Understanding Civil Wars

Continuity and change in intrastate conflict

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Author: Edward Newman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134715420

Category: Political Science

Page: 216

View: 1717

This volume explores the nature of civil war in the modern world and in historical perspective. Civil wars represent the principal form of armed conflict since the end of the Second World War, and certainly in the contemporary era. The nature and impact of civil wars suggests that these conflicts reflect and are also a driving force for major societal change. In this sense, Understanding Civil Wars: Continuity and change in intrastate conflict argues that the nature of civil war is not fundamentally changing in nature. The book includes a thorough consideration of patterns and types of intrastate conflict and debates relating to the causes, impact, and ‘changing nature’ of war. A key focus is on the political and social driving forces of such conflict and its societal meanings, significance and consequences. The author also explores methodological and epistemological challenges related to studying and understanding intrastate war. A range of questions and debates are addressed. What is the current knowledge regarding the causes and nature of armed intrastate conflict? Is it possible to produce general, cross-national theories on civil war which have broad explanatory relevance? Is the concept of ‘civil wars’ empirically meaningful in an era of globalization and transnational war? Has intrastate conflict fundamentally changed in nature? Are there historical patterns in different types of intrastate conflict? What are the most interesting methodological trends and debates in the study of armed intrastate conflict? How are narratives about the causes and nature of civil wars constructed around ideas such as ethnic conflict, separatist conflict and resource conflict? This book will be of much interest to students of civil wars, intrastate conflict, security studies and international relations in general.

Sixteen Million One

Understanding Civil War

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Author: Patrick M. Regan

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317252063

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 2601

Sixteen million people have died in civil wars in the past 50 years. In view of that, civil wars may be the single most destabilizing force in world politics today. The only greater killer is the suffering that pushes individuals into them. Civil wars create regional and global instability that threatens economic initiatives and political continuity. Preventing civil wars is a challenge that the policy community is ill-equipped to handle. Rwanda is an example-a tragedy that the world did nothing to stop. Iraq and Afghanistan are tragedies the world did much to inflame. This book uses argument, evidence, and intuition born of experience to provide an account of civil wars and the steps we can take to reduce them.

Understanding Civil War: Europe, Central Asia, and other regions

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Author: Paul Collier,Nicholas Sambanis

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821360491

Category: Reference

Page: 349

View: 3905

Annotation VOLUME I: Africa VOLUME II: Europe, Central Asia, and Other Regions (volumes sold separately) "This is a superb manuscript, and one that will become a standard reference in the field for students of conflict and civil war." Robert Bates, Eaton Professor of the Science of Government, Harvard University The two volumes of Understanding Civil War build upon the World Bank's prior research on conflict and violence, particularly on the work of Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, whose model of civil war onset has sparked much discussion on the relationship between conflict and development in what came to be known as the "greed" versus "grievance" debate. The authors systematically apply the Collier-Hoeffler model to 15 countries in 6 different regions of the world, using a comparative case study methodology to revise and expand upon economic models of civil war. The book concludes that the "greed" versus "grievance" debate should be abandoned for a more complex model that considers greed and grievance as inextricably fused motives for civil war. regions of Somalia. Conflict in Somalia examines the results of the study and offers recommendations for reconstruction and development assistance that takes the knowledge on conflict into account.

Understanding Civil War: Africa

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Author: Paul Collier

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821360477

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 353

View: 5432

This publication is part of a two volume set which builds upon previous World Bank research into the causes and characteristics of civil war onset, particularly the model developed by Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler regarding the relationship between violent political conflict and economic development. This volume considers the variables identified in the Collier-Hoeffler model and applies them to a set of case studies from a range of African countries, and then goes on to trace the process of conflict escalation in order to draw conclusions as to why civil war is likely to occur. The publication seeks to advance theoretical and empirical knowledge of civil war, in order to help further the objective of developing appropriate policy interventions. Another volume with case studies from a range of non-African countries is available separately (ISBN 0821360493).

Understanding Quality Peace

Peacebuilding after Civil War

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Author: Madhav Joshi,Peter Wallensteen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351391569

Category: Political Science

Page: 292

View: 8993

This book provides an analytical framework for understanding how the concept of quality peace can be used to evaluate post-conflict peacebuilding, using social science, statistics, and case studies. Including contributions from more than 20 researchers and practitioners, it argues that the quality of the peace in a post-conflict state relates to the extent to which peace accords are implemented, the agreed-upon mechanism for the non-violent resolution of the conflict, and the available social space for civil and political actors. To arrive at the concept of 'quality peace', the authors evaluate the existing literature and identify a lack of a satisfactory means of measuring outcomes, and consequently how these might be researched comparatively. The volume problematizes the 'quality peace' concept as a way to understand the origins of armed conflict as well as problems deriving from the conflict dynamics and the need for social, political, and economic changes in the post-conflict periods. The book emphasizes five dimensions as crucial for quality peace in a post-accord society. Negotiations and agreements not only aim at avoiding the return of war but also seek to: (1) promote reconciliation, (2) develop mechanisms for resolving future disputes, (3) provide for reliable security, (4) open economic opportunities for marginalized segments of the population, and (5) generate space for civil society. These five dimensions together provide for quality peace after war. They are studied in the context of internal armed conflicts in which multiple parties have signed a peace agreement. This book will be of great interest to students of peace and conflict studies, civil wars, global governance, security studies, and International Relations in general.

Explaining Civil War

A Rational Choice Approach

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Author: Syed Mansoob Murshed

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1849802262

Category: History

Page: 244

View: 2062

Conflict is now identified as one of the most significant sources of development failure and thus of growing income divergence between nations. Dr. Murshed s book addresses the issues of weak institutions, conflict, and slow growth. It presents a synthesis of the existing theories, and provides many new insights. It will certainly be much consulted and read by academics, policy-makers and all those who are interested in the causes of conflict and post-conflict reconstruction. Branko Milanovic, The World Bank Masterfully integrating the logic of formal economic models, the insights of normative philosophy, and evidence from empirical analysis, Syed Mansoob Murshed explains civil wars. This is a brilliant, original work. Scott Gates, PRIO and Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway This masterly book succinctly surveys contemporary literature on the sources of conflict in developing countries as well as policies to secure a stable peace, including many insightful contributions by the author. The treatment of this important but controversial field is both informative and well balanced. It should be essential reading for all students and policy makers who believe that policy should be evidence-based. Frances Stewart, University of Oxford, UK Using the rational choice approach, Syed Mansoob Murshed analyses the motivations behind civil war and identifies growth and institutional failure as catalysts of the greed and grievance that characterise the onset and persistence of civil war. This book explores the pre-conditions for conflict in terms of growth failure and critically appraises the greed and grievance theories common to conflict literature. It is argued that various institutional mechanisms of restraint that can be labeled the social contract are crucial for violent conflict avoidance. The reasons underpinning the instability of treaties ending civil wars, post-conflict reconstruction issues, liberal peace theory, and how globalization and conflict relate are also examined. Explaining Civil War will be of interest to development economists and political scientists, as well as to students and researchers of political economy and conflict studies.

Civil Wars

A History in Ideas

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Author: David Armitage

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300149824

Category: Civil war

Page: 360

View: 9968

A highly original history of the least understood and most intractable form of organised human aggression, from ancient Rome to our present conflict-ridden world We think we know civil war when we see it. Yet ideas of what it is, and isn't, have a long and contested history. Defining the term is acutely political, for ideas about what makes a war "civil" often depend on whether one is ruler or rebel, victor or vanquished, sufferer or outsider; it can also shape a conflict's outcome, determining whether external powers are involved or stand aside. From the American Revolution to the Iraq war, pivotal decisions have hung on such shifts of perspective. The West's age of civil war may be over, but elsewhere it has exploded - from the Balkans to Rwanda, Burundi, Somalia, Sri Lanka and, most recently, Syria. And the language of civil war has burgeoned as democratic politics has become more violently fought. This book's unique perspective on the roots, dynamics and shaping force of civil war will be essential to our ongoing struggles with this seemingly interminable problem.

Clausewitz and African War

Politics and Strategy in Liberia and Somalia

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Author: Isabelle Duyvesteyn

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135764832

Category: History

Page: 200

View: 8633

Oil, diamonds, timber, food aid - just some of the suggestions put forward as explanations for African wars in the past decade. Another set of suggestions focuses on ethnic and clan considerations. These economic and ethnic or clan explanations contend that wars are specifically not fought by states for political interests with mainly conventional military means, as originally suggested by Carl von Clausewitz in the 19th century. This study shows how alternative social organizations to the state can be viewed as political actors using war as a political instrument.

This Republic of Suffering

Death and the American Civil War

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Author: Drew Gilpin Faust

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0375703837

Category: History

Page: 346

View: 6597

Assesses the impact of the enormous carnage of the Civil War on every aspect of American life from a material, political, intellectual, cultural, social, and spiritual perspective.

A Disease in the Public Mind

A New Understanding of why We Fought the Civil War

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Author: Thomas J. Fleming

Publisher: Da Capo Press

ISBN: 0306821265

Category: History

Page: 354

View: 8518

A historian explores the possibility that the Civil War started not because of slavery, but because the South was chosen to house the nation's leadership instead of in Northern New England where the Revolution had begun. 35,000 first printing.

Alliance Formation in Civil Wars

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Author: Fotini Christia

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139851756

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 7588

Some of the most brutal and long-lasting civil wars of our time involve the rapid formation and disintegration of alliances among warring groups, as well as fractionalization within them. It would be natural to suppose that warring groups form alliances based on shared identity considerations - such as Christian groups allying with Christian groups - but this is not what we see. Two groups that identify themselves as bitter foes one day, on the basis of some identity narrative, might be allies the next day and vice versa. Nor is any group, however homogeneous, safe from internal fractionalization. Rather, looking closely at the civil wars in Afghanistan and Bosnia and testing against the broader universe of fifty-three cases of multiparty civil wars, Fotini Christia finds that the relative power distribution between and within various warring groups is the primary driving force behind alliance formation, alliance changes, group splits and internal group takeovers.

Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars

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Author: Edward Newman,Karl DeRouen, Jr.

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136255788

Category: Political Science

Page: 390

View: 5266

This comprehensive new Handbook explores the significance and nature of armed intrastate conflict and civil war in the modern world. Civil wars and intrastate conflict represent the principal form of organised violence since the end of World War II, and certainly in the contemporary era. These conflicts have a huge impact and drive major political change within the societies in which they occur, as well as on an international scale. The global importance of recent intrastate and regional conflicts in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Somalia, Nepal, Cote d'Ivoire, Syria and Libya – amongst others – has served to refocus academic and policy interest upon civil war. Drawing together contributions from key thinkers in the field who discuss the sources, causes, duration, nature and recurrence of civil wars, as well as their political meaning and international impact, the Handbook is organised into five key parts: Part I: Understanding and Explaining Civil Wars: Theoretical and Methodological Debates Part II: The Causes of Civil Wars Part III: The Nature and Impact of Civil Wars Part IV: International Dimensions Part V: Termination and Resolution of Civil Wars Covering a wide range of topics including micro-level issues as well as broader debates, Routledge Handbook of Civil Wars will set a benchmark for future research in the field. This volume will be of much interest to students of civil wars and intrastate conflict, ethnic conflict, political violence, peace and conflict studies, security studies and IR in general.

Securing the Peace

The Durable Settlement of Civil Wars

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Author: Monica Duffy Toft

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400831997

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 5509

Timely and pathbreaking, Securing the Peace is the first book to explore the complete spectrum of civil war terminations, including negotiated settlements, military victories by governments and rebels, and stalemates and ceasefires. Examining the outcomes of all civil war terminations since 1940, Monica Toft develops a general theory of postwar stability, showing how third-party guarantees may not be the best option. She demonstrates that thorough security-sector reform plays a critical role in establishing peace over the long term. Much of the thinking in this area has centered on third parties presiding over the maintenance of negotiated settlements, but the problem with this focus is that fewer than a quarter of recent civil wars have ended this way. Furthermore, these settlements have been precarious, often resulting in a recurrence of war. Toft finds that military victory, especially victory by rebels, lends itself to a more durable peace. She argues for the importance of the security sector--the police and military--and explains that victories are more stable when governments can maintain order. Toft presents statistical evaluations and in-depth case studies that include El Salvador, Sudan, and Uganda to reveal that where the security sector remains robust, stability and democracy are likely to follow. An original and thoughtful reassessment of civil war terminations, Securing the Peace will interest all those concerned about resolving our world's most pressing conflicts.

Joining the Fray

Outside Military Intervention in Civil Wars

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Author: Zachary C. Shirkey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317110404

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 7060

National leaders often worry that civil wars might spread, but also seem to have little grasp on which civil wars will in fact draw in other states. An ability to understand which civil wars are most likely to draw in outside powers and when this is likely to happen has important policy implications as well as simply answering a scholarly question. Joining the Fray takes existing explanations about which outside states are likely to intervene militarily in civil wars and adds to them explanations about when states join and why. Building on his earlier volume, Is this a Private Fight or Can Anybody Join?, Zachary C. Shirkey looks at how the decision to join a civil war can be intuitively understood as follows: given that remaining neutral was wise when a war began something must change in order for a country to change its beliefs about the benefits of fighting and join the war. This book studies what these changes are, focusing in particular on revealed information and commitment problems.

The American Civil War and the Origins of Modern Warfare

Ideas, Organization, and Field Command

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Author: Edward Hagerman

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253207159

Category: History

Page: 366

View: 2023

"... a major contribution to our knowledge of the place of the Civil War in the history of warfare.... I have long hoped for a sound history of Civil War military staffs... I need hope no more; Hagerman has covered this subject also, with the same assured expertness that he gives to tactics and technology." —Russell F. Weigley "... this fine book deserves a place on the shelves of all military historians in this country and abroad." —American Historical Review "... a first rate book... impressive... an imposing work... " —Journal of American History "This book is filled with enlightening information.... ought to be a standard for many years to come and should be required reading for any serious Civil War military historian." —Journal of Southern History

The Civil Wars

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Author: Appian

Publisher: ReadHowYouWant.com

ISBN: 1442935383

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 4607

Appian has beautifully captured the accounts of great conquerors and leaders. Their conquests, invasions and leadership qualities have been discussed in detail. The historical narrative reads like a novel and this adds to the appeal of the book. Enthralling and informative!

A Great Civil War

A Military and Political History, 1861-1865

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Author: Russell Frank Weigley

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253337382

Category: History

Page: 612

View: 9694

A major new narrative interpretation of the Civil War is offered by the dean of American military historians. In his most controversial assertion, Weigley contends that the South, despite its powerful defense, was ambivalent about leaving the Union and gave up more easily than might have been expected. 50 maps.

Social Movements and Civil War

When Protests for Democratization Fail

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Author: Donatella della Porta,Teije Hidde Donker,Bogumila Hall,Emin Poljarevic,Daniel P. Ritter

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315403080

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 2218

This book investigates the origins of civil wars which emerge from failed attempts at democratization. The main aim of this volume is to develop a theoretical explanation of the conditions under which and the mechanisms through which social movements’ struggles for democracy end up in civil war. While the empirical evidence suggests that this is not a rare phenomenon, the literatures on social movements, democratization and civil wars have grown apart from each other. At the theoretical level, Social Movements and Civil War bridges insights in the three fields, looking in particular at explanations of the radicalization of social movements, the failure of democratization processes and the onset of civil war. In doing this, it builds upon the relational approach developed in contentious politics with the aim of singling out robust causal mechanisms. At the empirical level, the research provides in-depth descriptions of four cases of trajectory from social movements for democratization into civil wars: in Syria, Libya, Yemen and the former Yugoslavia. Conditions such as the double weakness of civil society and the state, the presence of entrepreneurs of violence as well as normative and material resources for violence, ethnic and tribal divisions, domestic and international military interventions are considered as influencing the chains of actors’ choices rather than as structural determinants. This book will be of great interest to students of civil wars, political violence, social movements, democratization, and IR in general.

Quality Peace

Peacebuilding, Victory and World Order

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Author: Peter Wallensteen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190492627

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 7473

In Quality Peace, leading peace researcher Peter Wallensteen offers a broad analysis of peacebuilding, isolating what does and not work when settling conflicts. The book uses statistical analysis to compare two war outcomes-negotiated settlement and victory- in the post-Cold War era. Wallensteen finds that if peace is to last, three conditions must be met: a losing party must retain its dignity; security and the rule of law must be ensured for all; and the time horizon for the settlement must be long enough to ensure a sense of normalcy. Wallensteen breaks down the components of all of these conditions and applies them to interstate conflicts, civil wars in which rebels are aiming to take over the entire state, and separatist rebellions. He also delves into the issue of world order and the significance of major power relations for local peace efforts. Thus, the work provides a remarkable understanding of how different types of war outcomes deal with post-war conditions. Sharply argued and comprehensive, Quality Peace will invigorate peace research and stimulate peace practice, becoming an authoritative work in the field.