Understanding Minerals & Crystals

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Bruce Cairncross

Publisher: Penguin Random House South Africa

ISBN: 1775843343

Category: Nature

Page: 304

View: 2960

Minerals are the building blocks of rocks – they make up the solid Earth’s crust. Understanding Minerals & Crystals takes a close look at minerals, how they form, why they differ and how to go about identifying them. It begins by examining the nature of atoms and the way they bind together to form minerals with distinctive crystal structures; and it discusses the nature and classification of these crystals, and includes a mineral identification key. The second part of the book contains detailed descriptions of some 80 common and important minerals, including how they were named, their properties, ID pointers, uses and where in the world they are found. All are lavishly illustrated with full-colour photographs. This book will be invaluable to those interested in any of the earth sciences, or in mineral/crystal collecting – from academics and students to general enthusiasts.

Crystal Therapy

How to Heal and Empower Your Life with Crystal Energy

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Doreen Virtue

Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com

ISBN: 1458754979

Category: Crystals

Page: 180

View: 9026

Crystal Therapy is a handy guide to the healing power of 94 crystals, complete with beautiful color photographs of each crystal family. This book is suitable for beginners and experienced practitioners, and it focuses on crystals that are easily obtainable. You'll learn which crystals to use for particular health or life issues, receive clear explanations of crystal-related terms (such as phantom and record-keeper), find out how to choose a crystal that's been humanely mined, and read fascinating channeled messaged from each crystal. The authors discuss how the crystals work with the angels and archangels; and outline steps for laying particular crystals n your home to build energy grids that help with abundance, romance, a good night's sleep, protection, and more

Understanding Mineral Deposits

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Kula Misra

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401139253

Category: Science

Page: 845

View: 2745

Mineral deposits have supplied useful or valuable material for human consumption long before they became objects of scientific curiosity or commercial exploitation. In fact, the earliest human interest in rocks was probably because of the easily accessible, useful (e. g. , red pigment in the form of earthy hematite) or valuable (e. g. , native gold and gemstones) materials they contained at places. In modem times, the study of mineral deposits has evolved into an applied science employing detailed field observations, sophisticated laboratory techniques for additional information, and computer modeling to build complex hypotheses. Understanding concepts that would someday help geologists to find new mineral deposits or exploit the known ones more efficiently have always been, and will continue to be, at the core of any course on mineral deposits, but it is a fascinating subject in its own right, even for students who do not intend to be professional economic geologists. I believe that a course on mineral deposits should be designed as a "capstone course" that illustrates a comprehensive application of concepts from many other disciplines in geology (mineralogy, stratigraphy and sedimentation, structure and tectonics, petrology, geochemistry, paleontology, geomorphology, etc. ). This book is intended as a text for such an introductory course in economic geology, primarily for senior undergraduate and graduate students in colleges and universities. It should also serve as a useful information resource for professional economic geologists.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Bulk Crystal Growth

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Peter Rudolph

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444633065

Category: Science

Page: 1418

View: 5012

Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

Crystal Growth in Science and Technology

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: H. Arend,J. Hulliger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461305497

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 1436

Science and art of crystal growth represent an interdisciplinary activity based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry and crystallography. Crystal growth has contributed over the years essentially to a widening of knowledge in its basic disciplines and has penetrated practically into all fields of experimental natural sciences. It has acted, more over, in a steadily increasing manner as a link between science and technology as can be seen best, for example, from the achievements in modern microelectronics. The aim of the course "Crystal Growth in Science and Technology" being to stress the interdisciplinary character of the subject, selected fundamental principles are reviewed in the following contributions and cross links between basic and applied aspects are illustrated. It is a very well-known fact that the intensive development of crystal growth has led to a progressive narrowing of interests in highly specialized directions which is in particular harmful to young research scientists. The organizers of the course did sincerely hope that the program would help to broaden up the horizon of the participants. It was equally their wish to contribute within the traditional spirit of the school of crystallography in Erice to the promotion of mutual understanding, personal friendship and future collaboration between all those who were present at the school.

Minerals as Advanced Materials I

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Sergey V. Krivovichev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540771234

Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 8950

This book comprises papers resulting from the 1st International workshop ‘Minerals as Advanced Materials I’. It is intended as an exchange of ideas between mineralogists and material scientists. The aim is to identify minerals and mineral objects that have or potentially have unique physical, chemical and structural properties that are of interest from the viewpoint of applied mineralogy and material science. The author studied Crystallography at the St.Petersburg State University.

Ultraviolet light and fluorescent minerals

understanding, collecting, and displaying fluorescent minerals

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Thomas S. Warren

Publisher: Gem Guides Book Co

ISBN: N.A

Category: Nature

Page: 209

View: 5012

This book provides information on the nature of ultraviolet light, how it causes fluorescence, and mineral fluorescence as a hobby. Also included are discussions of major fluorescent minerals and mineral groups and techniques for collecting them.

The Seven Secrets of Crystal Talismans

How To Use their Power for Attraction, Protection & Transformation

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Henry M. Mason

Publisher: Llewellyn Worldwide

ISBN: 0738729124

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 240

View: 8179

The mysterious powers of gems, crystals, and minerals are finally explained in this practical guide to creating talismans. Casting a modern light on the age-old practice of talismans, gemologist Henry M. Mason correlates the mystical properties of these wondrous objects with the science of gemology. Connecting with the universal life force, the proper talisman can focus and magnify your own qualities—helping you fulfill dreams and desires. Mason's seven secrets explore how crystal structure, color, and chemistry contribute to a talisman's natural energies for aiding in attraction, protection, self-improvement, creativity, tranquility, spiritual awakening, and more. From selecting and preparing the proper mineral to empowering your talisman, this guide takes you through every step of creating and using talismans and amulets for optimum effect.

The Origin of Clay Minerals in Soils and Weathered Rocks

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Bruce B. Velde,Alain Meunier

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540756345

Category: Science

Page: 406

View: 1453

Of huge relevance in a number of fields, this is a survey of the different processes of soil clay mineral formation and the consequences of these processes concerning the soil ecosystem, especially plant and mineral. Two independent systems form soil materials. The first is the interaction of rocks and water, unstable minerals adjusting to surface conditions. The second is the interaction of the biosphere with clays in the upper parts of alteration profiles.

A Handbook of Minerals, Crystals, Rocks and Ores

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Parmodh Alexander

Publisher: New India Publishing

ISBN: 9788190723787

Category: Nature

Page: 724

View: 8199

The book will be beneficial for: * The undergraduate course in mineralogy, crystallography, petrology & economic geology. * Post graduate students for their economic geology course. * Useful as a ready reckoner for competitive examinations and job interviews and entrepreneurs in mineral industry. * Civil Engineering students will also find this book suitable for their basic courses in mineralogy-petrology. * the text, as far as possible is precise, concise and up-to-date in facts and figures, adequately illustrated and includes photographs and micro-photographs.

Modern Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Dan Gafta,Michael Gaft,Renata Reisfeld,Gerard Panczer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540219187

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 6873

Luminescence Spectroscopy of Minerals and Materials presents an overview of the general concepts in luminescence spectroscopy as well as experimental methods and their interpretation. Special emphasis is laid on the fluorescence lifetime and the determination of time-resolved spectra. This method enables the exposure of new luminescence in minerals previously hidden by more intensive centers. Specialists in the fields of solid state physics, chemistry and spectroscopy will find a wealth of new information in this unique book.

Crystallography

An Introduction for Earth Science (and other Solid State) Students

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: E. J. W. Whittaker

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483285561

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 5389

Starting from the basic features of crystal morphology and symmetry without assuming that the reader knows anything about crystals this textbook shows how they provide an insight into the way in which crystals are based on a repeating pattern of atoms. After summarizing and comparing the main features of the seven crystal systems and thirty-two crystal classes, the book goes on to treat X-ray crystallography in sufficient detail to provide an understanding of its uses in identification and in textural and structural studies, and to relate it to selected area electron diffraction methods in the electron microscope. Thus the student is brought to a level where he can understand the significance of crystallographic work, and has a thorough background if he wishes to move on to more specialist works. Problems and answers are included

Minerals: A Very Short Introduction

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: David Vaughan

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191505331

Category: Science

Page: 144

View: 2861

Minerals existed long before any forms of life, playing a key role in the origin and evolution of life; an interaction with biological systems that we are only now beginning to understand. Exploring the traditional strand of mineralogy, which emphasises the important mineral families, the well-established analytical methods (optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction) and the dramatic developments made in techniques over recent decades, David Vaughan also introduces the modern strand of mineralogy, which explores the role minerals play in the plate tectonic cycle and how they interact with the living world. Demonstrating how minerals can be critical for human health and illness by providing essential nutrients and releasing poisons, Vaughan explores the multitude of ways in which minerals have aided our understanding of the world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

The Pocket Book of Stones, Revised Edition

Who They Are and What They Teach

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Robert Simmons

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1583949135

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 416

View: 6118

The spiritual and healing qualities of 390 members of the mineral kingdom are detailed here in The Pocket Book of Stones, Robert Simmons's condensed reference guide to to crystals and gems. Based on the bestselling The Book of Stones: Who They Are and What They Teach, this guide describes 47 new stones not covered in the original encyclopedia and also contains an index of the spiritual, emotional, and healing qualities of the stones. This pocket edition has been requested by many readers who are looking for a compact reference that they can carry easily or give as an inexpensive gift to the rock-lovers on their gift lists. Incorporating beautifully lit, full-color photos of each stone, it imparts the spiritual understanding that made The Book of Stones the "bible" of many thousands of crystal lovers. This book is an ideal introduction to stones and their energies for those who are new to the field, as well as being an invaluable portable reference for well-versed readers. Every entry contains a vivid color photo and quick-look list of key words, elemental and chakra correspondences, plus the beneficial physical, emotional, and spiritual qualities of each mineral, crystal, or gemstone. Below the quick-look list, Simmons provides a description of each stone, including scientific data and the story of each stone's spiritual and healing qualities, as well as recommednations for other stones that combine harmoniously with it. The scientific information offered welcomes those not yet familiar with crystal energies by providing a familiar frame of reference and also broadens the knowledge of those who come to stones primarily for spiritual purposes. The Pocket Book of Stones includes a comprehensive index of the healing qualities and the emotional and spiritual properties of all the stones in the book. From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Crystal Healer

A Guide to Understanding Crystals and their Healing Gifts

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Marianna Sheldrake

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1446446336

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 244

View: 6769

At last - a book that explains the mysteries of Crystal Healing in a language that anyone can understand. Marianna Sheldrake has been healing with crystals for over twenty years. Now she shares her understanding and knowledge without the trappings of obscure terminology. Her fresh approach to this subject offers advice and instruction to the novice and practitioner alike. She takes the reader on a journey of exploration, from choosing a crystal to understanding its relationship with the universal energies.

Shaped Crystals

Growth by Micro-Pulling-Down Technique

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Tsuguo Fukuda,Valery I. Chani

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354071295X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 341

View: 9228

This volume offers an overview of the growth of shaped crystals (oxides, fluorides, etc.) by the micro-pulling-down technique. Both melt and solution (flux) growth are considered. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed in detail and compared with related crystal-growth processes. The authors attempt to give a practical introduction to this technique, thereby also explaining how its application can help to solve problems commonly encountered in other melt-growth methods.

Rocks and Minerals

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Barry Fried,Michael McDonnell

Publisher: Walch Publishing

ISBN: 9780825139352

Category: Education

Page: 95

View: 5106

Help your students actually do science, and in the process truly understand science. Hands-on Science: Rocks and Minerals offers 17 ready-to-use activities for exploring crystal structures, types of rocks, weathering, geologic history, and more. Designed with the National Science Education Standards in mind, these engaging, high-interest activities build greater conceptual understanding and promote important critical-thinking and science process skills.

Understanding Vineyard Soils

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Robert E. White

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190266538

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 783

The first edition of Understanding Vineyard Soils has been praised for its comprehensive coverage of soil topics relevant to viticulture. However, the industry is dynamic--new developments are occurring, especially with respect to measuring soil variability, managing soil water, possible effects of climate change, rootstock breeding and selection, monitoring sustainability, and improving grape quality and the "typicity" of wines. All this is embodied in an increased focus on the terroir or "sense of place" of vineyard sites, with greater emphasis being placed on wine quality relative to quantity in an increasingly competitive world market. The promotion of organic and biodynamic practices has raised a general awareness of "soil health", which is often associated with a soil's biology, but which to be properly assessed must be focused on a soil's physical, chemical, and biological properties. This edition of White's influential book presents the latest updates on these and other developments in soil management in vineyards. With a minimum of scientific jargon, Understanding Vineyard Soils explains the interaction between soils on a variety of parent materials around the world and grapevine growth and wine typicity. The essential chemical and physical processes involving nutrients, water, oxygen and carbon dioxide, moderated by the activities of soil organisms, are discussed. Methods are proposed for alleviating adverse conditions such as soil acidity, sodicity, compaction, poor drainage, and salinity. The pros and cons of organic viticulture are debated, as are the possible effects of climate change. The author explains how sustainable wine production requires winegrowers to take care of the soil and minimize their impact on the environment. This book is a practical guide for winegrowers and the lay reader who is seeking general information about soils, but who may also wish to pursue in more depth the influence of different soil types on vine performance and wine character.

50 Years Progress in Crystal Growth

A Reprint Collection

DOWNLOAD NOW »

Author: Robert Feigelson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080489933

Category: Science

Page: 268

View: 8263

There is no question that the field of solid state electronics, which essentially began with work at Bell laboratories just after World War II, has had a profound impact on today's Society. What is not nearly so widely known is that advances in the art and science of crystal growth underpin this technology. Single crystals, once valued only for their beauty, are now found, in one form or another in most electronic, optoelectronic and numerous optical devices. These devices, in turn, have permeated almost every home and village throughout the world. In fact it is hard to imagine what our electronics industry, much less our entire civilization, would have been like if crystal growth scientists and engineers were unable to produce the large, defect free crystals required by device designers. This book brings together two sets of related articles describing advances made in crystal growth science and technology since World War II. One set is from the proceedings of a Symposium held in August 2002 to celebrate 50 years of progress in the field of crystal growth. The second contains articles previously published in the newsletter of the American Association for Crystal Growth in a series called "Milestones in Crystal Growth". The first section of this book contains several articles which describe some of the early history of crystal growth prior to the electronics revolution, and upon which modern crystal growth science and technology is based. This is followed by a special article by Prof. Sunagawa which provides some insight into how the successful Japanese crystal growth industry developed. The next section deals with crystal growth fundamentals including concepts of solute distribution, interface kinetics, constitutional supercooling, morphological stability and the growth of dendrites. The following section describes the growth of crystals from melts and solutions, while the final part involves thin film growth by MBE and OMVPE. These articles were written by some of the most famous theorists and crystal growers working in the field. They will provide future research workers with valuable insight into how these pioneering discoveries were made, and show how their own research and future devices will be based upon these developments. · Articles written by some of the most famous theorists and crystal growers working in the field · Valuable insight into how pioneering discoveries were made. · Show how their own research and future devices will be based upon these developments