Violence and Restraint in Civil War

Civilian Targeting in the Shadow of International Law

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Author: Jessica A. Stanton

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316720594

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 8960

Media coverage of civil wars often focuses on the most gruesome atrocities and the most extreme conflicts, which might lead one to think that all civil wars involve massive violence against civilians. In truth, many governments and rebel groups exercise restraint in their fighting, largely avoiding violence against civilians in compliance with international law. Governments and rebel groups make strategic calculations about whether to target civilians by evaluating how domestic and international audiences are likely to respond to violence. Restraint is also a deliberate strategic choice: governments and rebel groups often avoid targeting civilians and abide by international legal standards to appeal to domestic and international audiences for diplomatic support. This book presents a wide range of evidence of the strategic use of violence and restraint, using original data on violence against civilians in civil wars from 1989 to 2010 as well as in-depth analyses of conflicts in Azerbaijan, El Salvador, Indonesia, Sudan, Turkey, and Uganda.

The Commander's Dilemma

Violence and Restraint in Wartime

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Author: Amelia Hoover Green

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 150172648X

Category: History

Page: 276

View: 3126

Why do some military and rebel groups commit many types of violence, creating an impression of senseless chaos, whereas others carefully control violence against civilians? A classic catch-22 faces the leaders of armed groups and provides the title for Amelia Hoover Green’s book. Leaders need large groups of people willing to kill and maim—but to do so only under strict control. How can commanders control violence when fighters who are not under direct supervision experience extraordinary stress, fear, and anger? The Commander’s Dilemma argues that discipline is not enough in wartime. Restraint occurs when fighters know why they are fighting and believe in the cause—that is, when commanders invest in political education. Drawing on extraordinary evidence about state and nonstate groups in El Salvador, and extending her argument to the Mano River wars in Liberia and Sierra Leone, Amelia Hoover Green shows that investments in political education can improve human rights outcomes even where rational incentives for restraint are weak—and that groups whose fighters lack a sense of purpose may engage in massive violence even where incentives for restraint are strong. Hoover Green concludes that high levels of violence against civilians should be considered a "default setting," not an aberration.

Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars

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Author: Edward Newman,Karl DeRouen, Jr.

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113625577X

Category: Political Science

Page: 406

View: 7282

This comprehensive new Handbook explores the significance and nature of armed intrastate conflict and civil war in the modern world. Civil wars and intrastate conflict represent the principal form of organised violence since the end of World War II, and certainly in the contemporary era. These conflicts have a huge impact and drive major political change within the societies in which they occur, as well as on an international scale. The global importance of recent intrastate and regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Somalia, Nepal, Cote d'Ivoire, Syria and Libya – amongst others – has served to refocus academic and policy interest upon civil war. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field who discuss the sources, causes, duration, nature and recurrence of civil wars, as well as their political meaning and international impact, the Handbook is organised into five key parts: Part I: Understanding and Explaining Civil Wars: Theoretical and Methodological Debates Part II: The Causes of Civil Wars Part III: The Nature and Impact of Civil Wars Part IV: International Dimensions Part V: Termination and Resolution of Civil Wars Covering a wide range of topics including micro-level issues as well as broader debates, Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars will set a benchmark for future research in the field. This volume will be of much interest to students of civil wars and intrastate conflict, ethnic conflict, political violence, peace and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.

The Logic of Violence in Civil War

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Author: Stathis N. Kalyvas

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139456920

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 2759

By analytically decoupling war and violence, this book explores the causes and dynamics of violence in civil war. Against the prevailing view that such violence is an instance of impenetrable madness, the book demonstrates that there is logic to it and that it has much less to do with collective emotions, ideologies, and cultures than currently believed. Kalyvas specifies a novel theory of selective violence: it is jointly produced by political actors seeking information and individual civilians trying to avoid the worst but also grabbing what opportunities their predicament affords them. Violence, he finds, is never a simple reflection of the optimal strategy of its users; its profoundly interactive character defeats simple maximization logics while producing surprising outcomes, such as relative nonviolence in the 'frontlines' of civil war.

Wie Demokratien sterben

Und was wir dagegen tun können

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Author: Steven Levitsky,Daniel Ziblatt

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 3641222915

Category: Political Science

Page: 320

View: 6627

Ausgezeichnet mit dem NDR Kultur Sachbuchpreis 2018 als bestes Sachbuch des Jahres Demokratien sterben mit einem Knall oder mit einem Wimmern. Der Knall, also das oft gewaltsame Ende einer Demokratie durch einen Putsch, einen Krieg oder eine Revolution, ist spektakulärer. Doch das Dahinsiechen einer Demokratie, das Sterben mit einem Wimmern, ist alltäglicher – und gefährlicher, weil die Bürger meist erst aufwachen, wenn es zu spät ist. Mit Blick auf die USA, Lateinamerika und Europa zeigen die beiden Politologen Steven Levitsky und Daniel Ziblatt, woran wir erkennen, dass demokratische Institutionen und Prozesse ausgehöhlt werden. Und sie sagen, an welchen Punkten wir eingreifen können, um diese Entwicklung zu stoppen. Denn mit gezielter Gegenwehr lässt sich die Demokratie retten – auch vom Sterbebett.

Everyday Violence in the Irish Civil War

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Author: Gemma Clark

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139916505

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 1755

Everyday Violence in the Irish Civil War presents an innovative study of violence perpetrated by and against non-combatants during the Irish Civil War, 1922–3. Drawing from victim accounts of wartime injury as recorded in compensation claims, Dr Gemma Clark sheds new light on hundreds of previously neglected episodes of violence and intimidation - ranging from arson, boycott and animal maiming to assault, murder and sexual violence - that transpired amongst soldiers, civilians and revolutionaries throughout the period of conflict. The author shows us how these micro-level acts, particularly in the counties of Limerick, Tipperary and Waterford, served as an attempt to persecute and purge religious and political minorities and to force redistribution of land. Clark also assesses the international significance of the war, comparing the cruel yet arguably restrained violence that occurred in Ireland with the brutality unleashed in other European conflict zones.

The Calculus of Violence

How Americans Fought the Civil War

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Author: Aaron Sheehan-Dean

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674984226

Category: History

Page: 430

View: 2913

Discarding tidy abstractions about the conduct of war, Aaron Sheehan-Dean shows that the notoriously bloody US Civil War could have been much worse. Despite agonizing debates over Just War and careful differentiation among victims, Americans could not avoid living with the contradictions inherent in a conflict that was both violent and restrained.

Making and Unmaking Nations

The Origins and Dynamics of Genocide in Contemporary Africa

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Author: Scott Straus

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801455677

Category: Political Science

Page: 408

View: 7022

In Making and Unmaking Nations, Scott Straus seeks to explain why and how genocide takes place—and, perhaps more important, how it has been avoided in places where it may have seemed likely or even inevitable. To solve that puzzle, he examines postcolonial Africa, analyzing countries in which genocide occurred and where it could have but did not. Why have there not been other Rwandas? Straus finds that deep-rooted ideologies—how leaders make their nations—shape strategies of violence and are central to what leads to or away from genocide. Other critical factors include the dynamics of war, the role of restraint, and the interaction between national and local actors in the staging of campaigns of large-scale violence. Grounded in Straus's extensive fieldwork in contemporary Africa, the study of major twentieth-century cases of genocide, and the literature on genocide and political violence, Making and Unmaking Nations centers on cogent analyses of three nongenocide cases (Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal) and two in which genocide took place (Rwanda and Sudan). Straus’s empirical analysis is based in part on an original database of presidential speeches from 1960 to 2005. The book also includes a broad-gauge analysis of all major cases of large-scale violence in Africa since decolonization. Straus’s insights into the causes of genocide will inform the study of political violence as well as giving policymakers and nongovernmental organizations valuable tools for the future.

Iraq's Insurgency and the Road to Civil Conflict

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Author: Anthony H. Cordesman

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 0313349983

Category: History

Page: 906

View: 1014

Documents the entire evolution of the Iraqi conflict from its historical roots through the latest U.S strategy to stabilize Baghdad.

Leviathan

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Author: Thomas Hobbes

Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag

ISBN: 3787332391

Category: Philosophy

Page: 674

View: 2648

Vom "Leviathan", einem der bedeutendsten theoretischen Werke über die Ursprünge und Grundlagen der Idee des Staates und der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft, liegt nun erstmalig eine deutschsprachige Ausgabe vor, die den Text der englischen Erstausgabe von 1651 vollständig und nach den allgemein anerkannten philologischen Kriterien textgetreu darbietet. Die Ausgabe enthält die umfangreichen Marginalien der Erstausgabe und ist quellenkritisch kommentiert. Mit einer Einführung, Chronologie, Literaturverzeichnis, Register und umfangreiche Anmerkungen.

Still the Arena of Civil War

Violence and Turmoil in Reconstruction Texas, 1865-1874

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Author: Kenneth Wayne Howell

Publisher: University of North Texas Press

ISBN: 1574414496

Category: History

Page: 445

View: 6951

Following the Civil War, the United States was fully engaged in a bloody conflict with ex-Confederates, conservative Democrats, and members of organized terrorist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan, for control of the southern states. Texas became one of the earliest battleground states in the War of Reconstruction. Throughout this era, white Texans claimed that Radical Republicans in Congress were attempting to dominate their state through “Negro-Carpetbag-Scalawag rule.” In response to these perceived threats, whites initiated a violent guerrilla war that was designed to limit support for the Republican Party. They targeted loyal Unionists throughout the South, especially African Americans who represented the largest block of Republican voters in the region. Was the Reconstruction era in the Lone Star State simply a continuation of the Civil War? Evidence presented by sixteen contributors in this new anthology, edited by Kenneth W. Howell, argues that this indeed was the case. Topics include the role of the Freedmen's Bureau and the occupying army, focusing on both sides of the violence. Several contributors analyze the origins of the Ku Klux Klan and its operations in Texas, how the Texas State Police attempted to quell the violence, and Tejano adjustment to Reconstruction. Other chapters focus on violence against African-American women, the failure of Governor Throckmorton to establish law and order, and the role of newspaper editors influencing popular opinion. Finally, several contributors study Reconstruction by region in the Lower Brazos River Valley and in Lavaca County.

North Carolinians in the Era of the Civil War and Reconstruction

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Author: Paul D. Escott

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 0807837261

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 4861

Although North Carolina was a "home front" state rather than a battlefield state for most of the Civil War, it was heavily involved in the Confederate war effort and experienced many conflicts as a result. North Carolinians were divided over the issue of secession, and changes in race and gender relations brought new controversy. Blacks fought for freedom, women sought greater independence, and their aspirations for change stimulated fierce resistance from more privileged groups. Republicans and Democrats fought over power during Reconstruction and for decades thereafter disagreed over the meaning of the war and Reconstruction. With contributions by well-known historians as well as talented younger scholars, this volume offers new insights into all the key issues of the Civil War era that played out in pronounced ways in the Tar Heel State. In nine essays composed specifically for this volume, contributors address themes such as ambivalent whites, freed blacks, the political establishment, racial hopes and fears, postwar ideology, and North Carolina women. These issues of the Civil War and Reconstruction eras were so powerful that they continue to agitate North Carolinians today. Contributors: David Brown, Manchester University Judkin Browning, Appalachian State University Laura F. Edwards, Duke University Paul D. Escott, Wake Forest University John C. Inscoe, University of Georgia Chandra Manning, Georgetown University Barton A. Myers, University of Georgia Steven E. Nash, University of Georgia Paul Yandle, West Virginia University Karin Zipf, East Carolina University

Dear Martin

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Author: Nic Stone

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644405166

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 256

View: 2198

«Absolut unglaublich, ehrlich und herzzerreißend!» Angie Thomas, Autorin von «The Hate U Give» Justyce McAllister ist einer der Besten seiner Klasse, Captain des Debattierclubs und Anwärter auf einen Studienplatz in Yale – doch all das interessiert den Polizisten, der Justyce die Handschellen umlegt, nur wenig. Der Grund für seine Verhaftung: Justyce ist schwarz. Und er lebt in den USA im Jahr 2017. Mit Briefen an sein großes Vorbild Martin Luther King jr. versucht Justyce, dem alltäglichen Rassismus etwas entgegenzusetzen. Und dann ist da noch Sarah-Jane, seine kluge, schöne — und weiße – Debattierpartnerin. Als jedoch sein bester Freund Manny erschossen wird, scheint es, als ob selbst Martin Luther King jr. keine Antwort mehr für Justyce bereithält.

Rethinking Southern Violence

Homicides in Post-Civil War Louisiana, 1866-1884

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Author: Gilles Vandal

Publisher: Ohio State University Press

ISBN: 9780814208380

Category: Social Science

Page: 321

View: 9040

By analyzing nearly 5,000 homicides over an eighteen-year period, Gilles Vandal provides a clear picture of the level of physical violence in Louisiana after the Civil War. He combines statistics with more traditional sources to draw conclusions about the patterns of violence and their geographical distribution. Examining post-Civil War Louisiana homicide from various perspectives, this book shows that patterns of homicide varied widely from one region to another, between racial and ethnic groups, and between genders. Vandal also compares the situation in rural areas with that in New Orleans, the state's largest city. He examines the motivations for criminal violence and provides an explanation for the emergence of lynching as an acceptable form of punishment, especially against African Americans. This study points to a clear dichotomy between the general lawlessness of whites and the relatively nonviolent attitude of blacks during Reconstruction. Finally, Rethinking Southern Violence shows how black intraracial homicides became an important component of the general atmosphere of lawlessness in the South as the degradation of social, legal, and political conditions which characterized the Reconstruction period increasingly alienated blacks. The quantity of data analyzed, the issues raised, and the methodological approach used take Vandal's work beyond the traditional study of violence in southern society. Not only does he deal with issues and subjects rarely addressed by historians, but he also opens new paths for understanding the roots of violence in twentieth-century America.

Political Civility in the Middle East

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Author: Frederic Volpi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317977815

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 9591

Contemporary debates about civility are shaped by the dominant liberal and secular narratives of a peaceful world of sovereign nation-states. For contemporary scholars and policy makers, the challenge is to insert meaningfully the political evolution of the Middle East in the dominant liberal-democratic discourse about the current international order without invoking ill-conceived notions of Islamic exceptionalism. The analyses gathered in this book challenge conventional ‘western’ perspectives on civility as an expression of state-guaranteed free association in a non-violent space of discourse and behaviour. Considering the articulation of ‘civil’ and ‘civilized’ state-society relations in contemporary Middle Eastern polities, this book proposes both conceptual and empirical insights into the dynamics of the local, national and trans-national formation of civility and of the civil sphere. Bypassing traditional oppositions between the ‘western’ and ‘Islamic’ modernity, it provides an account of the communicative clusters of civility that represent the everyday formations of Islamic and secular subjects in settings organized by authoritarian-inclined state institutions and practices. It examines how the grassroots formation of ‘new’ religious and secular identities/subjectivities and their relations with the ‘Other’ underpin, as well as challenge and transform, the state-led processes of political ordering of a national and regional community. This book was originally published as a special issue of Third World Quarterly.

Inside Rebellion

The Politics of Insurgent Violence

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Author: Jeremy M. Weinstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139458698

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 515

Some rebel groups abuse noncombatant populations, while others exhibit restraint. Insurgent leaders in some countries transform local structures of government, while others simply extract resources for their own benefit. In some contexts, groups kill their victims selectively, while in other environments violence appears indiscriminate, even random. This book presents a theory that accounts for the different strategies pursued by rebel groups in civil war, explaining why patterns of insurgent violence vary so much across conflicts. It does so by examining the membership, structure, and behavior of four insurgent movements in Uganda, Mozambique, and Peru. Drawing on interviews with nearly two hundred combatants and civilians who experienced violence firsthand, it shows that rebels' strategies depend in important ways on how difficult it is to launch a rebellion. The book thus demonstrates how characteristics of the environment in which rebellions emerge constrain rebel organization and shape the patterns of violence that civilians experience.

Civil Resistance and Power Politics

The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present

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Author: Sir Adam Roberts,Timothy Garton Ash

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191619175

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 2688

This widely-praised book identified peaceful struggle as a key phenomenon in international politics a year before the revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt confirmed its central argument. Civil resistance - non-violent action against such challenges as dictatorial rule, racial discrimination and foreign military occupation - is a significant but inadequately understood feature of world politics. Especially through the peaceful revolutions of 1989, and the developments in the Arab world since December 2010, it has helped to shape the world we live in. Civil Resistance and Power Politics covers most of the leading cases, including the actions master-minded by Gandhi, the US civil rights struggle in the 1960s, the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979, the 'people power' revolt in the Philippines in the 1980s, the campaigns against apartheid in South Africa, the various movements contributing to the collapse of the Soviet Bloc in 1989-91, and, in this century, the 'colour revolutions' in Georgia and Ukraine. The chapters, written by leading experts, are richly descriptive and analytically rigorous. This book addresses the complex interrelationship between civil resistance and other dimensions of power. It explores the question of whether civil resistance should be seen as potentially replacing violence completely, or as a phenomenon that operates in conjunction with, and modification of, power politics. It looks at cases where campaigns were repressed, including China in 1989 and Burma in 2007. It notes that in several instances, including Northern Ireland, Kosovo and, Georgia, civil resistance movements were followed by the outbreak of armed conflict. It also includes a chapter with new material from Russian archives showing how the Soviet leadership responded to civil resistance, and a comprehensive bibliographical essay. Illustrated throughout with a remarkable selection of photographs, this uniquely wide-ranging and path-breaking study is written in an accessible style and is intended for the general reader as well as for students of Modern History, Politics, Sociology, and International Relations.

Journal of the Civil War Era

Winter 2014 Issue -- Coming to Terms with Civil War Military History: A Special Issue

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Author: William A. Blair

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469616009

Category: History

Page: 168

View: 6832

The Journal of the Civil War Era Volume 4, Number 4 December 2014 TABLE OF CONTENTS Articles Gary Gallagher & Kathryn Shively Meier Coming to Terms with Civil War Military History Peter C. Luebke "Equal to Any Minstrel Concert I Ever Attended at Home": Union Soldiers and Blackface Performance in the Civil War South John J. Hennessy Evangelizing for Union, 1863: The Army of the Potomac, Its Enemies at Home, and a New Solidarity Andrew F. Lang Republicanism, Race, and Reconstruction: The Ethos of Military Occupation in Civil War America Professional Notes Kevin M. Levin Black Confederates Out of the Attic and Into the Mainstream Book Reviews Books Received Notes on Contributors