Unequal Time

Gender, Class, and Family in Employment Schedules

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Dan Clawson,Naomi Gerstel

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 161044843X

Category: Social Science

Page: 340

View: 7682

Life is unpredictable. Control over one’s time is a crucial resource for managing that unpredictability, keeping a job, and raising a family. But the ability to control one’s time, much like one’s income, is determined to a significant degree by both gender and class. In Unequal Time, sociologists Dan Clawson and Naomi Gerstel explore the ways in which social inequalities permeate the workplace, shaping employees’ capacities to determine both their work schedules and home lives, and exacerbating differences between men and women, and the economically privileged and disadvantaged. Unequal Time investigates the interconnected schedules of four occupations in the health sector—professional-class doctors and nurses, and working-class EMTs and nursing assistants. While doctors and EMTs are predominantly men, nurses and nursing assistants are overwhelmingly women. In all four occupations, workers routinely confront schedule uncertainty, or unexpected events that interrupt, reduce, or extend work hours. Yet, Clawson and Gerstel show that members of these four occupations experience the effects of schedule uncertainty in very distinct ways, depending on both gender and class. But doctors, who are professional-class and largely male, have significant control over their schedules and tend to work long hours because they earn respect from their peers for doing so. By contrast, nursing assistants, who are primarily female and working-class, work demanding hours because they are most likely to be penalized for taking time off, no matter how valid the reasons. Unequal Time also shows that the degree of control that workers hold over their schedules can either reinforce or challenge conventional gender roles. Male doctors frequently work overtime and rely heavily on their wives and domestic workers to care for their families. Female nurses are more likely to handle the bulk of their family responsibilities, and use the control they have over their work schedules in order to dedicate more time to home life. Surprisingly, Clawson and Gerstel find that in the working class occupations, workers frequently undermine traditional gender roles, with male EMTs taking significant time from work for child care and women nursing assistants working extra hours to financially support their children and other relatives. Employers often underscore these disparities by allowing their upper-tier workers (doctors and nurses) the flexibility that enables their gender roles at home, including, for example, reshaping their workplaces in order to accommodate female nurses’ family obligations. Low-wage workers, on the other hand, are pressured to put their jobs before the unpredictable events they might face outside of work. Though we tend to consider personal and work scheduling an individual affair, Clawson and Gerstel present a provocative new case that time in the workplace also collective. A valuable resource for workers’ advocates and policymakers alike, Unequal Time exposes how social inequalities reverberate through a web of interconnected professional relationships and schedules, significantly shaping the lives of workers and their families.

Unequal Time

Gender, Class, and Family in Employment Schedules

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Dan Clawson,Naomi Gerstel

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 0871540142

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 340

View: 4086

"Unequal Time investigates the connected schedules of four health sector occupations: professional doctors and nurses, and working-class EMTs and nursing assistants. While the work-family literature mostly examines the hours people work, Clawson and Gerstel delve into the process through which schedules are set, negotiated, and contested. They show how workers in all four occupations experience the effects of schedule uncertainty but do so in distinct ways, largely shaped by the intersection of gender and class. Doctors, who are largely male and professional, have significant control over their schedules, though they often claim otherwise, and tend to work long hours because they earn respect from their peers for doing so. By contrast, nursing assistants, primarily female and working-class, work demanding hours because they face penalties for taking time off, no matter how valid the reasons. Without institutional support, they often turn to coworkers to help create more orderly lives."--Publisher's Web site.

Unequal Childhoods

Class, Race, and Family Life, Second Edition with an Update a Decade Later

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Annette Lareau

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520271424

Category: Social Science

Page: 461

View: 2874

This book is a powerful portrayal of class inequalities in the United States. It contains insightful analysis of the processes through which inequality is reproduced, and it frankly engages with methodological and analytic dilemmas usually glossed over in academic texts.

Principles of Discrete Time Mechanics

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: George Jaroszkiewicz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107034299

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 3019

A unique introduction to the chronon hypothesis, systematically building the theory up from scratch.

Multivariable Analysis

A Practical Guide for Clinicians

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Mitchell H. Katz

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521549851

Category: Medical

Page: 203

View: 754

How to perform and interpret multivariable analysis, using plain language rather than complex derivations.

Unequal Colleges in the Age of Disparity

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Charles T. Clotfelter

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674982517

Category: Education

Page: 380

View: 3344

Based on quantitative comparisons of colleges since the 1970s, Charles Clotfelter reveals that despite the civil rights revolution, billions spent on financial aid, and the commitment of colleges to greater equality, stratification in higher education has grown starker. He explains why undergraduate education—unequal in 1970—is even more so today.

Unequal Desires

Race and Erotic Capital in the Stripping Industry

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Siobhan Brooks

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 143843216X

Category: Social Science

Page: 135

View: 343

Investigates race and racism in the U.S. exotic dance industry.

Separate and Unequal

The Kerner Commission and the Unraveling of American Liberalism

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Steven M. Gillon

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465096093

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 1136

The definitive history of the Kerner Commission, whose report on urban unrest reshaped American debates about race and inequality In Separate and Unequal, historian Steven M. Gillon offers a revelatory new history of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders--popularly known as the Kerner Commission. Convened by President Lyndon Johnson after riots in Newark and Detroit left dozens dead and thousands injured, the commission issued a report in 1968 that attributed the unrest to "white racism" and called for aggressive new programs to end discrimination and poverty. "Our nation is moving toward two societies," it warned, "one black, and one white--separate and unequal." Johnson refused to accept the Kerner Report, and as his political coalition unraveled, its proposals went nowhere. For the right, the report became a symbol of liberal excess, and for the left, one of opportunities lost. Separate and Unequal is essential for anyone seeking to understand the fraught politics of race in America.

Digital Simulation in Electrochemistry

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Dieter Britz

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3540315241

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 7316

This book is an extensive revision of the earlier 2nd Edition with the same title, of 1988. The book has been rewritten in, I hope, a much more did- tic manner. Subjects such as discretisations or methods for solving ordinary di?erential equations are prepared carefully in early chapters, and assumed in later chapters, so that there is clearer focus on the methods for partial di?erential equations. There are many new examples, and all programs are inFortran90/95,whichallows amuchclearerprogrammingstylethanearlier Fortran versions. In the years since the 2nd Edition, much has happened in electrochemical digital simulation. Problems that ten years ago seemed insurmountable have been solved, such as the thin reaction layer formed by very fast homogeneous reactions, or sets of coupled reactions. Two-dimensional simulations are now commonplace, and with the help of unequal intervals, conformal maps and sparse matrix methods, these too can be solved within a reasonable time. Techniques have been developed that make simulation much more e?cient, so that accurate results can be achieved in a short computing time. Stable higher-order methods have been adapted to the electrochemical context. The book is accompanied (on the webpage www.springerlink.com/ openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=1616-6361&volume=666) by a number of - ample procedures and programs, all in Fortran 90/95. These have all been veri?edasfaraspossible.Whilesomeerrorsmightremain,theyarehopefully very few.

Unequal Europe

Social Divisions and Social Cohesion in an Old Continent

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: James Wickham

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317265831

Category: Political Science

Page: 278

View: 5029

This wide-ranging and comparative text reviews the major theoretical and substantive debates on social inequality in Europe. It provides a valuable dual focus on European society and individual societies while placing Europe in its wider global context. Demonstrating the continued importance of national difference within Europe, the author argues that nonetheless the European Social Model has softened social inequalities such as those of wealth and income distribution, social class, gender and possibly even ethnicity. However these achievements are now being undermined, partially by the European Union itself. The book also challenges conventional wisdom on Europe’s alleged need for immigration and highlights the UK’s distinctiveness within Europe, explaining the country’s uneasy relation to the European project. This book will be of great interest to students and scholars of Politics, European Societies, Social Policy and Comparative Studies.

Unequal Democracy

The Political Economy of the New Gilded Age

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Larry M. Bartels

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400883369

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 7610

Bartels’s acclaimed examination of how the American political system favors the wealthy—now fully revised and expanded The first edition of Unequal Democracy was an instant classic, shattering illusions about American democracy and spurring scholarly and popular interest in the political causes and consequences of escalating economic inequality. This revised, updated, and expanded second edition includes two new chapters on the political economy of the Obama era. One presents the Great Recession as a "stress test" of the American political system by analyzing the 2008 election and the impact of Barack Obama's "New New Deal" on the economic fortunes of the rich, middle class, and poor. The other assesses the politics of inequality in the wake of the Occupy Wall Street movement, the 2012 election, and the partisan gridlock of Obama’s second term. Larry Bartels offers a sobering account of the barriers to change posed by partisan ideologies and the political power of the wealthy. He also provides new analyses of tax policy, partisan differences in economic performance, the struggle to raise the minimum wage, and inequalities in congressional representation. President Obama identified inequality as "the defining challenge of our time." Unequal Democracy is the definitive account of how and why our political system has failed to rise to that challenge. Now more than ever, this is a book every American needs to read.

Unequal Pay for Women and Men

Evidence from the British Birth Cohort Studies

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Heather Joshi,Pierella Paci

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262600392

Category: Political Science

Page: 199

View: 7681

The authors argue that no amount of training, maternity and parental leave, or child care provisions will change women's economic status if pay treatment remains unequal--if the market values men's time more than women's.

The Price of Inequality

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Joseph E. Stiglitz

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780393099690

Category: Equality

Page: 414

View: 8736

This work examines how the wealthy classes have contributed to growing inequality in society and explains how the quest to increase wealth has hindered the country's economic growth as well as its efforts to solve its most pressing economic problems. In it the author, a Nobel Prize-winning economist puts forth a forceful argument against America's vicious circle of growing inequality. America currently has the most inequality, and the least equality of opportunity, among the advanced countries. While market forces play a role in this stark picture, politics has shaped those market forces. Here the author exposes the efforts of well-heeled interests to compound their wealth in ways that have stifled true, dynamic capitalism. Along the way he examines the effect of inequality on our economy, our democracy, and our system of justice. He explains how inequality affects and is affected by every aspect of national policy, and offers a vision for a more just and prosperous future, supported by a concrete program to achieve that vision.

Unequal Freedom

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Evelyn Nakano GLENN

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674037649

Category: Social Science

Page: 318

View: 1230

The inequalities that persist in America have deep historical roots. Evelyn Nakano Glenn untangles this complex history in a unique comparative regional study from the end of Reconstruction to the eve of World War II. During this era the country experienced enormous social and economic changes with the abolition of slavery, rapid territorial expansion, and massive immigration, and struggled over the meaning of free labor and the essence of citizenship as people who previously had been excluded sought the promise of economic freedom and full political rights. After a lucid overview of the concepts of the free worker and the independent citizen at the national level, Glenn vividly details how race and gender issues framed the struggle over labor and citizenship rights at the local level between blacks and whites in the South, Mexicans and Anglos in the Southwest, and Asians and haoles (the white planter class) in Hawaii. She illuminates the complex interplay of local and national forces in American society and provides a dynamic view of how labor and citizenship were defined, enforced, and contested in a formative era for white-nonwhite relations in America.

Quantum Phase Transitions

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Subir Sachdev

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521004541

Category: Science

Page: 353

View: 4538

The first book to describe the theory of quantum phase transitions in condensed matter systems.

Two Nations

Black and White, Separate, Hostile, Unequal

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Andrew Hacker

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9781439104941

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 8654

Why, despite continued efforts to increase understanding and expand opportunities, do black and white Americans still lead separate lives, continually marked by tension and hostility? In his much-lauded classic, newly updated to reflect the changing realities of race in our nation, Andrew Hacker explains the origins and meaning of racism and clarifies the conflicting theories of equality and inferiority. He paints a stark picture of racial inequality in America -- focusing on family life, education, income, and employment -- and explores the current controversies over politics, crime, and the causes of the gap between the races. Illuminating and oftentimes startling, Two Nations demonstrates how race has defined America's history and will continue to shape its future.

Unequal Treatment:

Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care (with CD)

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Committee on Understanding and Eliminating Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Institute of Medicine

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030908265X

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 432

View: 5776

Racial and ethnic disparities in health care are known to reflect access to care and other issues that arise from differing socioeconomic conditions. There is, however, increasing evidence that even after such differences are accounted for, race and ethnicity remain significant predictors of the quality of health care received. In Unequal Treatment, a panel of experts documents this evidence and explores how persons of color experience the health care environment. The book examines how disparities in treatment may arise in health care systems and looks at aspects of the clinical encounter that may contribute to such disparities. Patients' and providers' attitudes, expectations, and behavior are analyzed. How to intervene? Unequal Treatment offers recommendations for improvements in medical care financing, allocation of care, availability of language translation, community-based care, and other arenas. The committee highlights the potential of cross-cultural education to improve provider-patient communication and offers a detailed look at how to integrate cross-cultural learning within the health professions. The book concludes with recommendations for data collection and research initiatives. Unequal Treatment will be vitally important to health care policymakers, administrators, providers, educators, and students as well as advocates for people of color.

The Divide

American Injustice in the Age of the Wealth Gap

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Matt Taibbi

Publisher: Spiegel & Grau

ISBN: 0679645462

Category: Political Science

Page: 448

View: 5769

NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER • NAMED ONE OF THE BEST BOOKS OF THE YEAR BY THE WASHINGTON POST, NPR, AND KIRKUS REVIEWS A scathing portrait of an urgent new American crisis Over the last two decades, America has been falling deeper and deeper into a statistical mystery: Poverty goes up. Crime goes down. The prison population doubles. Fraud by the rich wipes out 40 percent of the world’s wealth. The rich get massively richer. No one goes to jail. In search of a solution, journalist Matt Taibbi discovered the Divide, the seam in American life where our two most troubling trends—growing wealth inequality and mass incarceration—come together, driven by a dramatic shift in American citizenship: Our basic rights are now determined by our wealth or poverty. The Divide is what allows massively destructive fraud by the hyperwealthy to go unpunished, while turning poverty itself into a crime—but it’s impossible to see until you look at these two alarming trends side by side. In The Divide, Matt Taibbi takes readers on a galvanizing journey through both sides of our new system of justice—the fun-house-mirror worlds of the untouchably wealthy and the criminalized poor. He uncovers the startling looting that preceded the financial collapse; a wild conspiracy of billionaire hedge fund managers to destroy a company through dirty tricks; and the story of a whistleblower who gets in the way of the largest banks in America, only to find herself in the crosshairs. On the other side of the Divide, Taibbi takes us to the front lines of the immigrant dragnet; into the newly punitive welfare system which treats its beneficiaries as thieves; and deep inside the stop-and-frisk world, where standing in front of your own home has become an arrestable offense. As he narrates these incredible stories, he draws out and analyzes their common source: a perverse new standard of justice, based on a radical, disturbing new vision of civil rights. Through astonishing—and enraging—accounts of the high-stakes capers of the wealthy and nightmare stories of regular people caught in the Divide’s punishing logic, Taibbi lays bare one of the greatest challenges we face in contemporary American life: surviving a system that devours the lives of the poor, turns a blind eye to the destructive crimes of the wealthy, and implicates us all. Praise for The Divide “Ambitious . . . deeply reported, highly compelling . . . impossible to put down.”—The New York Times Book Review “These are the stories that will keep you up at night. . . . The Divide is not just a report from the new America; it is advocacy journalism at its finest.”—Los Angeles Times “Taibbi is a relentless investigative reporter. He takes readers inside not only investment banks, hedge funds and the blood sport of short-sellers, but into the lives of the needy, minorities, street drifters and illegal immigrants. . . . The Divide is an important book. Its documentation is powerful and shocking.”—The Washington Post “Captivating . . . The Divide enshrines its author’s position as one of the most important voices in contemporary American journalism.”—The Independent (UK) “Taibbi [is] perhaps the greatest reporter on Wall Street’s crimes in the modern era.”—Salon From the Hardcover edition.