Veto Players

How Political Institutions Work

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Author: George Tsebelis

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400831456

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 8667

Political scientists have long classified systems of government as parliamentary or presidential, two-party or multiparty, and so on. But such distinctions often fail to provide useful insights. For example, how are we to compare the United States, a presidential bicameral regime with two weak parties, to Denmark, a parliamentary unicameral regime with many strong parties? Veto Players advances an important, new understanding of how governments are structured. The real distinctions between political systems, contends George Tsebelis, are to be found in the extent to which they afford political actors veto power over policy choices. Drawing richly on game theory, he develops a scheme by which governments can thus be classified. He shows why an increase in the number of "veto players," or an increase in their ideological distance from each other, increases policy stability, impeding significant departures from the status quo. Policy stability affects a series of other key characteristics of polities, argues the author. For example, it leads to high judicial and bureaucratic independence, as well as high government instability (in parliamentary systems). The propositions derived from the theoretical framework Tsebelis develops in the first part of the book are tested in the second part with various data sets from advanced industrialized countries, as well as analysis of legislation in the European Union. Representing the first consistent and consequential theory of comparative politics, Veto Players will be welcomed by students and scholars as a defining text of the discipline. From the preface to the Italian edition: ? "Tsebelis has produced what is today the most original theory for the understanding of the dynamics of contemporary regimes. . . . This book promises to remain a lasting contribution to political analysis."--Gianfranco Pasquino, Professor of Political Science, University of Bologna

Nested Games

Rational Choice in Comparative Politics

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Author: George Tsebelis

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520911970

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 1461

Clearly written and easily understood by the nonspecialist, Nested Games provides a systematic, empirically accurate, and theoretically coherent account of apparently irrational political actions.

Reform Processes and Policy Change

Veto Players and Decision-Making in Modern Democracies

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Author: Thomas König,George Tsebelis,Marc Debus

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441958099

Category: Political Science

Page: 284

View: 3391

George Tsebelis’ veto players approach has become a prominent theory to analyze various research questions in political science. Studies that apply veto player theory deal with the impact of institutions and partisan preferences of legislative activity and policy outcomes. It is used to measure the degree of policy change and, thus, reform capacity in national and international political systems. This volume contains the analysis of leading scholars in the field on these topics and more recent developments regarding theoretical and empirical progress in the area of political reform-making. The contributions come from research areas of political science where veto player theory plays a significant role, including, positive political theory, legislative behavior and legislative decision-making in national and supra-national political systems, policy making and government formation. The contributors to this book add to the current scholarly and public debate on the role of veto players, making it of interest to scholars in political science and policy studies as well as policymakers worldwide.

Making and Breaking Governments

Cabinets and Legislatures in Parliamentary Democracies

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Author: Michael Laver,Kenneth A. Shepsle

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521438360

Category: Poetry

Page: 301

View: 589

Making and Breaking Governments offers a theoretical argument about how parliamentary democracy works. The authors formulate a theoretical model of how parties create new governments and either maintain them in office or, after a resignation or no-confidence vote, replace them. The theory involves strategic interaction, derives consequences, formulates empirical hypotheses on the basis of these, and tests the hypotheses with data drawn from the postwar European experience with parliamentary democracy.

Bicameralism

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Author: George Tsebelis,Jeannette Money

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521589727

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

View: 2581

This book examines how the chambers of bicameral legislatures interact when they produce legislation.

Patterns of Democracy

Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries

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Author: Arend Lijphart

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300172028

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 3391

In this updated and expanded edition of his classic text, Arend Lijphart offers a broader and deeper analysis of worldwide democratic institutions than ever before. Examining thirty-six democracies during the period from 1945 to 2010, Lijphart arrives at important—and unexpected—conclusions about what type of democracy works best. Praise for the previous edition: "Magnificent. . . . The best-researched book on democracy in the world today."—Malcolm Mackerras, American Review of Politics "I can't think of another scholar as well qualified as Lijphart to write a book of this kind. He has an amazing grasp of the relevant literature, and he's compiled an unmatched collection of data."—Robert A. Dahl, Yale University "This sound comparative research . . . will continue to be a standard in graduate and undergraduate courses in comparative politics."—Choice

Contemporary Democracies

Participation, Stability, and Violence

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Author: G. Bingham POWELL,G. Bingham Powell

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674042352

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

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Legislative Voting and Accountability

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Author: John M. Carey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139476793

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 4828

Legislatures are the core representative institutions in modern democracies. Citizens want legislatures to be decisive, and they want accountability, but they are frequently disillusioned with the representation legislators deliver. Political parties can provide decisiveness in legislatures, and they may provide collective accountability, but citizens and political reformers frequently demand another type of accountability from legislators – at the individual level. Can legislatures provide both kinds of accountability? This book considers what collective and individual accountability require and provides the most extensive cross-national analysis of legislative voting undertaken to date. It illustrates the balance between individualistic and collective representation in democracies, and how party unity in legislative voting shapes that balance. In addition to quantitative analysis of voting patterns, the book draws on extensive field and archival research to provide an extensive assessment of legislative transparency throughout the Americas.

Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America

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Author: Scott Mainwaring

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521576147

Category: Political Science

Page: 493

View: 699

David J. Samuels and Matthew S. Shugart provide the first systematic analysis of how democratic constitutional design shapes party politics.

Elections as Instruments of Democracy

Majoritarian and Proportional Visions

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Author: G. Bingham Powell

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300080162

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 474

This text explores elections as instruments of democracy. Focusing on elections in 20 democracies over the last 25 years, it examines the differences between two visions of democracy - the majoritarian vision and the proportional influence vision.

Dictators and Democracy in African Development

The Political Economy of Good Governance in Nigeria

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Author: A. Carl LeVan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107081149

Category: Political Science

Page: 308

View: 490

This book argues that the structure of the policy-making process in Nigeria explains variations in government performance better than other commonly cited factors.

Pivotal Politics

A Theory of U.S. Lawmaking

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Author: Keith Krehbiel

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226452739

Category: Political Science

Page: 274

View: 5932

Politicians and pundits alike have complained that the divided governments of the last decades have led to legislative gridlock. Not so, argues Keith Krehbiel, who advances the provocative theory that divided government actually has little effect on legislative productivity. Gridlock is in fact the order of the day, occurring even when the same party controls the legislative and executive branches. Meticulously researched and anchored to real politics, Krehbiel argues that the pivotal vote on a piece of legislation is not the one that gives a bill a simple majority, but the vote that allows its supporters to override a possible presidential veto or to put a halt to a filibuster. This theory of pivots also explains why, when bills are passed, winning coalitions usually are bipartisan and supermajority sized. Offering an incisive account of when gridlock is overcome and showing that political parties are less important in legislative-executive politics than previously thought, Pivotal Politics remakes our understanding of American lawmaking.

At the Heart of the Union

Studies of the European Commission

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Author: Neill Nugent

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349257915

Category: Political Science

Page: 328

View: 341

The European Commission is very much at the heart of the European Union. Its wide variety of roles make it the institution most readily identified with the Union's many different activities. Surprisingly, relatively little has been written about this vital European institution. This book makes a major contribution to furthering understanding of the Commission. A broad range of different perspectives based on new research cover all aspects of its nature and functioning.

The Deadlock of Democracy in Brazil

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Author: Barry Ames

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472021437

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 2226

Many countries have experimented with different electoral rules in order either to increase involvement in the political system or make it easier to form stable governments. Barry Ames explores this important topic in one of the world's most populous and important democracies, Brazil. This book locates one of the sources of Brazil's "crisis of governance" in the nation's unique electoral system, a system that produces a multiplicity of weak parties and individualistic, pork-oriented politicians with little accountability to citizens. It explains the government's difficulties in adopting innovative policies by examining electoral rules, cabinet formation, executive-legislative conflict, party discipline and legislative negotiation. The book combines extensive use of new sources of data, ranging from historical and demographic analysis in focused comparisons of individual states to unique sources of data for the exploration of legislative politics. The discussion of party discipline in the Chamber of Deputies is the first multivariate model of party cooperation or defection in Latin America that includes measures of such important phenomena as constituency effects, pork-barrel receipts, ideology, electoral insecurity, and intention to seek reelection. With a unique data set and a sophisticated application of rational choice theory, Barry Ames demonstrates the effect of different electoral rules for election to Brazil's legislature. The readership of this book includes anyone wanting to understand the crisis of democratic politics in Brazil. The book will be especially useful to scholars and students in the areas of comparative politics, Latin American politics, electoral analysis, and legislative studies. Barry Ames is the Andrew Mellon Professor of Comparative Politics and Chair, Department of Political Science, University of Pittsburgh.

Policymaking in Latin America

How Politics Shapes Policies

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Author: Ernesto Stein,Mariano Tommasi,Carlos G. Scartascini,Pablo Tomas Spiller

Publisher: Harvard Univ David Rockefeller

ISBN: 9781597820615

Category: History

Page: 500

View: 6246

Political institutions, policymaking, and policy: an introduction / Pablo T. Spiller, Ernesto Stein, and Mariano Tommasi -- Who's who in the PMP: an overview of actors, incentives, and the roles they play / Carlos Scartascini -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Argentina / Pablo T. Spiller and Mariano Tommasi -- On the road to good governance: recovering from economic and political shocks in Brazil / Lee J. Alston ... [et. al] -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Chile / Cristóbal Aninat ... [et. al] -- Political institutions and policy outcomes in Colombia: the effects of the 1991 constitution / Mauricio Cárdenas, Roberto Junguito, Mónica Pachòn -- Veto players, fickle institutions, and low-quality policies: the policymaking process in Ecuador / Andrés Mejia Acosta ... [et. al] -- Policymaking in Mexico under one-party hegemony and divided government / Fabrice Lehoucq ... [et. al] -- Political institutions, policymaking processes, and policy outcomes in Paraguay / José Molinas ... [et. al] -- Political institutions and policymaking in Venezuela: the rise and collapse of political cooperation / Francisco Monaldi ... [et. al].

Democracy and Development

Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950-1990

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Author: Adam Przeworski

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521793797

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 321

View: 6899

Examines impact of political regimes on economic development between 1950 and 1990.

Legislative Institutions and Lawmaking in Latin America

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Author: Eduardo Alemán,George Tsebelis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191083607

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 5657

In this volume, twelve experts on Latin American politics investigate the ways in which the interaction between legislative institutions and the policy positions of key actors affects the initiation and passage of legislation, covering seven Latin American Countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Uruguay. These seven presidential systems vary widely in terms of their legislative institutions and the position of relevant actors. The introduction provides a framework to understand the interaction of legislative majorities, political institutions, and policy position, and each chapter begins with a description of the constitutional and congressional rules that allocate powers to propose, amend, and veto legislation. The authors then identify the political actors who have these prerogatives and apply the framework to show how their policy positions and relative strengths influence legislative decision-making. The findings are consistent with the basic argument of the book that presidents with extensive legislative powers may be constrained by the positions of their legislative allies, whereas weaker presidents may be well-positioned to build successful coalitions to achieve their legislative goals. The essays in this volume demonstrate that institutional design, which determines the allocation of legislative powers, must be considered along with the policy preferences of key legislative actors in order to construct a full picture of law-making. Oxford Studies in Democratization is a series for scholars and students of comparative politics and related disciplines. Volumes concentrate on the comparative study of the democratization process that accompanied the decline and termination of the cold war. The geographical focus of the series is primarily Latin America, the Caribbean, Southern and Eastern Europe, and relevant experiences in Africa and Asia. The series editor is Laurence Whitehead, Senior Research Fellow, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.

The Institutional Economics of Foreign Aid

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Author: Bertin Martens,Uwe Mummert,Peter Murrell,Paul Seabright

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139432627

Category: Business & Economics

Page: N.A

View: 7248

This book is about the institutions, incentives and constraints that guide the behaviour of people and organizations involved in the implementation of foreign aid programmes. While traditional performance studies tend to focus almost exclusively on the policies and institutions in recipient countries, this book looks at incentives in the entire chain of organizations involved in the delivery of foreign aid, from donor governments and agencies to consultants, experts and other intermediaries. Four aspects of foreign aid delivery are examined in detail: incentives inside donor agencies, the interaction of subcontractors with recipient organizations, incentives inside recipient country institutions, and biases in aid performance monitoring systems.

Parliamentary Versus Presidential Government

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Author: Arend Lijphart

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198780443

Category: Political Science

Page: 257

View: 9516

Parliamentary and presidential governments--exemplified by most European countries for the former and the United States and Latin America for the latter--are the two principal forms of democracy in the modern world. Their respective advantages and disadvantages have been long debated, at first mainly by British and American political observers but with increasing frequency in other parts of the world, especially in Latin America, but also in Western and Eastern Europe and Asia. The recent world-wide wave of democratization has intensified both the debate and its significance. This volume brings together the most important statement on the subject by advocates and analysts--from Montesquieu and Madison to Lipset and Linz. It also treats the merits of less frequently used democratic types, such as French-style semi-presidentialism, that may be regarded as intermediate forms between parliamentarism and presidentialism.

The Transaction Cost Economics Project

The Theory and Practice of the Governance of Contractual Relations

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Author: Oliver E. Williamson

Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub

ISBN: 9780857938770

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 417

View: 6825

'Williamson's work on transaction cost economics has shaped the thinking of all social scientists about organizations and institutions. This volume reprints many of his seminal papers on the subject, and is valuable both as commemoration and for reference.' - Avinash Dixit, Princeton University, US