Toward An Anthropological Theory of Value

The False Coin of Our Own Dreams

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Author: D. Graeber

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0312299060

Category: Social Science

Page: 337

View: 6074

This volume is the first comprehensive synthesis of economic, political, and cultural theories of value. David Graeber reexamines a century of anthropological thought about value and exchange, in large measure to find a way out of ongoing quandaries in current social theory, which have become critical at the present moment of ideological collapse in the face of Neoliberalism. Rooted in an engaged, dynamic realism, Graeber argues that projects of cultural comparison are in a sense necessarily revolutionary projects: He attempts to synthesize the best insights of Karl Marx and Marcel Mauss, arguing that these figures represent two extreme, but ultimately complementary, possibilities in the shape such a project might take. Graeber breathes new life into the classic anthropological texts on exchange, value, and economy. He rethinks the cases of Iroquois wampum, Pacific kula exchanges, and the Kwakiutl potlatch within the flow of world historical processes, and recasts value as a model of human meaning-making, which far exceeds rationalist/reductive economist paradigms.

Toward An Anthropological Theory of Value

The False Coin of Our Own Dreams

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Author: David Graeber

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780312240455

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 337

View: 7161

Synthesising economic, political and cultural theories of value, Graeber reexamines a century of anthropological thought about value and exchange, in large measure to find a way out of ongoing quandaries in current social theory.

Bürokratie

Die Utopie der Regeln

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Author: David Graeber

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 3608109447

Category: Political Science

Page: 329

View: 5798

David Graeber, der bedeutendste Anthropologe unserer Zeit, entfaltet eine fulminante und längst überfällige Fundamentalkritik der globalen Bürokratie! Er erforscht die Ursprünge unserer Sehnsucht nach Regularien und entlarvt ihre Bedeutung als Mittel zur Ausübung von Gewalt. Wir alle hassen Bürokraten. Wir können es nicht fassen, dass wir einen Großteil unserer Lebenszeit damit verbringen müssen, Formulare auszufüllen. Doch zugleich nährt der Glaube an die Bürokratie unsere Hoffnung auf Effizienz, Transparenz und Gerechtigkeit. Gerade im digitalen Zeitalter wächst die Sehnsucht nach Ordnung und im gleichen Maße nimmt die Macht der Bürokratien über jeden Einzelnen von uns zu. Dabei machen sie unsere Gesellschaften keineswegs transparent und effizient, sondern dienen mittlerweile elitären Gruppeninteressen. Denn Kapitalismus und Bürokratie sind einen verhängnisvollen Pakt eingegangen und könnten die Welt in den Abgrund reißen.

Philosophie des Geldes

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Author: Georg Simmel

Publisher: FV Éditions

ISBN: 2366687516

Category: Philosophy

Page: 400

View: 2345

"Das Geld steht vermöge der Abstraktheit seiner Form jenseits aller bestimmten Beziehungen zum Raum: Es kann seine Wirkungen in die weitesten Fernen erstrecken, ja, es ist gewissermaßen in jedem Augenblick der Mittelpunkt eines Kreises potenzieller Wirkungen." G. Simmel Inhaltsverzeichnis : . Wert und Geld . Der Substanzwert des Geldes . Das Geld in den Zweckreihen . Die individuelle Freiheit . Das Geldäquivalent personaler Werte . Der Stil des Lebens

Direkte Aktion

ein Handbuch

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Author: David Graeber

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783894017750

Category: Anti-globalization movement

Page: 347

View: 4876

Bullshit Jobs

Vom wahren Sinn der Arbeit

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Author: David Graeber

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 3608115064

Category: Political Science

Page: 560

View: 6959

Ein Bullshit-Job ist eine Beschäftigungsform, die so völlig sinnlos, unnötig oder schädlich ist, dass selbst der Arbeitnehmer ihre Existenz nicht rechtfertigen kann. Es geht also gerade nicht um Jobs, die niemand machen will, sondern um solche, die eigentlich niemand braucht. Im Zuge des technischen Fortschritts sind zahlreiche Arbeitsplätze durch Maschinen ersetzt worden. Trotzdem ist die durchschnittliche Arbeitszeit nicht etwa gesunken, sondern auf durchschnittlich 41,5 Wochenstunden gestiegen. Wie konnte es dazu kommen? David Graeber zeigt in seinem bahnbrechenden neuen Buch, warum immer mehr überflüssige Jobs entstehen und welche verheerenden Konsequenzen diese Entwicklung für unsere Gesellschaft hat. Im Jahr 1930 sagte der britische Ökonom John Maynard Keynes voraus, dass durch den technischen Fortschritt heute niemand mehr als 15 Stunden pro Woche arbeiten müsse. Fast ein Jahrhundert danach stellt David Graeber fest, dass die Gegenwart anders aussieht: Die durchschnittliche Arbeitszeit ist gestiegen und immer mehr Menschen üben Tätigkeiten aus, die unproduktiv und daher eigentlich überflüssig sind – als Immobilienmakler, Investmentbanker oder Unternehmensberater. Es sind Jobs, die keinen sinnvollen gesellschaftlichen Beitrag leisten. Es sind Bullshit-Jobs. Warum bezahlt eine Ökonomie solche Tätigkeiten, die sie nicht braucht? Wie ist es zu dieser Entwicklung gekommen? Und was können wir dagegen tun? David Graeber, einer der radikalsten politischen Denker unserer Zeit, geht diesem Phänomen auf den Grund. Ein packendes Plädoyer gegen die Ausweitung sinnloser Arbeit, die die moralischen Grundfesten unserer Gesellschaft ins Wanken bringt.

Frei Von Herrschaft

Fragmente Einer Anarchistischen Anthropologie

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Author: David Graeber

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783779502081

Category: Anarchie

Page: 254

View: 5799

Knochenmark- und periphere Stammzelltransplantation

medizinische Probleme der Posttransplantationsphase und Rehabilitationsstrategien

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Author: Hans Helge Bartsch,R Mertelsmann

Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers

ISBN: 9783805562621

Category: Bone marrow

Page: 136

View: 6759

Im vorliegenden Band wird erstmals der Versuch unternommen, in kompakter Form wesentliche Aspekte der hämatologischen Transplantationen aus unterschiedlichen Blickwinkeln darzustellen. Die Einzelbeiträge behandeln sowohl die Entwicklung, Indikationsstellung und Durchführung von Knochenmark- und Stammzelltransplantationen als auch die Handhabung der vielfältigen immunologischen und infektiologischen Komplikationen und Folgestörungen nach einer solchen Therapie. Auch auf die Möglichkeiten der klinischen, insbesondere der gastroenterologischen Diagnostik wird eingegangen. Einen besonderen Schwerpunkt dieses Bandes stellen kurz- und langfristige Rehabilitationsmassnahmen dar, wobei sporttherapeutische, psychologische, sexualmedizinische und ernährungsmedizinische Aspekte berücksichtigt werden. Somit dient das Buch als hilfreiche Informationsquelle für alle Berufsgruppen, die Patienten nach hämatologischen Transplantationen betreuen.

Byzantine Art and Diplomacy in an Age of Decline

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Author: Cecily J. Hilsdale

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107033306

Category: Art

Page: 412

View: 9656

Questions how political decline refigures the visual culture of empire by examining the imperial image and the gift in later Byzantium (1261-1453). Provides a more nuanced account of medieval artistic cultural exchange that considers the temporal dimensions of power and the changing fates of empires.

Arbeit

Eine globalhistorische Perspektive. 13. bis 21. Jahrhundert

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Author: Andrea Komlosy

Publisher: Promedia Verlag

ISBN: 3853718507

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 4887

In sechs Zeitschnitten zwischen dem 13. und dem 21. Jahrhundert zeigt Komlosy die Vielfalt der Arbeitsverhältnisse auf, die jede Periode kennzeichnet. Sie untersucht, wie Arbeit geteilt und in welcher Art sie miteinander kombiniert wurde. Die Verbindung unterschiedlicher Arbeitsverhältnisse ist die Grundlage der Kapitalakkumulation, die aus der Aneignung von Werten aus fremder Arbeit resultiert. Über ungleichen Tausch und die Zerlegung der Arbeitsprozesse in Güterketten liegt der Werttransfer auch der globalen Ungleichheit zugrunde.

Renegade Dreams

Living through Injury in Gangland Chicago

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Author: Laurence Ralph

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022603285X

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 8979

Every morning Chicagoans wake up to the same stark headlines that read like some macabre score: “13 shot, 4 dead overnight across the city,” and nearly every morning the same elision occurs: what of the nine other victims? As with war, much of our focus on inner-city violence is on the death toll, but the reality is that far more victims live to see another day and must cope with their injuries—both physical and psychological—for the rest of their lives. Renegade Dreams is their story. Walking the streets of one of Chicago’s most violent neighborhoods—where the local gang has been active for more than fifty years—Laurence Ralph talks with people whose lives are irrecoverably damaged, seeking to understand how they cope and how they can be better helped. Going deep into a West Side neighborhood most Chicagoans only know from news reports—a place where children have been shot just for crossing the wrong street—Ralph unearths the fragile humanity that fights to stay alive there, to thrive, against all odds. He talks to mothers, grandmothers, and pastors, to activists and gang leaders, to the maimed and the hopeful, to aspiring rappers, athletes, or those who simply want safe passage to school or a steady job. Gangland Chicago, he shows, is as complicated as ever. It’s not just a warzone but a community, a place where people’s dreams are projected against the backdrop of unemployment, dilapidated housing, incarceration, addiction, and disease, the many hallmarks of urban poverty that harden like so many scars in their lives. Recounting their stories, he wrestles with what it means to be an outsider in a place like this, whether or not his attempt to understand, to help, might not in fact inflict its own damage. Ultimately he shows that the many injuries these people carry—like dreams—are a crucial form of resilience, and that we should all think about the ghetto differently, not as an abandoned island of unmitigated violence and its helpless victims but as a neighborhood, full of homes, as a part of the larger society in which we all live, together, among one another.

Clarity, Cut, and Culture

The Many Meanings of Diamonds

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Author: Susan Falls

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479834394

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 2036

Images of diamonds appear everywhere in American culture. And everyone who has a diamond has a story to tell about it. Our stories about diamonds not only reveal what we do with these tiny stones, but also suggest how we create value, meaning, and identity through our interactions with material culture in general. Things become meaningful through our interactions with them, but how do people go about making meaning? What can we learn from an ethnography about the production of identity, creation of kinship, and use of diamonds in understanding selves and social relationships? By what means do people positioned within a globalized political-economy and a compelling universe of advertising interact locally with these tiny polished rocks? This book draws on 12 months of fieldwork with diamond consumers in New York City as well as an analysis of the iconic De Beers campaign that promised romance, status, and glamour to anyone who bought a diamond to show that this thematic pool is just one resource among many that diamond owners draw upon to engage with their own stones. The volume highlights the important roles that memory, context, and circumstance also play in shaping how people interpret and then use objects in making personal worlds. It shows that besides operating as subjects in an ad-burdened universe, consumers are highly creative, idiosyncratic, and theatrical agents.

The great transformation

politische und ökonomische Ursprünge von Gesellschaften und Wirtschaftssystemen

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Author: Karl Polanyi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Economic history

Page: 378

View: 8352

Maya or Mestizo?

Nationalism, Modernity, and its Discontents

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Author: Ronald Loewe

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442604220

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 1813

The Maya of the Yucatán have long been drawn into the Mexican state's attempt to create modern Mexican citizens (mestizos). At the same time, they have contended with globalization pressures, first with hemp production and more recently with increased tourism and the fast-growing influence of American-based evangelical Protestantism. Despite these pressures to turn Maya into mestizo, the citizens of the small town of Maxcanú have used subtle forms of resistance—humor, satire, and language—to maintain aspects of their traditional identity. Loewe offers a contemporary look at a Maya community caught between tradition and modernity. He skilfully weaves the history of Mexico and this particular community into the analysis, offering a unique understanding of how one local community has faced the onslaught of modernization.

Theologies of Power and Crisis

Envisioning / Embodying Christianity in Hong Kong

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Author: Stephen Pavey

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630876313

Category: Religion

Page: 148

View: 3754

Theologies of Power and Crisis provides a case study for Eric Wolf's research directive to better comprehend the interplay of cultural (webs of meaning) and material (webs of power) forms of social life. More specifically, the book demonstrates how theological discourse and practice engage with historical and material relations of power. It has been normative to speak of power in terms of political and economic processes and theology in terms of interpretive and symbolic experiences. This work breaks new ground by linking theological ideas with political-economic processes in terms of the structural relations of power. Ethnographically, this research investigates the theological processes of Hong Kong Chinese Christians during a period of significant social change and crisis, precipitated by the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997. It shows how local Christians and Christian institutions mediated the significant regional, national, and transnational forces of political-economic change by connecting theological practice to the structural relations of power. The Christian response was a contested process closely intertwined with the broader contested processes of social organization. This study develops an understanding of Christianity that goes beyond ecclesiastical hegemony to encompass struggles over human practice, meaning, and representation in relation to the changing political-economic context. These findings implicate religious ideas and practice as significant to an understanding of social inequalities and powerlessness by connecting ideologies to material conditions. Christian ideas may be used to legitimize an oppressive social order or they may be used to liberate those who are oppressed. Issues related to the policies and practice of development should take seriously the role of religious beliefs and practices.

Aesthetics and Radical Politics

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Author: Gavin Grindon

Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing

ISBN: 144380312X

Category: Art

Page: 150

View: 1358

There has always been a strong connection historically between aesthetics and radical politics, and this is no less true for the global justice movement’s current preoccupation with cultural approaches to political action. The essays collected here seek to engage with past and present convergences between the theories and practices of artists and writers and the theories and practices of movements for radical social change. There is already a massive amount of literature on Marxist approaches to aesthetics, art and literature, and whilst recognising the usefulness of such approaches, the essays collected here attempt to engage with culture from other radical critical positions - whether they be anarchist, autonomist, ecological or otherwise. Such perspectives have often been overlooked historically, but it is arguable that they now more centrally influence the activities of radical artists and activists. As such, the perspectives of these essays, which are often drawn from or inspired by the practices of the current global justice movement, exhibit an exhilarating political and generational break with the suppositions of earlier radical theoretical approaches to cultural critique.

Made in Madagascar

Sapphires, Ecotourism, and the Global Bazaar

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Author: Andrew Walsh

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 1442694750

Category: Social Science

Page: 128

View: 2138

Since the 1990s, the Ankarana region of northern Madagascar has developed a reputation among globe-trotting gemstone traders and tourists as a source of some of the world's most precious natural wonders. Although some might see Ankarana's sapphire and ecotourist trades as being at odds with each other, many local people understand these trades to be fundamentally connected, most obviously in how both serve foreign demand for what Madagascar has to offer the world. Walsh explores the tensions and speculations that have come with the parallel emergence of these two trades with sensitivity and a critical eye, allowing for insights into globalization, inequality, and the appeal of the "natural." For more information, and to read a hyperlinked version of the first chapter online, visit www.madeinmadagascar.org.

Die 4-Stunden-Woche

Mehr Zeit, mehr Geld, mehr Leben

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Author: Timothy Ferriss

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3843704457

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 3151

Warum arbeiten wir uns eigentlich zu Tode? Haben wir nichts Besseres zu tun? Und ob! - sagt Timothy Ferriss. Der junge Unternehmer war lange Workaholic mit 80-Stunden-Woche. Doch dann erfand er MBA- Management by Absence- und ist seitdem freier, reicher, glücklicher. Mit viel Humor, provokanten Denkanstößen und erprobten Tipps erklärt Ferriss, wie sich die 4-Stunden-Woche bei vollem Lohnausgleich verwirklichen lässt. Der Wegweiser für eine Flucht aus dem Hamsterrad und ein Manifest für eine neue Gewichtung zwischen Leben und Arbeiten.

Gift Ecology

Reimagining a Sustainable World

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Author: Peter Denton

Publisher: Rocky Mountain Books Ltd

ISBN: 1927330416

Category: Nature

Page: 168

View: 8145

Provocative, passionate and populist, RMB Manifestos are short and concise non-fiction books of literary, critical, and cultural studies. Global sustainability in the 21st century seems to be an elusive goal. There are too many issues, too many problems—and, increasingly, too many people—to make the major changes required in the time various experts tell us we have left before it’s too late. To create a sustainable future, we need to change the game itself. We cannot simply try to solve our problems one at a time. Instead, we need to reimagine sustainability in all its dimensions—social, cultural, environmental and economic—to create a global system that reflects how we should be living together, one that generates both hope and possibility. In this thought-provoking work, Peter Denton argues that the attitudes and values associated with the economics of exchange are in part to blame for our current situation. We need to rediscover what it means to live in a universe of relations, not merely in one that can be counted and measured. The more we are able to replace an economy based on transactions with an ecology based on gifts, the more likely a sustainable future becomes for all of Earth’s children.