perceive and whether multiple senses ever perceive a single event. Questions pertaining to how many senses we have, what makes one sense distinct from another, and whether and why distinguishing senses may be useful feature prominently. Contributors examine the extent to which the senses act in concert, rather than as discrete modalities, and whether this influence is epistemically pernicious, neutral, or beneficial. Many of the essays engage with the idea that it is unduly restrictive to think of perception as a collation of contents provided by individual sense modalities. Rather, contributors contend that to understand perception properly we need to build into our accounts the idea that the senses work together. In doing so, they aim to develop better paradigms for understanding the senses and thereby to move toward a better understanding of perception.

Fast im Jenseits

Oder warum Gott Frankenstein liest


Author: David Eagleman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783833308031


Page: 142

View: 9671



Author: Richard E. Cytowic

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026234629X

Category: Psychology

Page: 288

View: 4900

An accessible, concise primer on the neurological trait of synesthesia—vividly felt sensory couplings—by a founder of the field. One in twenty-three people carry the genes for the synesthesia. Not a disorder but a neurological trait—like perfect pitch—synesthesia creates vividly felt cross-sensory couplings. A synesthete might hear a voice and at the same time see it as a color or shape, taste its distinctive flavor, or feel it as a physical touch. In this volume in the MIT Press Essential Knowledge series, Richard Cytowic, the expert who returned synesthesia to mainstream science after decades of oblivion, offers a concise, accessible primer on this fascinating human experience. Cytowic explains that synesthesia's most frequent manifestation is seeing days of the week as colored, followed by sensing letters, numerals, and punctuation marks in different hues even when printed in black. Other manifestations include tasting food in shapes, seeing music in moving colors, and mapping numbers and other sequences spatially. One synesthete declares, “Chocolate smells pink and sparkly”; another invents a dish (chicken, vanilla ice cream, and orange juice concentrate) that tastes intensely blue. Cytowic, who in the 1980s revived scientific interest in synesthesia, sees it now understood as a spectrum, an umbrella term that covers five clusters of outwardly felt couplings that can occur via several pathways. Yet synesthetic or not, each brain uniquely filters what it perceives. Cytowic reminds us that each individual's perspective on the world is thoroughly subjective.

Unser verrücktes Gehirn

Über Blackouts, Aberglaube, Seekrankheit - wie uns das Gehirn austrickst


Author: Dean Burnett

Publisher: C. Bertelsmann Verlag

ISBN: 3641185076

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 1998

Ohne Zweifel haben wir das größte Wunderwerk der Evolution in unserem Kopf. Das ist aber nur die halbe Wahrheit. Denn das Gehirn spielt uns fortwährend Streiche: Es versetzt uns in Angstzustände, als verfolge uns der Säbelzahntiger, quält uns an Bord eines Schiffes mit Übelkeit oder entwirft ein völlig überzogenes Bild von uns selbst. Die Gründe werden im unausgeglichenen Verhältnis sehr alter primitiver Hirnteile und neuerer Regionen vermutet. So dominiert uns oft das sogenannte Reptilgehirn, und die uralte Amygdala lässt uns weiterhin Ausschau nach Gefahren halten, die es längst nicht mehr gibt – mit entsprechenden unpassenden, lästigen Reaktionsmustern. Kompetent, leicht nachvollziehbar und witzig erklärt Burnett, wie, wann und warum uns das Gehirn in die Irre führt.

The Man Who Tasted Shapes


Author: Richard E. Cytowic,Jonathan Cole

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262250446

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 5142

In 1980, Richard Cytowic was having dinner at a friend's house, when his host exclaimed, "Oh, dear, there aren't enough points on the chicken." With that casual comment began Cytowic's journey into the condition known as synesthesia.The ten people in one million who are synesthetes are born into a world where one sensation (such as sound) conjures up one or more others (such as taste or color). Although scientists have known about synesthesia for two hundred years, until now the condition has remained a mystery. Extensive experiments with more than forty synesthetes led Richard Cytowic to an explanation of synesthesia--and to a new conception of the organization of the mind, one that emphasized the primacy of emotion over reason.Because there were not enough points on chicken served at a dinner almost two decades ago, Cytowic came to explore a deeper reality that he believes exists in all individuals, but usually below the surface of awareness. In this medical detective adventure, he reveals the brain to be an active explorer, not just a passive receiver, and offers a new view of what it means to be human--a view that turns upside down conventional ideas about reason, emotion, and who we are.* Not for sale in the United Kingdom and Eire

Psychology & Mental Health: Sleep apnea


Author: Nancy A. Piotrowski

Publisher: Salem PressInc

ISBN: 9781587655616

Category: Psychology

Page: 2208

View: 2287

This comprehensive five-volume set covers notable theories, people, social issues, life stages, the physiology and anatomy of the nervous system, and various mental illnesses or conditions --from publisher description.

뇌, 인간을 읽다

마음을 들여다보는 20가지 뇌과학 이야기


Author: 마이클 코벌리스

Publisher: 반니

ISBN: 8996914606

Category: Science

Page: 176

View: 6572

마음의 현대 과학을 살펴보는 시간! 마음을 들여다보는 20가지 뇌과학 이야기 『뇌 인간을 읽다』. 이 책은 심리학, 고고학, 인류학, 생물학, 유전학, 언어학, 신경과학, 철학을 넘나들며 융합 학문의 최신 연구 주제인 뇌와 마음의 수수께끼의 베일을 벗기고자 인간의 언어, 기억, 행동의 비밀 등 익숙한 주제를 활용해 이야기로 들려주고 있다. 《뉴질랜드 지오그래픽》에 칼럼으로 기고했던 글들을 고쳐 쓴 것으로 학제적 연구의 중심이 된 ‘마음’에 대해 자세하게 살펴보는 글들로 구성되어 있다. 욕설 없는 세상이 더 위험한 이유는 무엇이고 왼손잡이가 창의적이라는 생각은 사실인지 친근하게 접할 수 있는 주제로 흥미로운 지식을 전달한다.


Hanne Marie Svendsens forfatterskab


Author: Marina Allemano

Publisher: Gyldendal A/S

ISBN: 8702097842


Page: 342

View: 7806

Welche Farbe hat der Montag?

Synästhesie: das Leben mit verknüpften Sinnen ; mit Textdokumenten von 13 Synästhetikern


Author: Hinderk M. Emrich,Udo Schneider,Markus Zedler

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783777613031


Page: 152

View: 7413

Für manche Menschen ist die Welt besonders bunt: Sie sehen Buchstaben farbig, die doch nur schwarz auf weiß vor ihnen stehen, oder erleben Musik in Formen und Strukturen, die sich mit Melodie und Klangfarbe vor ihrem inneren Auge verändern. Bekannt ist dieses Phänomen namens "Synästhesie" schon lange, aber richtig erforscht wird es erst, seit man mit modernen Techniken die Abläufe im Gehirn verfolgen kann. Die Autoren gehören zu den wenigen Wissenschaftlern, die sich damit beschäftigen. Sie erklären, was Synästhesie ist und was die Forschung bisher darüber herausgefunden hat; daraus entwickeln sie eine neue Vorstellung von Bewusstsein und Identität. Wie ein Leben mit verknüpften Sinnen aussehen kann, erfährt der Leser in sehr persönlichen Texten von Betroffenen.

Die Poesie der Primzahlen


Author: Daniel Tammet

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446439277

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 3330

Daniel Tammet ist einer von nur 100 Inselbegabten und der vielleicht intelligenteste Mensch der Welt. Sein Gehirn leistet Unvorstellbares. Er lernt fremde Sprachen binnen einer Woche und rechnet fast so schnell wie ein Computer. Tammets Kosmos besteht aus Zahlen, die Farben, Formen und Charaktereigenschaften haben. Für ihn ist Mathematik keine trockene Wissenschaft, sondern bunt und lebendig, eine eigene Welt, der ein poetischer Zauber innewohnt. In diesem Buch lässt er uns erstmals an seiner "Poesie der Primzahlen" teilhaben und zeigt eindrucksvoll, dass die Mathematik Antworten auf die universellen Fragen des Lebens zu geben vermag: nach Zeit, Tod oder Liebe. "'Die Poesie der Primzahlen' lässt die Bewunderung für Tammets Geist ins Unermessliche steigen." Oliver Sacks