Theory and Reality

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

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Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226300610

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 9307

How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is "really" like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of one hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Intended for undergraduates and general readers with no prior background in philosophy, Theory and Reality covers logical positivism; the problems of induction and confirmation; Karl Popper's theory of science; Thomas Kuhn and "scientific revolutions"; the views of Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, and Paul Feyerabend; and challenges to the field from sociology of science, feminism, and science studies. The book then looks in more detail at some specific problems and theories, including scientific realism, the theory-ladeness of observation, scientific explanation, and Bayesianism. Finally, Godfrey-Smith defends a form of philosophical naturalism as the best way to solve the main problems in the field. Throughout the text he points out connections between philosophical debates and wider discussions about science in recent decades, such as the infamous "science wars." Examples and asides engage the beginning student; a glossary of terms explains key concepts; and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. However, this is a textbook that doesn't feel like a textbook because it captures the historical drama of changes in how science has been conceived over the last one hundred years. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates in language that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow.

The Security Council and the Use of Force

Theory and Reality, a Need for a Change?

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Author: Niels M. Blokker,Nico Schrijver

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9004146423

Category: Political Science

Page: 308

View: 8153

This book addresses the authority of the UN Security Council to regulate the use of force. In particular, it examines the question of whether the present composition, functions, and powers of the Security Council are adequate to meet recent demands, such as the need perceived by states to use force in cases of humanitarian emergency and pre-emptive action in response to international terrorism and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Is the Security Council still well positioned today to deal with these demands and challenges? In seeking a response, the book analyzes both Charter law and Security Council practice. It addresses not only the hotly debated recent crises concerning Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq, but also resolutions dealing with the use of force by peacekeeping operations. A number of issues relating to the right of self-defence are analyzed, as are the emerging new roles of NATO and the African Union. Separate chapters of the book are devoted to the current discussion concerning the reform of the Security Council. A particular feature of the book is the interaction between academics and practitioners as well as between theory and reality.

Marxism, China, and Development

Reflections on Theory and Reality

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Author: A. James Gregor

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351506714

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 9813

China has always been something of a mystery to Westerners. For one genera-tion, Mao Zedong and his followers were simple "agrarian reformers," while for another they were the "communist emperor and his blue ants." In the 1970s, some of the finest Sinologists believed there was much the United States could learn from Mao's Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution with regard to bureaucracy, criminal justice, health care, and mass education. By the 1980s, those same theo-rists asserted that Maoism was nothing more than a feudal fascism and had abso-lutely nothing positive to teach. Marxism, China, and Development provides a plausible explanation of these developments that have had such a powerful effect on the people of China for the past half century.The author describes and explains the strange collection of beliefs that made up the Marxism of Mao Zedong. He seeks to understand why the communist leader-ship of China, like that of the USSR, tried to spur economic growth by abandoning the market modalities common to developed economies. A. James Gregor's con-ceptual framework is both original, and makes more comprehensible the history of Marxism and the history of China. Among the major topics he covers are imperi-alism, political democracy, economics, and alternatives to Maoism and Marxism for China.While it is unlikely that our understanding of so complex a series of events as modern Chinese history will soon become less controversial, Marxism, China, and Development's clear, concise explanations will clarify some perplexing areas, and make the new turns in Chinese political economy more understandable. This is a monumental effort at theory construction that will be of interest to political scien-tists, economists, sociologists, and Sinologists.

Theory and Reality in Financial Economics

Essays Toward a New Political Finance

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Author: George M. Frankfurter

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812770003

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 215

View: 8433

The current literature on financial economics is dominated by neoclassical dogma and, supposedly, the notion of value-neutrality. However, the failure of neoclassical economics to deal with real financial phenomena suggests that this might be too simplistic of an approach. This book consists of a collection of essays dealing with financial markets'' imperfections, and the inability of neoclassical economics to deal with such imperfections. Its central argument is that financial economics, as based on the tenets of neoclassical economics, cannot answer or solve the real-life problems that people face. It also shows the direct relationship between economics and politics OCo something that is usually denied in academic models, given that science is supposed to be value-neutral. In this thought-provoking and avant-garde book, the author not only exposes what has gone wrong, but also suggests reforms to both the academic and the political-economic systems that might help make markets fair rather than efficient. Drawing on interdisciplinary fields, this book will appeal to readers who are interested in finance, economics, business, the political economy and philosophy. Sample Chapter(s). Foreword (37 KB). Chapter 1: Method and Methodology (146 KB). Contents: Method and Methodology; What is All Efficiency?; Still Autistic Finance; The Young Finance Faculty''s Guide to Publishing; Prolific Authors in Finance; For-Profit Education: An Idea That Should be Put to Rest?; Weep Not for Microsoft: Monopoly''s Fatal Exception; The Socio-Economics of Scandals; Desperately Seeking Toto; And Now for Something Entirely Different; After the Ball; Capitalism or Industrial Fiefdom; The Theory of Fair Markets (TFM): Toward a New Finance Paradigm. Readership: Graduate students of finance; students of economics, economic methodology and philosophy of science."

Price Determination in Theory and Reality

Lessons for Liberalization and Globalization Policy

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Author: Fred Haber

Publisher: Atlantic Publishers & Dist

ISBN: 9788171568512

Category: Capitalism

Page: 174

View: 4274

Do The Prices Paid For The Goods And Services People Need Or The Money Received For Work They Do Correspond To Their Real Value? Most Individuals, After A Moment Of Consideration, Would Probably Answer No. If So, Why Not? Don T The Economic Laws Of Supply And Demand Govern The Prices Paid For Goods And Services In The Competitive Market?Fred Haber Has Looked At This Fundamental Question And Found Distortions In The Way Market Economies Actually Function. He Finds The Distortions Are Caused By The Influence Of Power And Notes That The Most Powerful Entities In An Economy Not Only Have The Capability To Set And Enforce Price, But Can Influence The Distribution Of Their Products As Well. Just As Significantly, The Author Finds That Great Amounts Of Capital Are Being Diverted To Speculative Ends In Real Estate, On Stock Exchanges, In Foreign Currency. When This Happens, Less Capital Is Available For Productive Activities And The Creation Of Meaningful Work Opportunities. Where Free Competition Used To Restrict The Exercise Of Power In The Market, The Global Economy Has Given Rise To Consolidations To Massive Forces Whose Power Now Determines Ultimate Success.To Prove His Case, Haber Examines The Theories Of A Number Of Prominent Economists And Compares These Theories With Economic Reality. The Author Has Invested His Work With The Kind Of Rigorous Scholarship Demanded Of An Academic Study. There Is A Reason Behind This Approach.

Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality

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Author: John R. Shook

Publisher: Vanderbilt University Press

ISBN: 9780826513625

Category: Philosophy

Page: 316

View: 9793

The ongoing revival of interest in the work of American philosopher and pragmatist John Dewey has given rise to a burgeoning flow of commentaries, critical editions, and reevaluations of Dewey's writings. While previous studies of Dewey's work have taken either a historical or a topical focus, Shook offers an innovative, organic approach to understanding Dewey and eloquently shows that Dewey's instrumentalism grew seamlessly out of his idealism. He argues that most current scholarship operates under a mistaken impression of Dewey's early philosophical positions and convincingly demonstrates a number of key points: that Dewey's metaphysical empiricism remained more indebted to Kant and Hegel than is commonly supposed; that Dewey owed more to the influence of Wundt than is commonly believed; that the influence of Peirce and James was not as significant for the development of Dewey's theories of mind and truth as has been argued in the past; and that Dewey's pragmatic theory of knowledge never really abandoned idealism. Shook's exposition of the unity of Dewey's thought challenges a large scholarly industry devoted to suppressing or explaining away the consistency between Dewey's early thought and his later work. In every respect, Dewey's Empirical Theory of Knowledge and Reality is a provocative and engaging study that will occupy a unique niche in this field. It is certain to stimulate discussion and controversy, forcing Dewey traditionalists out of habitual modes of thought and transforming our conventional understanding of the development of classical American philosophy.

Critical Reasoning in Contemporary Culture

Opacity, Theory, and Reality, 1960-1991 -- An Israeli Perspective

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Author: Richard A. Talaska

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791409794

Category: Philosophy

Page: 422

View: 3803

Here we have, for the first time in a single volume, diverse perspectives on the meaning, conditions, and goals of critical reasoning in contemporary culture. Part One emphasizes critical reasoning and education, engaging the debate over the connection between critical reasoning skills and the learning of the content. Part Two offers analyses of the theoretical, methodological, and historical debates concerning critical reasoning abilities. The authors represent a variety of disciplines and theoretical approaches which lend the book valuable intellectual pluralism. The book evaluates other aspects of critical thinking such as creativity, insight, questioning, learning, practical thought, interpretation, intellectual prejudice, and the historical and temporary aspects of thought. -- Back cover.

Theory and Reality

Federal Ideas in Australia, England and Europe

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Author: Solomon Rufus Davis

Publisher: University of Queensland Press(Australia)

ISBN: 9780702226052

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 8002

A collection of essays from one of the world's leading authorities on federalism, critically focusing on topics central to the working of the Australian political and constitutional system.

Treaty interpretation

theory and reality

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Author: Edward Slavko Yambrusic

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 298

View: 588

Theory and Reality

The Development of Social Systems

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Author: Władysław Bieńkowski

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780850314021

Category: Capitalism

Page: 303

View: 5279

Contemporary Issues in Couples Counseling

A Choice Theory and Reality Therapy Approach

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Author: Patricia A. Robey,Robert E. Wubbolding,Jon Carlson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415891256

Category: Psychology

Page: 254

View: 9044

"Contemporary Issues in Couples Counseling addresses the most common and difficult issues that people in the helping professions face when using CBT with couples--and provides concrete solutions for addressing them effectively. In it, clinicians will find a handy reference for professionals who are looking for useful information and skills that can be applied immediately in their sessions. The book uses the time-tested, evidence-based strategies for helping clients focus on the here and now, not the past, and for helping clinicians create effective treatment plans and ensure that that clients meet their individual needs while also addressing the needs of their partners"--

Information Systems Foundations

Theory, Representation and Reality

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Author: Dennis N. Hart,Shirley Diane Gregor

Publisher: ANU E Press

ISBN: 1921313145

Category: Computers

Page: 261

View: 8636

This volume contains the papers presented at the third biennial Information Systems Foundations ('Theory, Representation and Reality¿) Workshop, held at The Australian National University in Canberra from 27-28 September 2006. The focus of the workshop was, as for the others in the series, the foundations of Information Systems as an academic discipline. The particular emphasis was, as in past workshops, the adequacy and completeness of theoretical underpinnings and the research methods employed. At the same time the practical nature of the applications and phenomena with which the discipline deals were kept firmly in view. Accordingly, the papers in this volume range from the unashamedly theoretical n their focus (Designing for Mutability in Information Systems Artifacts; Towards a Unified Theory of Fit: Task, Technology and Individual) to the much more practically oriented (An Action-Centred Approach to Conceptualising Information Support for Routine Work).

Social Theory and Human Reality

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Author: Pertti Alasuutari

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761951650

Category: Social Science

Page: 181

View: 8399

This book gets to the heart of what the social sciences really know about the elusive and contradictory object of research: human reality.

Sociological Theory and Educational Reality

Education and Society in Australia Since 1949

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Author: Alan Barcan

Publisher: UNSW Press

ISBN: 9780868401256

Category: Education

Page: 411

View: 1892

An examination of the major classical sociological theories relevant to education and of the rise and decline of the new sociology of education. Author also discusses the vexed questions of equality of opportunity, the relationship between school and society, the growth of educational bureaucracies and the roles of state, church and family in education in Australia since 1949. Includes endnotes, tables and index.

Economic theory and reality

selected essays on their disparities and reconciliation

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Author: Tibor Scitovsky

Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 243

View: 3771

It is a book that is well worth having on the shelf. Economic theorists (macro and mirco), applied economists and welfare economists, and even economic consultants, have all much to gain from reading this book and returning to it at regular intervals. It will remind them all of some fundamental truths and confusions that the economics profession has to deal with. John Stark, The Business Economist His ability to remain original, thought-provoking and succinct, and to maintain his curiosity for so long, must be the envy of us all. Maurice Scott, The Economic Journal Economic Theory and Reality presents Tibor Scitovsky s latest thinking on the relationship between economic theory and economic reality. This volume features discussion of many of the important theoretical contributions made to economics over the last 40 years including the Keynesian revolution and the ideas of Lerner, Steindl, Hirsch, Frank and many others who extended and enhanced the economist s toolbox. Professor Scitovsky s attempt to make economic theory more realistic and thereby more useful is the subject of the first part of the volume which includes his work on the necessity of asymmetric markets, some market power and righteous behaviour as conditions of a progressive and properly functioning market economy. The second major theme is the shortcomings of the real-world economy and, in particular, its failure to maintain macroequilibrium, price stability and full employment. This part includes examinations of inflexible wages and prices, excessive claims, positional goods, and the impact of second-hand markets on the macroeconomy. Economic Theory and Reality improves access to Professor Scitovsky s most important recent work, much of which was originally published either in foreign languages or outside the mainstream literature. As well as improving our understanding of his approach to economics and the contributions which he has made to scholarship, this book addresses key questions about the relevance of economic theory and its future direction.

Die verborgene Wirklichkeit

Paralleluniversen und die Gesetze des Kosmos

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Author: Brian Greene

Publisher: Siedler Verlag

ISBN: 3641082072

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 5263

Wir sind nicht allein! - Brian Greene über unsere Doppelgänger im All In seinem neuen Buch macht sich Physiker und Bestsellerautor Brian Greene auf die Suche nach der »verborgenen Wirklichkeit« im Universum. Er zeigt, warum vieles dafür spricht, dass wir in den Weiten des Kosmos nicht allein sind, und er beschreibt, welchen Parallelwelten die Astrophysiker auf der Spur sind. Wie keinem Zweiten gelingt es ihm dabei, physikalische Spitzenforschung mit hohem Unterhaltungswert zu verbinden.

Die Wirklichkeit, die nicht so ist, ...

Eine Reise in die Welt der Quantengravitation

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Author: Carlo Rovelli

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644052514

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 7173

Was ist Wirklichkeit? Existieren Raum und Zeit tatsächlich, wenn wir uns anschicken, die elementarsten Grundlagen unserer Existenz zu erforschen? Wie viel davon können wir überhaupt verstehen? Carlo Rovelli beschäftigt sich seit vielen Jahren damit, die Grenzen unseres Verstehens zu erweitern. In diesem Buch nimmt er uns mit auf eine Reise, die von dem Realitätsverständnis der griechischen Klassik bis zur Schleifenquantengravitation führt. Ein großer Physiker unserer Zeit macht sich auf, uns ein neues Welt-Bild zu zeichnen: mit einem physikalischen Universum ohne Zeit, einer Raumzeit, die aus Schleifen und Körnchen besteht und in der Unendlichkeit nicht existiert. Einer Kosmologie, die ohne Urknall und Paralleluniversen auskommt und hier zum ersten Mal von einem ihrer «Erfinder» für ein breites Publikum einfach und ausführlich erklärt wird. Ein Buch über «die großen Herausforderungen der gegenwärtigen Naturwissenschaften, die all unser Wissen über die Natur in Frage stellen» (Rovelli).

Quantenrealität

Jenseits der Neuen Physik

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Author: HERBERT

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 303486681X

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 342

View: 8826