The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

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Author: Gordon M. Shepherd

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019515956X

Category: Medical

Page: 719

View: 1591

This is a thorough revision of the standard text on local circuits in the different regions of the brain. In this fifth edition, the results of the mouse and human genome projects are incorporated for the first time. Also for the first time, the reader is oriented to supporting neuroscience databases. Among the new advances covered are 2-photon confocal laser microscopy of dendrites and dendritic spines, biochemical analyses, and dual patch and multielectrode recordings, applied together with an increasing range of behavioral and gene-targeting methods.

The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

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Author: Gordon M. Shepherd M.D.

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198036173

Category: Medical

Page: 736

View: 1860

It is widely recognized that the neural basis of brain function can be fully understood only by integrating many disciplines at many levels. Studies of synaptic organization are bringing about a quiet revolution in achieving this goal, as documented by this unique book over the past 30 years. In this fifth edition, the results of the mouse and human genome projects are incorporated for the first time. Molecular biologists interested in functional genomics and proteomics of the brain will find answers here to the critical questions: what are the cell and circuit functions of gene products? Also for the first time, the reader is oriented to supporting neuroscience databases. Among the new advances covered are 2-photon confocal laser microscopy of dendrites and dendritic spines, biochemical analyses, and dual patch and multielectrode recordings, applied together with an increasing range of behavioral and gene-targeting methods. Leading experts in the best understood brain regions bring together the molecular, anatomical, functional, and behavioral data in authoritative integrated accounts. The chapters are organized in the same format, covering the neural elements, synaptic connections, basic circuits, physiology, neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, membrane properties, dendritic properties, and with a final section on how the circuits mediate specific behaviors. The uniform framework for each chapter enables the authors to higlight the principles that are common to all regions, as well as the adaptations unique to each, thus serving as a model for understanding the neural basis of behavior.

The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

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Author: Gordon M. Shepherd

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 638

View: 3050

In this volume, leading authorities have joined together to provide accounts of the best understood brain regions. Each contributor uses the same format in covering the neural elements, synaptic connections, basic circuits, physiology, pharmacology, dendritic properties and functional implications of brain structures, so that readers can easily recognize common principles and specific adaptations. A new chapter on the cochlear nucleus highlights the neural basis of audition, and supplements the analyses of vision in the retina, lateral geniculate and visual cortex, and of olfaction in the olfactory bulb and cortex.

Cortical Circuits

Synaptic Organization of the Cerebral Cortex Structure, Function, and Theory

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Author: WHITE

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468487213

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 4974

This elegant book presents current evidence on the organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex. The focus on synapses and their function provides the basis for understanding how this critical part of the brain could work. Dr. White and his colleague Dr. Keller have collated an impressive mass of material. This makes the crucial information accessible and coherent. Dr. White pioneered an area of investigation that to most others, and occasionally to himself, seemed a bottomless pit of painstaking at tention to detail for the identification and enumeration of cortical syn apses. I do not recall that he or anyone else suspected, when he began to publish his now classic papers, that the work would be central to an accelerating convergence of information and ideas from neurobiology and computer science, especially artificial intelligence (AI) (Rumelhart and McClelland, 1986). The brain is the principal organ responsible for the adaptive capacities of animals. What has impressed students of biology, of medicine, and, to an extent, of philosophy is the correlation between the prominence of the cerebral cortex and the adaptive "complexity" of a particular spe cies. Most agree that the cortex is what sets Homo sapiens apart from other species quantitatively and qualitatively (Rakic, 1988). This is summarized in the first chapter.

Handbook of Brain Microcircuits

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Author: Gordon Shepherd, Sten Grillner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199780331

Category: Medical

Page: 536

View: 420

Microcircuits are the specific arrangements of cells and their connections that carry out the operations unique to each brain region. This resource summarizes succinctly these circuits in over 40 regions - enabling comparisons of principles across both vertebrates and invertebrates. It provides a new foundation for understanding brain function that will be of interest to all neuroscientists. Oxford Clinical Neuroscience is a comprehensive, cross-searchable collection of resources offering quick and easy access to eleven of Oxford University Press's prestigious neuroscience texts. Joining Oxford Medicine Online these resources offer students, specialists and clinical researchers the best quality content in an easy-to-access format.

The Synapse

Structure and Function

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Author: Virginia M. Pickel,Menahem Segal

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124186823

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 5941

The Synapse summarizes recent advances in cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic transmission and provides new insights into neuronal plasticity and the cellular basis of neurological diseases. Part 1 provides an in-depth look at structural differences and distribution of various pre- and post-synaptic proteins found at glutamatergic synapses. Part 2 is dedicated to dendritic spines and their associated perisynaptic glia, which together constitute the tripartite synapse. The spines are portrayed as major sites for calcium sequestration and local protein synthesis. Part 3 highlights the important regional and cellular differences between glutamatergic transmission and that of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and acetylcholine that are commonly found in axon terminals without synaptic membrane specializations. Part 4 provides an overview of the synapse from the time of formation to degeneration under the powerful influence of aging or hormonal decline that leads to severe deficits in cognitive function. Each chapter is illustrated with drawings and images derived from calcium imaging, electron microscopic immunolabeling, or electrophysiology. This book is a valuable reference for neuroscientists and clinical neurologists in both research and clinical settings. A comprehensive reference focused on the structure and function of the synapse Covers the links between the synapse and neural plasticity and the cellular basis of neurologic disease Detailed coverage of dendritic spines and associated perisynaptic glia—the tripartite synapse Includes in-depth coverage of synapse degeneration due to aging or hormonal decline related to severe cognitive impairment

Rhythms of the Brain

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Author: Gyorgy Buzsaki

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019804125X

Category: Medical

Page: 464

View: 3543

This book provides eloquent support for the idea that spontaneous neuron activity, far from being mere noise, is actually the source of our cognitive abilities. In a sequence of "cycles," György Buzsáki guides the reader from the physics of oscillations through neuronal assembly organization to complex cognitive processing and memory storage. His clear, fluid writing-accessible to any reader with some scientific knowledge-is supplemented by extensive footnotes and references that make it just as gratifying and instructive a read for the specialist. The coherent view of a single author who has been at the forefront of research in this exciting field, this volume is essential reading for anyone interested in our rapidly evolving understanding of the brain.

Structural and Functional Organization of the Synapse

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Author: Johannes W. Hell,Michael D. Ehlers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387772324

Category: Medical

Page: 801

View: 7138

This new Springer volume, which comes complete with a free DVD, is a comprehensive and detailed overview of the synapse with emphasis on the glutamatergic synapse. Most chapters relate the synapse’s functional aspects to its molecular mechanisms. This approach shows which mechanisms are characterized on both the functional and structural level and can thus be considered firmly established. It’s an important text for neuroscientists and disease-oriented clinicians in neurology.

Fundamental Neuroscience

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Author: Larry R. Squire

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123858704

Category: Medical

Page: 1127

View: 2553

Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition introduces graduate and upper-level undergraduate students to the full range of contemporary neuroscience. Addressing instructor and student feedback on the previous edition, all of the chapters are rewritten to make this book more concise and student-friendly than ever before. Each chapter is once again heavily illustrated and provides clinical boxes describing experiments, disorders, and methodological approaches and concepts. A companion web site contains test questions, and an imagebank of the figures for ready use in presentations, slides, and handouts. Capturing the promise and excitement of this fast-moving field, Fundamental Neuroscience, 3rd Edition is the text that students will be able to reference throughout their neuroscience careers! New to this edition: * 30% new material including new chapters on Dendritic Development and Spine Morphogenesis, Chemical Senses, Cerebellum, Eye Movements, Circadian Timing, Sleep and Dreaming, and Consciousness * Companion website with figures, web links to additional material, and test questions * Additional text boxes describing key experiments, disorders, methods, and concepts * Multiple model system coverage beyond rats, mice, and monkeys * Extensively expanded index for easier referencing

Structural and Functional Organization of the Synapse

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Author: Johannes W. Hell,Michael D. Ehlers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387772324

Category: Medical

Page: 801

View: 8539

This new Springer volume, which comes complete with a free DVD, is a comprehensive and detailed overview of the synapse with emphasis on the glutamatergic synapse. Most chapters relate the synapse’s functional aspects to its molecular mechanisms. This approach shows which mechanisms are characterized on both the functional and structural level and can thus be considered firmly established. It’s an important text for neuroscientists and disease-oriented clinicians in neurology.

Regulatory Functions of the CNS Principles of Motion and Organization

Proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, Budapest, 1980

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Author: J. Szentágothai,M. Palkovits,J. Hámori

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483189937

Category: Medical

Page: 350

View: 6044

Advances in Physiological Sciences, Volume 1: Regulatory Functions of the CNS: Principles of Motion and Organization covers the proceedings of the 28th International Congress of Physiological Sciences, held in Budapest in 1980. This text is comprised of six parts. Before presenting the six major topics, this book first explains the principles of neural organization and the perception and action. The first part studies the mechanisms of transmission in the monosynaptic reflex pathway in the spinal cord, while the second part looks into the neural mechanisms of voluntary movements and precentral motor area. Other parts of this book present papers on motor organization, eye movements, sleep, and unitary activity of the brain. This selection will be invaluable to physiologists, students of physiology, and others interested in studying the principles of motion and organization.

Micro-, Meso- and Macro-Connectomics of the Brain

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Author: Henry Kennedy,David C. Van Essen,Yves Christen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319277774

Category: Medical

Page: 166

View: 5600

This book has brought together leading investigators who work in the new arena of brain connectomics. This includes ‘macro-connectome’ efforts to comprehensively chart long-distance pathways and functional networks; ‘micro-connectome’ efforts to identify every neuron, axon, dendrite, synapse, and glial process within restricted brain regions; and ‘meso-connectome’ efforts to systematically map both local and long-distance connections using anatomical tracers. This book highlights cutting-edge methods that can accelerate progress in elucidating static ‘hard-wired’ circuits of the brain as well as dynamic interactions that are vital for brain function. The power of connectomic approaches in characterizing abnormal circuits in the many brain disorders that afflict humankind is considered. Experts in computational neuroscience and network theory provide perspectives needed for synthesizing across different scales in space and time. Altogether, this book provides an integrated view of the challenges and opportunities in deciphering brain circuits in health and disease.

Neurogastronomy

How the Brain Creates Flavor and Why It Matters

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Author: Gordon Shepherd

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231159110

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 3066

Challenging the belief that the sense of smell diminished during human evolution, Shepherd argues that this sense, which constitutes the main component of flavor, is far more powerful and essential than previously believed. --from publisher description

Neurobiology

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Author: Gordon M. Shepherd

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195088434

Category: Medical

Page: 760

View: 982

This updated text will continue to serve the needs of students in introductory neuroscience courses. Among topics highlighted in the 3rd edition are the superfamily of molecules responsible for membrane signalling, and the molecular basis of sensory perception.

Concepts and Challenges in Retinal Biology

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Author: Helga Kolb,Harris Ripps,Samuel Miao-sin Wu,John E. Dowling

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780444514844

Category: Medical

Page: 772

View: 8616

In August 2000 a Festschrift was held at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts to celebrate the career of Professor John E. Dowling on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Containing contributions from more than 50 of John's colleagues, representing a Who's Who of the vision research community, this work not only provides a memento of the occasion, but will hopefully serve as a basic reference for future researchers in retinal biology. The volume is divided somewhat arbitrarily into seven areas of retinal research containing chapters that present in some cases a broad overview of a particular topic, and in others an account of current research and studies in progress. These chapters exemplify the richness, diversity, and excitement of contemporary retinal research. They also remind us of how much more needs to be done before we understand fully the interrelationship between retinal neurons, the complex interactions between neurons and glial cells, and the mechanisms that govern retinal development. A final chapter contributed by John Dowling provides an overview of past accomplishments, and offers some future perspectives on retinal research in the 21st century.

Cellular Dynamics of the Neuron

Symposia of the International Society for Cell Biology

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Author: Samuel H. Barondes

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483220001

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 4126

Cellular Dynamics of the Neuron covers advances in the study of the cellular dynamics of the neuron. The book discusses the synthesis and transport of the neuroplasm, as well as the synthesis, transport, and action of neurotransmitters. The text also describes the functional implications of synaptic ultrastructure and the morphological and biochemical correlates of neuronal plasticity. Cell biologists, neurobiologists, cell pathologists, molecular biologists, and physiologists will find the book invaluable.

Axons and Brain Architecture

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Author: Kathleen Rockland

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128016825

Category: Science

Page: 426

View: 9295

Several excellent monographs exist which deal with axons. These, however, focus either on the cellular and molecular biology of axons proper or on network organization of connections, the latter with only an incidental or abstract reference to axons per se. Still relatively neglected, however, is the middle ground of terminations and trajectories of single axons in the mammalian central nervous system. This middle level of connectivity, between networks on the one hand and local, in vitro investigations on the other, is to some extent represented by retrograde tracer studies and labeled neurons, but there have so far been many fewer of the complementary anterograde studies, with total visualization of the axonal arborization. The present volume brings together in one source an interrelated treatment of single axons from the perspective of microcircuitry and as substrates of larger scale organization (tractography). Especially for the former area - axons in microcircuitry - an abundance of published data exists, but these are typically in specialty journals that are not often accessed by the broader community. By highlighting and unifying the span from microcircuitry to tractography, the proposed volume serves as a convenient reference source and in addition inspires further interactions between what currently tend to be separate communities. The volume also redresses the imbalance between in vitro/local connectivity and long-distance connections. Focusing on mammalian systems, Part 1 of this book is devoted to anatomical investigations of connections at the single axon level, drawing on modern techniques and classical methods from the 1990s. A particular emphasis is on broad coverage of cortical and subcortical connections from different species, so that common patterns of divergence, convergence, and collateralization can be easily appreciated. Part 2 addresses mechanisms of axon guidance, as these seem particularly relevant to pathways and branching patterns. Part 3 covers axon dynamics and functional aspects; and Part 4 focuses on tractography, notably including comparisons between histological substrates and imaging. A novel innovative reference on the axon as a connectional unit, encompassing microcircuitry, axon guidance, and function Featuring chapters from leading researchers in the field Full-colour text that includes both an overview of axon function and the multiple underlying molecular mechanisms The only volume to bring together the configuration of individual axons at a circuit level and to relate the histological geometry of axons and axon bundles to in vivo tractography imaging studies

Behavioral Genetics of the Fly (Drosophila Melanogaster)

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Author: Josh Dubnau

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107009030

Category: Medical

Page: 291

View: 5821

A comprehensive portrayal of the behaviour genetics of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the methods used in these studies.

Brain Lipids in Synaptic Function and Neurological Disease

Clues to Innovative Therapeutic Strategies for Brain Disorders

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Author: Jacques Fantini,Nouara Yahi

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128004924

Category: Science

Page: 398

View: 3443

Lipids are the most abundant organic compounds found in the brain, accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight. The brain lipidome includes several thousands of distinct biochemical structures whose expression may greatly vary according to age, gender, brain region, cell type, as well as subcellular localization. In synaptic membranes, brain lipids specifically interact with neurotransmitter receptors and control their activity. Moreover, brain lipids play a key role in the generation and neurotoxicity of amyloidogenic proteins involved in the pathophysiology of neurological diseases. The aim of this book is to provide for the first time a comprehensive overview of brain lipid structures, and to explain the roles of these lipids in synaptic function, and in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Creutzfeldt-Jakob’s and Parkinson’s. To conclude the book, the authors present new ideas that can drive innovative therapeutic strategies based on the knowledge of the role of lipids in brain disorders. Written to provide a "hands-on" approach for readers Biochemical structures explained with molecular models, and molecular mechanisms explained with simple drawings Step-by-step guide to memorize and draw lipid structures Each chapter features a content summary, up-to-date references for additional study, and a key experiment with an explanation of the technique

Neural Communication and Control

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Author: Gy Székely,E. Lábos,Sándor Damjanovich

Publisher: Franklin Book Company

ISBN: N.A

Category: Neural circuitry

Page: 339

View: 7718