Toward a New Philosophy of Biology

Observations of an Evolutionist

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Author: Ernst Mayr

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674896666

Category: Science

Page: 564

View: 8485

Provides a philosophical analysis of such biological concepts as natural selection, adaptation, speciation, and evolution

Everything Flows

Towards a Processual Philosophy of Biology

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Author: Daniel J. Nicholson,John Dupré

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198779631

Category: Philosophy

Page: 416

View: 5391

This is an open access title available under the terms of a CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International licence. It is free to read at Oxford Scholarship Online and offered as a free PDF download from OUP and selected open access locations. There are two very general ways in which we can think about the world. The more traditional one is that it is fundamentally composed of enduring things, and that any changes we observe are really secondary. The moreradical alternative is that the world essentially consists of processes, and that the things we discern are only static snapshots of an ever-changing reality. This book defends this latter view in thespecific context of the living world. It argues that biology is the study of the processes that constitute living beings, and that all the things biologists study ultimately derive their existence from more basic processes. The eighteen essays in this volume consider the philosophical and scientific consequences of thinking about life in processual terms.

The Phenomenon of Life

Toward a Philosophical Biology

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Author: Hans Jonas,Eleonore Jonas

Publisher: Northwestern University Press

ISBN: 9780810117495

Category: Philosophy

Page: 303

View: 7019

One of the most prominent thinkers of his generation, Hans Jonas wrote on topics as diverse as the philosophy of biology, ethics and cosmology. This work sets forth a systematic philosophy of biological facts, laid out in support of his claim that mind is prefigured throughout organic existence.

The Growth of Biological Thought

Diversity, Evolution, and Inheritance

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Author: Ernst Mayr

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674364462

Category: Science

Page: 974

View: 3180

An incisive study of the development of the biological sciences chronicles the origins, maturation, and modern views of the classification of life forms, the evolution of species, and the inheritance and variation of characteristics

Ornithology, Evolution, and Philosophy

The Life and Science of Ernst Mayr 1904-2005

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Author: Jürgen Haffer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 354071779X

Category: Science

Page: 474

View: 3610

This book is the first detailed biography of Ernst Mayr. He was an ‘architect’ of the Synthetic Theory of Evolution, and the greatest evolutionary biologist since Charles Darwin, influential historian and philosopher of biology, outstanding taxonomist and ornithologist, and naturalist. He is one of the most widely known biologists of the 20th century. Mayr used the theories of natural selection and population thinking as theoretical models within the framework of historical biological studies. He was the first to emphasize the role of biopopulations, thereby pointing out the basic difference between ’population thinking’ and typological essentialism.

The Handy Philosophy Answer Book

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Author: Naomi Zack

Publisher: Visible Ink Press

ISBN: 1578592852

Category: Philosophy

Page: 504

View: 2506

Combining a basic history of philosophical thought with the often quirky personal stories of famous philosophers, this comprehensive introduction to the world of philosophy answers more than 1,000 questions, ranging from What was the Enlightenment? to Why did the Pythagorians avoid fava beans? Analyzing the collective effort of philosophers throughout history in the pursuit of truth and wisdom, the guide explores the tangible significance of philosophical thought to modern society and civilization as a whole. With a wide range of information suitable for various knowledge bases—from junior high to junior college—this is an ideal resource for anyone looking to get a better grasp of the history of thought.

Philosophy of Mind

A Comprehensive Introduction

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Author: William Jaworski

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444397581

Category: Philosophy

Page: 520

View: 2779

Philosophy of Mind introduces readers to one of the liveliest fields in contemporary philosophy by discussing mind-body problems and the various solutions to them. It provides a detailed yet balanced overview of the entire field that enables readers to jump immediately into current debates. Treats a wide range of mind-body theories and arguments in a fair and balanced way Shows how developments in neuroscience, biology, psychology, and cognitive science have impacted mind-body debates Premise-by-premise arguments for and against each position enable readers to grasp the structure of each argument quickly and easily Diagrams and illustrations help readers absorb the more complex ideas Bibliographic essays at the end of each chapter bring readers up to date on the latest literature Written in a clear, easy to read style that is free of technical jargon, and highly accessible to a broad readership The only book to explain systematically how a hylomorphic theory such as Aristotle’s can contribute to current mind-body debates and vie with current mind-body theories Online chapters on free will and the philosophy of persons make the book a flexible teaching tool for general and introductory philosophy courses - available at www.wiley.com/go/jaworski

Mentalisieren in der psychotherapeutischen Praxis

Konzept und Umsetzung aus einer Hand

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Author: Jon G. Allen,Peter Fonagy,Anthony W Bateman

Publisher: Klett-Cotta

ISBN: 3608102035

Category: Psychology

Page: 478

View: 8699

Die Einsatzmöglichkeiten: - Intervention bei bestimmten Störungsbildern wie Trauma und Borderline -Persönlichkeitsstörung - Arbeit in Familien und mit Eltern - Im Feld der sozialen Arbeit und der Anwendung in gesellschaftlichen Kontexten, etwa im Rahmen der Gewaltprävention oder in der Auseinandersetzung mit globalen Konflikten ZIELGRUPPE: - PsychotherapeutInnen aller Schulen - PsychoanalytikerInnen - Kognitive VerhaltenstherapeutInnen Mentalisieren bezeichnet - die Fähigkeit, das Verhalten anderer Menschen mit Bezugnahme auf ihre Grundhaltungen, Emotionen und Absichten zu verstehen und angemessen darauf zu reagieren, - das Wissen um die psychischen Beweggründe des eigenen Verhaltens. Mentalisierungsfähigkeit kann trainiert werden. Sie ist ausschlaggebend für die Organisation des eigenen Selbst und die Regulierung der Affekte.

Dawkins' God

From The Selfish Gene to The God Delusion

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Author: Alister E. McGrath

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118964799

Category: Religion

Page: 208

View: 4253

A fully updated new edition of a critically acclaimed examinationof the theories and writings of Richard Dawkins by a world-renownedexpert on the relation of science and religion Includes in-depth analysis of Dawkins’ landmark treatiseThe God Delusion (2006), as well as coverage of his laterpopular works The Magic of Reality (2011) and TheGreatest Show on Earth (2011),and a new chapter on Dawkins as apopularizer of science Tackles Dawkins’ hostile and controversial views onreligion, and examine the religious implications of his scientificideas including a comprehensive investigation of the ‘selfishgene’ Written in an accessible and engaging style that will appeal toanyone interested in better understanding the interplay betweenscience and religion

Education and Philosophical Anthropology

Toward a New View of Man for the Humanities and English

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Author: David Holbrook

Publisher: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press

ISBN: 9780838632758

Category: Education

Page: 172

View: 2740

Alerts students and teachers in education and the humanities to the area of thought known as Continental or reflective philosophy. This book discusses the various disciplines included in this philosophy that come under the rubric of philosophical anthropology: philosophical biology, psychoanalysis, phenomenology, and branches of postcritical philosophy.

Three Theological Mistakes

How to Correct Enlightenment Assumptions about God, Miracles, and Free Will

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Author: Ric Machuga

Publisher: Wipf and Stock Publishers

ISBN: 1630877778

Category: Religion

Page: 294

View: 6483

- Is the existence of God a matter of faith or knowledge? - Does God sometimes act miraculously or are there physical causes for everything? - Is morality absolute or relative? - Are humans truly free or does God's sovereignty determine everything? - When bad things happen, is God the cause or are they the fault of humans? Too frequently Christians answer these questions with a Yes to one side and a No to the other side. Thomas Aquinas and Karl Barth answer Yes to both. Following their model, Machuga defends a "third way" which transcends the Enlightenment dichotomies of fideism vs. rationalism, supernaturalism vs. naturalism, relativism vs. absolutism, free will vs. predestination, and God's justice vs. his mercy. Machuga begins by showing how these false dichotomies grew out of the Enlightenment assumptions of mechanism, universal quantification, and mono-causation. He then corrects these demonstrably dubious assumptions by articulating a theory of dual-causation. The result is a thoroughly biblical understanding of God, miracles, and free will that can withstand the contemporary criticisms of both science and philosophy.

Darwin's Dice

The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin

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Author: Curtis Johnson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199361436

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 9550

For evolutionary biologists, the concept of chance has always played a significant role in the formation of evolutionary theory. As far back as Greek antiquity, chance and "luck" were key factors in understanding the natural world. Chance is not just an important concept; it is an entire way of thinking about nature. And as Curtis Johnson shows, it is also one of the key ideas that separates Charles Darwin from other systematic biologists of his time. Studying the concept of chance in Darwin's writing reveals core ideas in his theory of evolution, as well as his reflections on design, purpose, and randomness in nature's progression over the course of history. In Darwin's Dice: The Idea of Chance in the Thought of Charles Darwin, Curtis Johnson examines Darwin's early notebooks, his collected correspondence (now in 19 volumes), and most of his published writing to trace the evolution of his ideas about chance in evolution. This proved to be one of Darwin's most controversial ideas among his reading public, so much so that it drew hostile reactions even from Darwin's scientific friends, not to mention the more general reader. The firestorm of criticism forced Darwin to forge a retreat, not in terms of removing chance from his theory--his commitment to it was unshakable--but in terms of how he chose to present his theory. Briefly, by changing his wording and by introducing metaphors and images (the stone-house metaphor, the evolution of giraffes, and others), Darwin succeeded in making his ideas seem less threatening than before without actually changing his views. Randomness remained a focal point for Darwin throughout his life. Through the lens of randomness, Johnson reveals implications of Darwin's views for religion, free will, and moral theory. Darwin's Dice presents a new way to look at Darwinist thought and the writings of Charles Darwin.

Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory

A Debate

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Author: Quentin D. Wheeler,Rudolf Meier

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231506627

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 5476

No question in theoretical biology has been more perennially controversial or perplexing than "What is a species?" Recent advances in phylogenetic theory have called into question traditional views of species and spawned many concepts that are currently competing for general acceptance. Once the subject of esoteric intellectual exercises, the "species problem" has emerged as a critically important aspect of global environmental concerns. Completion of an inventory of biodiversity, success in conservation, predictive knowledge about life on earth, management of material resources, formulation of scientifically credible public policy and law, and more depend upon our adoption of the "right" species concept. Quentin D. Wheeler and Rudolf Meier present a debate among top systematic biology theorists to consider the strengths and weaknesses of five competing concepts. Debaters include (1) Ernst Mayr (Biological Species Concept), (2) Rudolf Meier and Rainer Willmann (Hennigian species concept), (3) Brent Mishler and Edward Theriot (one version of the Phylogenetic Species Concept), (4) Quentin Wheeler and Norman Platnick (a competing version of the Phylogenetic Species Concept), and (5) E. O. Wiley and Richard Mayden (the Evolutionary Species Concept). Each author or pair of authors contributes three essays to the debate: first, a position paper with an opening argument for their respective concept of species; second, a counterpoint view of the weakness of competing concepts; and, finally, a rebuttal of the attacks made by other authors. This unique and lively debate format makes the comparative advantages and disadvantages of competing species concepts clear and accessible in a single book for the first time, bringing to light numerous controversies in phylogenetic theory, taxonomy, and philosophy of science that are important to a wide audience. Species Concepts and Phylogenetic Theory will meet a need among scientists, conservationists, policy-makers, and students of biology for an explicit, critical evaluation of a large and complex literature on species. An important reference for professionals, the book will prove especially useful in classrooms and discussion groups where students may find a concise, lucid entrée to one of the most complex questions facing science and society.

Stuffed Animals and Pickled Heads

The Culture and Evolution of Natural History Museums

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Author: Stephen T. Asma

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195347463

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 8054

The natural history museum is a place where the line between "high" and "low" culture effectively vanishes--where our awe of nature, our taste for the bizarre, and our thirst for knowledge all blend happily together. But as Stephen Asma shows in Stuffed Animals and Pickled Heads, there is more going on in these great institutions than just smart fun. Asma takes us on a wide-ranging tour of natural history museums in New York and Chicago, London and Paris, interviewing curators, scientists, and exhibit designers, and providing a wealth of fascinating observations. We learn how the first museums were little more than high-toned side shows, with such garish exhibits as the pickled head of Peter the Great's lover. In contrast, today's museums are hot-beds of serious science, funding major research in such fields as anthropology and archaeology. "Rich in detail, lucid explanation, telling anecdotes, and fascinating characters.... Asma has rendered a fascinating and credible account of how natural history museums are conceived and presented. It's the kind of book that will not only engage a wide and diverse readership, but it should, best of all, send them flocking to see how we look at nature and ourselves in those fabulous legacies of the curiosity cabinet."--The Boston Herald.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

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Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 8415

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Reframing Disease Contextually

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Author: Mary Ann Gardell Cutter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401701555

Category: Medical

Page: 195

View: 5949

This volume will be of interest to philosophers of medicine, bioethicists, and philosophers, medical professionals, historians of western medicine, and health policymakers. The book provides an overview of key debates in the history of modern western medicine on the nature, knowledge, and value of disease. It includes case studies of e.g. AIDS, genetic disease, and gendered disease.

The Psychological Construction of Emotion

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Author: Lisa Feldman Barrett,James A. Russell

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462517013

Category: Psychology

Page: 479

View: 2021

This volume presents cutting-edge theory and research on emotions as constructed events rather than fixed, essential entities. It provides a thorough introduction to the assumptions, hypotheses, and scientific methods that embody psychological constructionist approaches. Leading scholars examine the neurobiological, cognitive/perceptual, and social processes that give rise to the experiences Western cultures call sadness, anger, fear, and so on. The book explores such compelling questions as how the brain creates emotional experiences, whether the "ingredients" of emotions also give rise to other mental states, and how to define what is or is not an emotion. Introductory and concluding chapters by the editors identify key themes and controversies and compare psychological construction to other theories of emotion.

Essays on Deleuze

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Author: Daniel W Smith

Publisher: Edinburgh University Press

ISBN: 0748655379

Category: Philosophy

Page: 480

View: 4281

Brings together 18 key essays, plus two completely new essays, by one of the world's leading commentators on the work of the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze.

Method in Ecology

Strategies for Conservation

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Author: Kristin S. Shrader-Frechette,Earl D. McCoy

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521446938

Category: Nature

Page: 328

View: 4494

In this volume, the authors discuss what practical contributions ecology can and can't make in applied science and environmental problem solving. In the first section, they discuss conceptual problems that have often prevented the formulation and evaluation of powerful, precise, general theories, explain why island biogeography is still beset with controversy and examine the ways that science is value laden. In the second section, they describe how ecology can give us specific answers to practical environmental questions posed in individual case studies, and argue for a new way to look at scientific error. A case study using the Florida panther is examined in the light of these findings.