Victorians Against the Gallows

Capital Punishment and the Abolitionist Movement in Nineteenth Century Britain

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Author: James Gregory

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857730886

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 551

By the time that Queen Victoria ascended the throne in 1837, the list of crimes liable to attract the death penalty had effectively been reduced to murder. Yet, despite this, the gallows remained a source of controversy in Victorian Britain and there was a growing unease in liberal quarters surrounding the question of capital punishment. In this book, James Gregory examines organised efforts to abolish capital punishment in Britain and the Empire in the Victorian era, focusing particularly on the activities of the Society for the Abolition of Capital Punishment. The amelioration of the notoriously ‘Bloody Code’ of the British state may have limited capital punishment effectively to a small number of murderers after 1840 but, despite this, capital punishment was a matter of perennial debate, from the local arena of school debating societies to the ‘imperial Parliament’, and a topic to trouble the minds of thoughtful Victorians across the British world. Drawing on a wide range of sources, from pamphlets by abolitionists or their opponents to gallows broadsides, official inquiries, provincial newspapers, novels and short stories, Gregory studies a movement acknowledged by contemporaries to be agitating one of the ‘questions of the day’ - challenging as it did contemporary theology, state infliction of violence, and prevalent ideas about punishment. He explores important aspects such as: capital punishment debates in the ‘Lex Britannica’ of British colonies and dominions, the role of women abolitionists and the class and gendered inflexions to the ‘gallows question’, the representation of the problem of capital punishment in Victorian fiction, and the relationship between abolitionists and the Home Office which exercised the royal prerogative of mercy. While the abolitionism of Nonconformist reformers such as the Quakers and Unitarians is familiar, Gregory introduces the reader to the abolitionist debates in Jewish, secularist and spiritualist circles, and explores themes such as the imagined role of the Queen as ‘fount of mercy’ and the disturbing figure of the hangman. Studying the provincial, national and international aspects to the movement, Victorians Against the Gallows offers an important contribution to our understanding of Victorian reform activities, and Victorian culture.

The Poetry and the Politics

Radical Reform in Victorian England

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Author: James Gregory

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 1780767234

Category: History

Page: 224

View: 8937

The nineteenth century was a time of social, political and technological ferment; perhaps especially in the 1840s and 1850s. In this book, James Gregory studies radical reform at the margins of early Victorian Britain through the life of James Elmslie Duncan, an eccentric poet living through extraordinary times: when foreign and British promoters of extravagant technologically-assisted utopias could attract many hundreds of supporters of limited means, when pioneers of vegetarianism joined the ranks of the temperance cause, and when working-class Chartists, reviving a struggle for political reform, seemed to threaten the State for a brief moment in April 1848. Gregory brings these themes and leading characters vividly to life in a study that will be essential reading for anyone interested in radical reform or popular political movements in Victorian Britain.

Capital Punishment in Twentieth-Century Britain

Audience, Justice, Memory

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Author: Lizzie Seal

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136250727

Category: Social Science

Page: 188

View: 4989

Capital punishment for murder was abolished in Britain in 1965. At this time, the way people in Britain perceived and understood the death penalty had changed – it was an issue that had become increasingly controversial, high-profile and fraught with emotion. In order to understand why this was, it is necessary to examine how ordinary people learned about and experienced capital punishment. Drawing on primary research, this book explores the cultural life of the death penalty in Britain in the twentieth century, including an exploration of the role of the popular press and a discussion of portrayals of the death penalty in plays, novels and films. Popular protest against capital punishment and public responses to and understandings of capital cases are also discussed, particularly in relation to conceptualisations of justice. Miscarriages of justice were significant to capital punishment’s increasingly fraught nature in the mid twentieth-century and the book analyses the unsettling power of two such high profile miscarriages of justice. The final chapters consider the continuing relevance of capital punishment in Britain after abolition, including its symbolism and how people negotiate memories of the death penalty. Capital Punishment in Twentieth-Century Britain is groundbreaking in its attention to the death penalty and the effect it had on everyday life and it is the only text on this era to place public and popular discourses about, and reactions to, capital punishment at the centre of the analysis. Interdisciplinary in focus and methodology, it will appeal to historians, criminologists, sociologists and socio-legal scholars.

Executing Magic in the Modern Era

Criminal Bodies and the Gallows in Popular Medicine

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Author: Owen Davies,Francesca Matteoni

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319595199

Category: History

Page: 118

View: 9852

This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license This book explores the magical and medical history of executions from the eighteenth to the early twentieth century by looking at the afterlife potency of criminal corpses, the healing activities of the executioner, and the magic of the gallows site. The use of corpses in medicine and magic has been recorded back into antiquity. The lacerated bodies of Roman gladiators were used as a source of curative blood, for instance. In early modern Europe, a great trade opened up in ancient Egyptian mummies and the fat of executed criminals, plundered as medicinal cure-alls. However, this is the first book to consider the demand for the blood of the executed, the desire for human fat, the resort to the hanged man’s hand, and the trade in hanging rope in the modern era. It ends by look at the spiritual afterlife of dead criminals.

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice

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Author: Paul Knepper,Anja Johansen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019935233X

Category: Crime

Page: 720

View: 6546

The historical study of crime has expanded in criminology during the past few decades, forming an active niche area in social history. Indeed, the history of crime is more relevant than ever as scholars seek to address contemporary issues in criminology and criminal justice. Thus, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice provides a systematic and comprehensive examination of recent developments across both fields. Chapters examine existing research, explain on-going debates and controversies, and point to new areas of interest, covering topics such as criminal law and courts, police and policing, and the rise of criminology as a field. This Handbook also analyzes some of the most pressing criminological issues of our time, including drug trafficking, terrorism, and the intersections of gender, race, and class in the context of crime and punishment. The definitive volume on the history of crime, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Crime and Criminal Justice is an invaluable resource for students and scholars of criminology, criminal justice, and legal history.

alias Grace

Roman

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Author: Margaret Atwood

Publisher: Piper ebooks

ISBN: 349297743X

Category: Fiction

Page: 624

View: 4087

Toronto, 1843: Das junge Dienstmädchen Grace wird mit sechzehn des Doppelmordes an ihren Arbeitgebern schuldig gesprochen. In letzter Sekunde wandelt das Gericht ihr Todesurteil in eine lebenslange Gefängnisstrafe um. Sie verbringt Jahre hinter Gittern, bis man sie schließlich entlässt. Im Haushalt des Anstaltdirektors begegnet sie dem Nervenarzt Simon, der ihrer Geschichte auf den Grund gehen will: Ist Grace eine gemeingefährliche Verbrecherin oder unschuldig? Margaret Atwood hat einen Roman von hypnotischer Spannung geschrieben, der die Geschichte einer realen Gestalt, einer der berüchtigtsten Frauen Kanadas erzählt.

Explaining the Depiction of Violence Against Women in Victorian Literature

Applying Julia Kristeva's Theory of Abjection to Dickens, Brontë, and Braddon

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Author: Karen F. Tatum

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 199

View: 6996

This book examines the causes of the abject response in canonical novels, such as Charles Dickens' Oliver Twist, Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre, and Mary Elizabeth Braddon's Aurora Floyd and Lady Audley's Secret. In Powers of Horror, Julia Kristeva outlines her theory of abjection as a simultaneous fascination and horror stemming from sensorial reminders of the subject's primal, psychological relation to the mother. The author suggests that these psychological perspectives can potentially result in acts of physical violence, which are called abject response. By developing Julia Kristeva's theory of abjection as a model for reading physical acts of violence against women, the book yields specific answers to its overriding questions: why was a female body so threatening in nineteenth-century fiction? The answer lies in social constructions of women as powers of horror, which the male subject imbibes and which lead to domestic violence if improperly balanced.

Der Fluch des Hauses Foskett

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Author: M.R.C. Kasasian

Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe

ISBN: 3455000665

Category: Fiction

Page: 445

View: 7256

Sidney Grice ist zurück, und seine Laune ist nicht besser geworden. Die Stimmung in der Gower Street 125 ist mies. Seit Sidney Grice durch seine Ermittlungen einen unschuldigen Mann an den Galgen gebracht hat, laufen die Geschäfte schlecht. Der scharfsinnigste Detektiv des viktorianischen England liegt stundenlang apathisch in der Badewanne. Selbst zum Einsetzen seines Glasauges fehlt ihm die Kraft. March Middleton, Sidneys Patentochter, langweilt sich zu Tode ... Bis zu dem Tag, an dem ein Mitglied des bizarren Clubs »Finaler Sterbefallverein« sein Leben aushaucht – mitten in Sidneys Wohnzimmer. Immerhin haben Sidney und March endlich wieder etwas zu tun. Und das nicht zu knapp, denn es bleibt nicht bei dieser einen Leiche. Die Ermittlungen führen das ungleiche Paar von London bis nach Kew in ein unheimliches Herrenhaus, dessen Eigentümerin, die enigmatische Baroness Foskett, eine alte Bekannte Sidneys ist.

Walk Towards the Gallows

The Tragedy of Hilda Blake, Hanged 1899

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Author: Tom Mitchell,Reinhold Kramer

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442692146

Category: History

Page: 318

View: 8985

On 5 July 1899 Hilda Blake, a 21-year-old maidservant in Brandon, Manitoba, who had come to Canada from England ten years earlier as an orphan immigrant, shot and killed her mistress. Two days after Christmas she was hanged, one of the few women in Canadian history to die for her crime. Blake unintentionally left a remarkable documentary record, ranging from Poorhouse records, courts dockets of custody and criminal cases in which she was the central figure, popular, journalistic, and professional assessments of her character, and a poem, 'My Downfall', that she penned in Brandon Gaol while awaiting execution. To explain why Hilda bought a gun and why she fired it, Kramer and Mitchell employee both historical and literary techniques. The result is a richly textured story of late Victorian social, cultural, and political life. This remarkable book - part mystery, part historical detective story - uncovers Hilda Blake's life, from her origins in Norfolk, England, to her tragic death. It also examines the lives of other principals in the story: successful Brandon businessman Robert Lane and his wife Mary, the murdered woman; Lane's business partner, Alexander McIlvride; Police Chief James Kircaldy; A.P. Stewart and his wife, Letitia Singer Stewart, the family for whom the 12-year-old orphaned Hilda first worked as a domestic servant; Rev. C.C. McLaurin, the Baptist minister who knew Hilda and counselled the condemned woman in her final days; social purity activist Dr Amelia Yeomans, who petitioned for clemency; Governor-General Minto, who urged the Laurier government to stay the execution, even Clifford Sifton, the MP from Brandon, federal minister of Immigration, and the most powerful western Liberal in the Laurier cabinet, for whom the case was a potential minefield. As the authors write, 'We tell a story because only a story can expose the real workings of a culture, and only a story can express our protest against time.'

Das Geheimnis von Wishtide Manor

Laetitia Rodd's erster Fall

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Author: Kate Saunders

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 310490278X

Category: Fiction

Page: 384

View: 573

Großer Auftritt für eine unwiderstehliche Ermittlerin, die alles sieht und keinem auffällt: Laetitia Rodd ist die Frau für diskrete Ermittlungen. Sie sieht, was anderen verborgen bleibt. Man vertraut ihr, denn sie gehört dazu. Sie erfährt Geheimnisse, weil sie als Witwe in der Gesellschaft so unauffällig ist. Ihr Auftrag führt sie 1851 von London auf den Landsitz des reichen Sir James Calderstone. Sein Sohn Charles will eine junge Frau heiraten, der Sir James misstraut. Was verheimlicht sie? Laetitia soll dunkle Flecken in Helens Vergangenheit aufspüren. Doch da wird Helen ermordet, und ihr Verlobter Charles gilt als der Täter. Die Suche nach dem wahren Mörder bringt Laetitia selbst in größte Gefahr...

The Great Stink

A Novel of Corruption and Murder Beneath the Streets of Victorian London

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Author: Clare Clark

Publisher: HMH

ISBN: 0547540086

Category: Fiction

Page: 368

View: 8299

A mystery that offers “a gripping and richly atmospheric glimpse into the literal underworld of Victorian England—the labyrinthine London sewer system” (Publishers Weekly, starred review). Clare Clark’s critically acclaimed The Great Stink “reeks of talent” as it vividly brings to life the dark and mysterious underworld of Victorian London (The Washington Post Book World). Set in 1855, it tells the story of William May, an engineer who has returned home to London from the horrors of the Crimean War. When he secures a job trans­forming the city’s sewer system, he believes that he will be able to find salvation in the subterranean world beneath the city. But the peace of the tunnels is shattered by a murder, and William is implicated as the killer. Could he truly have committed the crime? How will he bring the truth above ground? With richly atmospheric prose, The Great Stink combines fact and fiction to transport readers into London’s putrid past, and marks the debut of a remarkably talented writer in the tradition of the very best historical novelists. “A crackerjack historical novel that combines the creepy intrigue of Caleb Carr, the sensory overload of Peter Ackroyd and the academic curiosity of A. S. Byatt.” —Los Angeles Times

The Trials of Laura Fair

Sex, Murder, and Insanity in the Victorian West

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Author: Carole Haber

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 146960759X

Category: History

Page: 328

View: 8420

On November 3, 1870, on a San Francisco ferry, Laura Fair shot a bullet into the heart of her married lover, A. P. Crittenden. Throughout her two murder trials, Fair's lawyers, supported by expert testimony from physicians, claimed that the shooting was the result of temporary insanity caused by a severely painful menstrual cycle. The first jury disregarded such testimony, choosing instead to focus on Fair's disreputable character. In the second trial, however, an effective defense built on contemporary medical beliefs and gendered stereotypes led to a verdict that shocked Americans across the country. In this rousing history, Carole Haber probes changing ideas about morality and immorality, masculinity and femininity, love and marriage, health and disease, and mental illness to show that all these concepts were reinvented in the Victorian West. Haber's book examines the era's most controversial issues, including suffrage, the gendered courts, women's physiology, and free love. This notorious story enriches our understanding of Victorian society, opening the door to a discussion about the ways in which reputation, especially female reputation, is shaped.

Dirty Old London

The Victorian Fight Against Filth

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Author: Lee Jackson

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300210221

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 2588

In Victorian London, filth was everywhere: horse traffic filled the streets with dung, household rubbish went uncollected, cesspools brimmed with "night soil," graveyards teemed with rotting corpses, the air itself was choked with smoke. In this intimately visceral book, Lee Jackson guides us through the underbelly of the Victorian metropolis, introducing us to the men and women who struggled to stem a rising tide of pollution and dirt, and the forces that opposed them. Through thematic chapters, Jackson describes how Victorian reformers met with both triumph and disaster. Full of individual stories and overlooked details—from the dustmen who grew rich from recycling, to the peculiar history of the public toilet—this riveting book gives us a fresh insight into the minutiae of daily life and the wider challenges posed by the unprecedented growth of the Victorian capital.

Poison, detection, and the Victorian imagination

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Author: Ian A. Burney

Publisher: Manchester Univ Pr

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 193

View: 3654

This fascinating book looks at the phenomenon of murder and poisoning in the nineteenth century. Focusing on the case of William Palmer, a medical doctor who in 1856 was convicted of murder by poisoning, it examines how his case baffled toxicologists, doctors, detectives and judges. The investigation commences with an overview of the practice of toxicology in the Victorian era, and goes on to explore the demands imposed by legal testimony on scientific work to convict criminals. In addressing Palmer's trial, Burney focuses on the testimony of Albert Taylor, a leading expert on poisons, and integrates the medical, legal and literary evidence to make sense of the trial itself and the sinister place of poison in wider Victorian society. Ian Burney has produced an exemplary work of cultural history, mixing a keen understanding of the contemporary social and cultural landscape with the scientific and medical history of the period.

The Death Penalty

A Debate

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Author: Ernest Van den Haag,John Phillips Conrad

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489927875

Category: Social Science

Page: 305

View: 9360

From 1965 until 1980, there was a virtual moratorium on executions for capital offenses in the United States. This was due primarily to protracted legal proceedings challenging the death penalty on constitutional grounds. After much Sturm und Drang, the Supreme Court of the United States, by a divided vote, finally decided that "the death penalty does not invariably violate the Cruel and Unusual Punishment Clause of the Eighth Amendment." The Court's decisions, however, do not moot the controversy about the death penalty or render this excellent book irrelevant. The ball is now in the court of the Legislature and the Executive. Leg islatures, federal and state, can impose or abolish the death penalty, within the guidelines prescribed by the Supreme Court. A Chief Executive can commute a death sentence. And even the Supreme Court can change its mind, as it has done on many occasions and did, with respect to various aspects of the death penalty itself, durlog the moratorium period. Also, the people can change their minds. Some time ago, a majority, according to reliable polls, favored abolition. Today, a substantial majority favors imposition of the death penalty. The pendulum can swing again, as it has done in the past.

English Fiction of the Victorian Period, 1830-1890

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Author: Michael Wheeler

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: N.A

Category: Fiction

Page: 292

View: 6426

Professor Wheeler's widely-acclaimed survey of the nineteenth-century fiction covers both the major writers and their works and encompasses the genres and "minor" fiction of the period. This excellent introduction and reference source has been revised for this second edition to include new material on lesser-known writers and a comprehensively updated bibliography.

Civil War Journal: The Legacies

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Author: William C. Davis,Brian Pohanka,Don Troiani

Publisher: Thomas Nelson

ISBN: 1418559040

Category: History

Page: 515

View: 8581

"In many arenas, the Civil War changed things both in military and civilian life," William C. Davis observes. "The roles in society of women and minorities were altered drastically. Advancements in medicine and technology exerted a profound impact on the future. Industry burgeoned. The reporting of news entered the modern era with the photograph. Culture changed as the complexion of Americans evolved and as war's wounds imposed lasting divisions upon our society. It ensured at once that future wars would be more terrible, and yet we would be equipped to cope with that terror to come. These are the legacies of the war covered in this volume." Civil War Journal: The Legacies is the third volume of a three-volume treatment of the Civil War developed from the popular History Channel series Civil War Journal. Drawing on personal letters, diaries, and newspaper reports, these volumes focus on seldom-told stories of people, places, and events that bring to life the heroic intensity of the Civil War. They portray the human side of the conflict that is frequently overlooked in recounting troop movements and engagements.