War and Society in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds

Asia, the Mediterranean, Europe, and Mesoamerica

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Author: Kurt A. Raaflaub,Nathan Stewart Rosenstein

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 484

View: 6873

A unique, multi-authored social history of war from the third millennium B.C.E. to the tenth century C.E. in the Mediterranean, the Near East, and Europe (Egypt, Achaemenid Persia, Greece, the Hellenistic World, the Roman Republic and Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the early Islamic World, and early Medieval Europe), with parallel studies of Mesoamerica (the Maya and Aztecs) and East Asia (ancient China, medieval Japan). The product of a colloquium at Harvard's Center for Hellenic Studies, this volume offers a broadly based, comparative examination of war and military organization in their complex interactions with social, economic, and political structures as well as cultural practices.

Krieg und Bürgerkrieg bei Lucan und in der griechischen Literatur

Studien zur Rezeption der attischen Tragödie und der hellenistischen Dichtung im "Bellum civile"

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Author: Annemarie Ambühl

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110390361

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 496

View: 7557

In his civil war epic, the Roman poet Lucan draws extensively on his literary forbears. This study fills a gap in the research by going beyond the boundaries of language and genre to examine his reception of Greek literature, especially Attic tragedy and Hellenistic poetry. It reveals the importance of mythical and literary models, such as the Trojan War and the fratricidal war around Thebes, for Lucan’s epic formulation of the civil war theme.

The Greek World in the 4th and 3rd Centuries BC

Electrum vol. 19

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Author: Edward Dąbrowa

Publisher: Wydawnictwo UJ

ISBN: 8323334838

Category: History

Page: 180

View: 1583

This volume contains eight studies written by scholars from Great Britain, Israel, Poland, and the United States. The contributors are all specialists in Greek history, and their essays deal with different aspects of the period's history, focusing on historiography, political evelopments, and military actions and events.

A Companion to Ancient Greek Government

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Author: Hans Beck

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118303172

Category: History

Page: 612

View: 7284

This comprehensive volume details the variety of constitutions and types of governing bodies in the ancient Greek world. A collection of original scholarship on ancient Greek governing structures and institutions Explores the multiple manifestations of state action throughout the Greek world Discusses the evolution of government from the Archaic Age to the Hellenistic period, ancient typologies of government, its various branches, principles and procedures and realms of governance Creates a unique synthesis on the spatial and memorial connotations of government by combining the latest institutional research with more recent trends in cultural scholarship

Rome at War

Farms, Families, and Death in the Middle Republic

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Author: Nathan Rosenstein

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 0807864102

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 2648

Historians have long asserted that during and after the Hannibalic War, the Roman Republic's need to conscript men for long-term military service helped bring about the demise of Italy's small farms and that the misery of impoverished citizens then became fuel for the social and political conflagrations of the late republic. Nathan Rosenstein challenges this claim, showing how Rome reconciled the needs of war and agriculture throughout the middle republic. The key, Rosenstein argues, lies in recognizing the critical role of family formation. By analyzing models of families' needs for agricultural labor over their life cycles, he shows that families often had a surplus of manpower to meet the demands of military conscription. Did, then, Roman imperialism play any role in the social crisis of the later second century B.C.? Rosenstein argues that Roman warfare had critical demographic consequences that have gone unrecognized by previous historians: heavy military mortality paradoxically helped sustain a dramatic increase in the birthrate, ultimately leading to overpopulation and landlessness.

The Medieval Way of War

Studies in Medieval Military History in Honor of Bernard S. Bachrach

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Author: Gregory I. Halfond

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 147241960X

Category: History

Page: 348

View: 5225

Few historians have argued so forcefully or persuasively as Bernard S. Bachrach for the study of warfare as not only worthy of scholarly attention, but demanding of it. In his many publications Bachrach has established unequivocally the relevance of military institutions and activity for an understanding of medieval European societies, polities, and mentalities. In so doing, as much as any scholar of his generation, he has helped to define the status quaestionis for the field of medieval military history. The Medieval Way of War: Studies in Medieval Military History in Honor of Bernard S. Bachrach pays tribute to its honoree by gathering in a single volume seventeen original studies from an international roster of leading experts in the military history of medieval Europe. Ranging chronologically from Late Antiquity through the Later Middle Ages (ca. AD 300-1500), and with a broad geographical scope stretching from the British Isles to the Middle East, these diverse studies address an array of critical themes and debates relevant to the conduct of war in medieval Europe. These themes include the formation and implementation of military grand strategies; the fiscal, material, and administrative resources that underpinned the conduct of war in medieval Europe; and religious, legal, and artistic responses to military violence. Collectively, these seventeen studies embrace the interdisciplinarity and topical diversity intrinsic to Bachrach’s research. Additionally, they strongly echo his conviction that the study of armed conflict is indispensable for an accurate and comprehensive understanding of medieval European history.

Army and Power in the Ancient World

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Author: Άγγελος Χανιώτης

Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag

ISBN: 9783515081979

Category: History

Page: 204

View: 3275

Papers from a round table held Aug. 9, 2000, in Oslo.

Animal Oppression and Human Violence

Domesecration, Capitalism, and Global Conflict

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Author: David A. Nibert

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231525516

Category: Nature

Page: 352

View: 7526

Jared Diamond and other leading scholars have argued that the domestication of animals for food, labor, and tools of war has advanced the development of human society. But by comparing practices of animal exploitation for food and resources in different societies over time, David A. Nibert reaches a strikingly different conclusion. He finds in the domestication of animals, which he renames "domesecration," a perversion of human ethics, the development of large-scale acts of violence, disastrous patterns of destruction, and growth-curbing epidemics of infectious disease. Nibert centers his study on nomadic pastoralism and the development of commercial ranching, a practice that has been largely controlled by elite groups and expanded with the rise of capitalism. Beginning with the pastoral societies of the Eurasian steppe and continuing through to the exportation of Western, meat-centered eating habits throughout today's world, Nibert connects the domesecration of animals to violence, invasion, extermination, displacement, enslavement, repression, pandemic chronic disease, and hunger. In his view, conquest and subjugation were the results of the need to appropriate land and water to maintain large groups of animals, and the gross amassing of military power has its roots in the economic benefits of the exploitation, exchange, and sale of animals. Deadly zoonotic diseases, Nibert shows, have accompanied violent developments throughout history, laying waste to whole cities, societies, and civilizations. His most powerful insight situates the domesecration of animals as a precondition for the oppression of human populations, particularly indigenous peoples, an injustice impossible to rectify while the material interests of the elite are inextricably linked to the exploitation of animals. Nibert links domesecration to some of the most critical issues facing the world today, including the depletion of fresh water, topsoil, and oil reserves; global warming; and world hunger, and he reviews the U.S. government's military response to the inevitable crises of an overheated, hungry, resource-depleted world. Most animal-advocacy campaigns reinforce current oppressive practices, Nibert argues. Instead, he suggests reforms that challenge the legitimacy of both domesecration and capitalism.

The Measure of Civilization

How Social Development Decides the Fate of Nations

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Author: Ian Morris

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400844762

Category: Social Science

Page: 400

View: 3904

In the last thirty years, there have been fierce debates over how civilizations develop and why the West became so powerful. The Measure of Civilization presents a brand-new way of investigating these questions and provides new tools for assessing the long-term growth of societies. Using a groundbreaking numerical index of social development that compares societies in different times and places, award-winning author Ian Morris sets forth a sweeping examination of Eastern and Western development across 15,000 years since the end of the last ice age. He offers surprising conclusions about when and why the West came to dominate the world and fresh perspectives for thinking about the twenty-first century. Adapting the United Nations' approach for measuring human development, Morris's index breaks social development into four traits--energy capture per capita, organization, information technology, and war-making capacity--and he uses archaeological, historical, and current government data to quantify patterns. Morris reveals that for 90 percent of the time since the last ice age, the world's most advanced region has been at the western end of Eurasia, but contrary to what many historians once believed, there were roughly 1,200 years--from about 550 to 1750 CE--when an East Asian region was more advanced. Only in the late eighteenth century CE, when northwest Europeans tapped into the energy trapped in fossil fuels, did the West leap ahead. Resolving some of the biggest debates in global history, The Measure of Civilization puts forth innovative tools for determining past, present, and future economic and social trends.

A Companion to the Roman Republic

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Author: Nathan Rosenstein,Robert Morstein-Marx

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444357204

Category: History

Page: 776

View: 4986

This Companion provides an authoritative and up-to-date overview of Roman Republican history as it is currently practiced. Highlights recent developments, including archaeological discoveries, fresh approaches to textual sources, and the opening up of new areas of historical study Retains the drama of the Republic’s rise and fall Emphasizes not just the evidence of texts and physical remains, but also the models and assumptions that scholars bring to these artefacts Looks at the role played by the physical geography and environment of Italy Offers a compact but detailed narrative of military and political developments from the birth of the Roman Republic through to the death of Julius Caesar Discusses current controversies in the field

The Discovery of Freedom in Ancient Greece

Revised and Updated Edition

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Author: Kurt Raaflaub,Raaflaub, Kurt A. Raaflaub

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226701011

Category: History

Page: 420

View: 6762

Although there is constant conflict over its meanings and limits, political freedom itself is considered a fundamental and universal value throughout the modern world. For most of human history, however, this was not the case. In this book, Kurt Raaflaub asks the essential question: when, why, and under what circumstances did the concept of freedom originate? To find out, Raaflaub analyses ancient Greek texts from Homer to Thucydides in their social and political contexts. Archaic Greece, he concludes, had little use for the idea of political freedom; the concept arose instead during the great confrontation between Greeks and Persians in the early fifth century BCE. Raaflaub then examines the relationship of freedom with other concepts, such as equality, citizenship, and law, and pursues subsequent uses of the idea—often, paradoxically, as a tool of domination, propaganda, and ideology. Raaflaub's book thus illuminates both the history of ancient Greek society and the evolution of one of humankind's most important values, and will be of great interest to anyone who wants to understand the conceptual fabric that still shapes our world views.

Muhammad

Islam's First Great General

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Author: Richard A. Gabriel

Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press

ISBN: 0806183330

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 288

View: 2025

That Muhammad succeeded as a prophet is undeniable; a prominent military historian now suggests that he might not have done so had he not also been a great soldier. Best known as the founder of a major religion, Muhammad was also Islam’s first great general. While there have been numerous accounts of Muhammad the Prophet, this is the first military biography of the man. In Muhammad: Islam’s First Great General, Richard A. Gabriel shows us a warrior never before seen in antiquity—a leader of an all-new religious movement who in a single decade fought eight major battles, led eighteen raids, and planned thirty-eight other military operations. Gabriel’s study portrays Muhammad as a revolutionary who introduced military innovations that transformed armies and warfare throughout the Arab world. Gabriel analyzes the environment in which Muhammad lived and the religion he inspired as they relate to his military achievements. Gabriel explains how Muhammad changed the social composition of Arab armies by replacing traditional ways of fighting with a new command structure. Muhammad’s transformation of Arab warfare enabled his successors to establish the core of the Islamic empire—an accomplishment that, Gabriel argues, would have been militarily impossible without Muhammad’s innovations. Richard A. Gabriel challenges existing scholarship on Muhammad’s place in history and offers a viewpoint not previously attempted.

Medieval Warfare

A Bibliographical Guide

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Author: Everett U. Crosby

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135576254

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 238

View: 3047

Hono sapiens, homo pugnans, and so it has been since the beginning of recorded history. In the Middle Ages, especially, armed conflict and the military life were so much a part of the political and cultural development that a general account of this period is, in large measure, a description of how men went to war.

Alexander the Great

The Truth Behind the Myth

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Author: Paul Cartledge

Publisher: Pan Macmillan

ISBN: 0330475541

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 1781

At eighteen Alexander had conquered mainland Greece, was crowned King of Macedonia at twenty and by twenty-six he had made himself master of the once mighty Persian Empire. By the time of his death, aged only thirty-three, in 323BCE he was ruler of the known world and was being worshipped as a god by the Greeks, both at Babylon, where he died, and further west, among the Greek cities of the Asiatic seaboard. The fruit of a lifetime’s scholarship and meticulous research, this is an outstanding biography of one of the most remarkable rulers in history. 'A hugely impressive portrait of a towering but enigmatic figure' Saul David, Sunday Telegraph 'A revealing, often enthralling search . . . [a] restless, exhilarating book' Observer 'Fascinating . . . blends all the pleasures of Hollywood epic with those of a subtle and deeply intriguing detective tale' Tom Holland, author of Rubicon 'Alexander the Great provides an endless fount both of amazement and of speculation. This gripping book examines the legends as well as the life. Most interestingly, it invites the reader to participate in the difficult task of separating the fact from the fiction' Norman Davies At eighteen Alexander had conquered mainland Greece, was crowned King of Macedonia at twenty and by twenty-six he had made himself master of the once mighty Persian Empire. By the time of his death, aged only thirty-three, in 323BCE he was ruler of the known world and was being worshipped as a god by the Greeks, both at Babylon, where he died, and further west, among the Greek cities of the Asiatic seaboard. The fruit of a lifetime’s scholarship and meticulous research, this is an outstanding biography of one of the most remarkable rulers in history. 'A hugely impressive portrait of a towering but enigmatic figure' Saul David, Sunday Telegraph 'A revealing, often enthralling search . . . [a] restless, exhilarating book' Observer 'Fascinating . . . blends all the pleasures of Hollywood epic with those of a subtle and deeply intriguing detective tale' Tom Holland, author of Rubicon 'Alexander the Great provides an endless fount both of amazement and of speculation. This gripping book examines the legends as well as the life. Most interestingly, it invites the reader to participate in the difficult task of separating the fact from the fiction' Norman Davies

War and Games

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Author: Tim Cornell,Thomas B. Allen

Publisher: Boydell Press

ISBN: 9780851158709

Category: History

Page: 331

View: 8996

These comparative studies focus on the relationship between war and games in an effort to achieve an understanding of the phenomenon of war, in order ultimately to avoid it.

War In World History: Society, Technology, and War from Ancient Times to the Present

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Author: Jeremy Black,Stephen Morillo,Paul Lococo

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9780070525849

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 6277

Designed for use at the college level as a textbook for military history courses or supplemental reading for world history courses, this text offers an introduction and original synthesis of global military history. Each chapter traces key developments in military institutions and practices set in three crucial contexts: politics and institutions; social structures and economics; and cultures. Primary sources throughout the text give students a look at the writings historians use to draw conclusions, while Issue Boxes raise and explore historiographical controversies in military history. A two-volume format follows the usual division of world and western civilization courses and allows a standard semester split of military history survey courses. Volume One covers 2000 BC through 1500 AD. Volume Two covers the dawn of global warfare in 1500 through the present.

Social Struggles in Archaic Rome

New Perspectives on the Conflict of the Orders

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Author: Kurt A. Raaflaub

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405148896

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 471

This widely respected study of social conflicts between the patrician elite and the plebeians in the first centuries of the Roman republic has now been enhanced by a new chapter on material culture, updates to individual chapters, an updated bibliography, and a new introduction. Analyzes social conflicts between patricians and plebeians in early republican Rome Includes chapters by leading scholars from both sides of the Atlantic illuminating social, economic, legal, religious, military, and political aspects as well as the reliability of historical sources Contributors have written addenda for the new edition, updating their chapters in light of recent scholarship

War and Peace in the Western Political Imagination

From Classical Antiquity to the Age of Reason

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Author: Roger Manning

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1474258719

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 9921

The study of war in all periods of prehistory and recorded history has always commanded the attention of historians, dramatists, poets and artists. The study of peace has, however, not yet gained a comparable readership, and the subject is attracting an increasing amount of scholarly research. This volume presents the first work of academic research to tackle this imbalance head on. It looks at war and peace through the ages, from the Classical world through to the 18th century. It considers the nature and advocacy of war and peace both from an historical perspective but also a philosophical one, particularly looking at how universal peace, which began as a personal philosophy, became over the centuries a political philosophy that underpins much of modern society's attitudes towards warfare and militarism. Roger Manning begins his journey through history by looking at the Greek martial ethos and philosophical concepts of peace and war in the ancient world; moving through the Roman empire's military advances, he explores the concepts of war and peace in the medieval world and the Renaissance, with the writing of Machiavelli and Erasmus; finally, his account of the search for a science of peace in the 17th and 18th centuries brings the book to its conclusion.

Origins of Democracy in Ancient Greece

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Author: Kurt A. Raaflaub,Josiah Ober,Robert W. Wallace

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520245628

Category: History

Page: 242

View: 6538

"A balanced, high-quality analysis of the developing nature of Athenian political society and its relationship to 'democracy' as a timeless concept."—Mark Munn, author of The School of History