The Synaptic Organization of the Brain

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Author: Gordon M. Shepherd

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019515956X

Category: Medical

Page: 719

View: 8224

This is a thorough revision of the standard text on local circuits in the different regions of the brain. In this fifth edition, the results of the mouse and human genome projects are incorporated for the first time. Also for the first time, the reader is oriented to supporting neuroscience databases. Among the new advances covered are 2-photon confocal laser microscopy of dendrites and dendritic spines, biochemical analyses, and dual patch and multielectrode recordings, applied together with an increasing range of behavioral and gene-targeting methods.

Cortical Circuits

Synaptic Organization of the Cerebral Cortex Structure, Function, and Theory

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Author: WHITE

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468487213

Category: Medical

Page: 224

View: 1835

This elegant book presents current evidence on the organization of the mammalian cerebral cortex. The focus on synapses and their function provides the basis for understanding how this critical part of the brain could work. Dr. White and his colleague Dr. Keller have collated an impressive mass of material. This makes the crucial information accessible and coherent. Dr. White pioneered an area of investigation that to most others, and occasionally to himself, seemed a bottomless pit of painstaking at tention to detail for the identification and enumeration of cortical syn apses. I do not recall that he or anyone else suspected, when he began to publish his now classic papers, that the work would be central to an accelerating convergence of information and ideas from neurobiology and computer science, especially artificial intelligence (AI) (Rumelhart and McClelland, 1986). The brain is the principal organ responsible for the adaptive capacities of animals. What has impressed students of biology, of medicine, and, to an extent, of philosophy is the correlation between the prominence of the cerebral cortex and the adaptive "complexity" of a particular spe cies. Most agree that the cortex is what sets Homo sapiens apart from other species quantitatively and qualitatively (Rakic, 1988). This is summarized in the first chapter.

Handbook of Brain Microcircuits

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Author: Gordon Shepherd, Sten Grillner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199780331

Category: Medical

Page: 536

View: 4961

Microcircuits are the specific arrangements of cells and their connections that carry out the operations unique to each brain region. This resource summarizes succinctly these circuits in over 40 regions - enabling comparisons of principles across both vertebrates and invertebrates. It provides a new foundation for understanding brain function that will be of interest to all neuroscientists. Oxford Clinical Neuroscience is a comprehensive, cross-searchable collection of resources offering quick and easy access to eleven of Oxford University Press's prestigious neuroscience texts. Joining Oxford Medicine Online these resources offer students, specialists and clinical researchers the best quality content in an easy-to-access format.

Concepts and Challenges in Retinal Biology

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Author: John E. Dowling

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780444514844

Category: Medical

Page: 772

View: 4349

In August 2000 a Festschrift was held at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts to celebrate the career of Professor John E. Dowling on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Containing contributions from more than 50 of John's colleagues, representing a Who's Who of the vision research community, this work not only provides a memento of the occasion, but will hopefully serve as a basic reference for future researchers in retinal biology. The volume is divided somewhat arbitrarily into seven areas of retinal research containing chapters that present in some cases a broad overview of a particular topic, and in others an account of current research and studies in progress. These chapters exemplify the richness, diversity, and excitement of contemporary retinal research. They also remind us of how much more needs to be done before we understand fully the interrelationship between retinal neurons, the complex interactions between neurons and glial cells, and the mechanisms that govern retinal development. A final chapter contributed by John Dowling provides an overview of past accomplishments, and offers some future perspectives on retinal research in the 21st century.

The Retina

An Approachable Part of the Brain

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Author: John E. Dowling

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674766808

Category: Medical

Page: 282

View: 9374

The Private Life of the Brain

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Author: Susan Greenfield

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141937874

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 7925

What is happening in the brain when we drink too much alcohol, get high on ecstasy or experience road rage? Emotion, says internationally acclaimed neuroscientist Susan Greenfield, is the building block of consciousness. As our minds develop we create a personalized inner world based on our experiences. But during periods of intense emotion, such as anger, fear or euphoria, we can literally lose our mind, returning to the mental state we experienced as infants. Challenging many preconceived notions, Susan Greenfield's groundbreaking book seeks to answer one of science's most enduring mysteries: how our unique sense of self is created.

The Molecular Foundations of Psychiatry

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Author: Steven E. Hyman,Eric Jonathan Nestler

Publisher: American Psychiatric Pub

ISBN: 9780880483537

Category: Medical

Page: 239

View: 3325

This text offers a comprehensive introduction to molecular biology, genetics, and neurobiology relevant to psychiatry. Generously illustrated chapters are organized to be read at both an introductory and a more advanced level. Both beginners and advanced professionals will benefit from this text's discussion of how psychotropic drugs work and how gene-environment interactions may contribute to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. The authors demonstrate how molecular investigations in psychiatry will revolutionize the field by leading to improved diagnostic testing, to new and more effective treatments, and ultimately to the development of preventive measures for mental illness.

Drugs and the Developing Brain

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Author: Antonia Vernadakis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468430637

Category: Medical

Page: 538

View: 2887

The thalidomide tragedy which occurred slightly more than a decade ago made public officials and the general public acutely aware of the teratogenic potential of drugs. Although specialists in pharmacology and developmental biology had been studying this problem many years before, this catastrophic episode triggered the passage of legislation which required that information about the teratogenicity of drugs be produced before the drugs could be available to the general public. Gross deformities in man produced by drugs are frequently difficult to reproduce in experimental animals and the changes which are produced in other animals are frequently not translatable to humans. The problem of evaluating the potential that drugs have to produce gross malformations is small, however, compared to the evaluation of subtle but permanent behavioral effects which drugs may exert upon the developing organism. Nevertheless, many experimental studies in recent years indicate that subtle biochemical changes produced by drugs on brain tissue during critical periods of fetal or early post natal maturation may become manifest subsequently as behavioral deviations in early childhood or adolescence. Hyperkinetic disorders, epilepsies and other developmental disabilities may have a subtle biochemical imbalance, perhaps drug induced, as an underlying factor. This symposium was organized with the intent of bringing to gether prominent investigators who are working in different aspects of brain development and who are interested in the effects of drugs on the developing brain in order to discuss their findings, pro pose new theories, and open new avenues for future research.

Synaptic Self

How Our Brains Become Who We Are

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Author: Joseph LeDoux

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781440650420

Category: Psychology

Page: 416

View: 9806

In 1996 Joseph LeDoux's The Emotional Brain presented a revelatory examination of the biological bases of our emotions and memories. Now, the world-renowned expert on the brain has produced with a groundbreaking work that tells a more profound story: how the little spaces between the neurons—the brain's synapses—are the channels through which we think, act, imagine, feel, and remember. Synapses encode the essence of personality, enabling each of us to function as a distinctive, integrated individual from moment to moment. Exploring the functioning of memory, the synaptic basis of mental illness and drug addiction, and the mechanism of self-awareness, Synaptic Self is a provocative and mind-expanding work that is destined to become a classic.

Organization of the Spinal Cord

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Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080861357

Category: Medical

Page: 284

View: 7354

This volume includes contributions from almost all of the leading neuroanatomists who have in recent years devoted their attention to the spinal cord.

Behavioral Genetics of the Fly (Drosophila Melanogaster)

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Author: Josh Dubnau

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107009030

Category: Medical

Page: 291

View: 8172

A comprehensive portrayal of the behaviour genetics of the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) and the methods used in these studies.

The Biology of Early Influences

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Author: Richard L. Hyson,Frank Johnson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0585295980

Category: Medical

Page: 204

View: 8573

The underlying theme of this book the role of experience in the development of the nervous system. It is now widely acknowledged that there are a variety of organi- environment interactions that guide the development of the nervous system. The popular press has also picked up on this theme and parents are being advised to enrich their child's sensory experience as early as possible. The importance of experience in development is so well accepted that it has begun to dictate public policy. In 1997, the President and First Lady hosted "The White House Conference on Early Childhood Development and Learning: What New Research on the Brain Tells Us About Our Youngest Children. " Along with this conference came a reemphasis on programs directed at enriching the en- ronment of America's youth. In some cases laws have been passed to assure enhanced early experience. In Georgia, the former governor proposed sending newborn children home from the hospital with classical music CDs. This received some praise, but was also ridiculed by others who felt the policy was not justified by the available scientific evidence. Here in Florida, enhanced "brain development activities" are mandated for sta- funded child care facilities. Chapter 402. 25 of the 1998 State of Florida Statues reads (emphasis added): Infants and toddlers in state-funded education and care programs; brain development activities.

Neurotransmitter Actions in the Vertebrate Nervous System

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Author: Michael Rogawski

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468449613

Category: Medical

Page: 511

View: 6047

Intercellular communication via bioactive substances occurs in virtually all multicellular systems. Chemical neurotransmission in the vertebrate nervous system represents a form of signaling of this type. The biology of chemical neurotransmission is complex, involving transmitter synthesis, transport, and release by the presynaptic neuron; signal generation in the target tissue; and mechanisms for termination of the response. The focus of this book is on one aspect of this scheme: the diverse electrophysiological effects induced by different neurotransmitters on targets cells. In recent years, astonishing progress has been made in elucidating the specific physiological signals mediated by neurotransmitters in the verte brate nervous system, yet, in our view, this has not been adequately recog nized, perhaps because the new concepts have yet to filter into neuroscience textbooks. Nevertheless, the principles of neurotransmitter action are critical to advances in many areas of neuroscience, including molecular neurobiol ogy, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, physiological psychology, and clinical neuroscience. It was the need for a sourcebook that prompted us to engage a group of neurophysiologists to prepare the chapters in this volume. However, there was an additional reason for this book: more and more it seemed that the field, if not yet having reached maturity, at least was ap proaching adolescence, with strengths in some areas and healthy conflicts in others. At this stage of development a textbook can help to define a field, clarify problems to be resolved, and identify areas for future investigation.

Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience

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Author: Eugene M. Izhikevich

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262090430

Category: Medical

Page: 441

View: 7847

In order to model neuronal behavior or to interpret the results of modeling studies, neuroscientists must call upon methods of nonlinear dynamics. This book offers an introduction to nonlinear dynamical systems theory for researchers and graduate students in neuroscience. It also provides an overview of neuroscience for mathematicians who want to learn the basic facts of electrophysiology. Dynamical Systems in Neuroscience presents a systematic study of the relationship of electrophysiology, nonlinear dynamics, and computational properties of neurons. It emphasizes that information processing in the brain depends not only on the electrophysiological properties of neurons but also on their dynamical properties. The book introduces dynamical systems, starting with one- and two-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley-type models and continuing to a description of bursting systems. Each chapter proceeds from the simple to the complex, and provides sample problems at the end. The book explains all necessary mathematical concepts using geometrical intuition; it includes many figures and few equations, making it especially suitable for non-mathematicians. Each concept is presented in terms of both neuroscience and mathematics, providing a link between the two disciplines. Nonlinear dynamical systems theory is at the core of computational neuroscience research, but it is not a standard part of the graduate neuroscience curriculum—or taught by math or physics department in a way that is suitable for students of biology. This book offers neuroscience students and researchers a comprehensive account of concepts and methods increasingly used in computational neuroscience. An additional chapter on synchronization, with more advanced material, can be found at the author's website, www.izhikevich.com.

Neurogastronomy

How the Brain Creates Flavor and Why It Matters

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Author: Gordon Shepherd

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231159110

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 5230

Challenging the belief that the sense of smell diminished during human evolution, Shepherd argues that this sense, which constitutes the main component of flavor, is far more powerful and essential than previously believed. --from publisher description

Structural and Functional Organization of the Synapse

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Author: Johannes W. Hell,Michael D. Ehlers

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387772324

Category: Medical

Page: 801

View: 5269

This new Springer volume, which comes complete with a free DVD, is a comprehensive and detailed overview of the synapse with emphasis on the glutamatergic synapse. Most chapters relate the synapse’s functional aspects to its molecular mechanisms. This approach shows which mechanisms are characterized on both the functional and structural level and can thus be considered firmly established. It’s an important text for neuroscientists and disease-oriented clinicians in neurology.

The Shallows

How the internet is changing the way we think, read and remember

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Author: Nicholas Carr

Publisher: Atlantic Books Ltd

ISBN: 1848878834

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 300

View: 6932

In this ground-breaking and compelling book, Nicholas Carr argues that not since Gutenberg invented printing has humanity been exposed to such a mind-altering technology. The Shallows draws on the latest research to show that the Net is literally re-wiring our brains inducing only superficial understanding. As a consequence there are profound changes in the way we live and communicate, remember and socialise - even in our very conception of ourselves. By moving from the depths of thought to the shallows of distraction, the web, it seems, is actually fostering ignorance. The Shallows is not a manifesto for luddites, nor does it seek to turn back the clock. Rather it is a revelatory reminder of how far the Internet has become enmeshed in our daily existence and is affecting the way we think. This landmark book compels us all to look anew at our dependence on this all-pervasive technology.

Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems

An Introduction to Neuroscience

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Author: A.G. Brown

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540760900

Category: Medical

Page: 253

View: 1080

It is now about 10 years since the first edition of Nerve Cells and Nervous Systems was published. There have been many important advances across the whole field of neuro science since 1990 and it was obvious that the first edition had become much less useful than when it was published. Hence this new edition. I have attempted to keep to the aims of the first edition by presenting the general principles of neuroscience in the context of experimental evidence. As with the first edition, the selection of material to include, or exclude, has been difficult and invariably reflects my personal biases. I hope that not too many readers will be disappointed with the selections. I have unashamedly retained material, and, in particular, illustrations where I think they remain of importance to an understanding of the field and to its historical development. As before, I have attempted as reasonable a coverage as possible within the confines of a book that should be easy to carry around, to handle and, I hope, to read. The book should be useful for anyone studying the nervous system at both undergraduate and immediate postgraduate levels. In particular, under graduates reading neuroscience or any course containing a neuroscience component, such as physiology, pharmacology, biomedical sciences or psychology, as well as medicine and veterinary medicine should find the book helpful.

Surgical Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease and Other Movement Disorders

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Author: Daniel Tarsy,Jerrold L. Vitek,Andres M. Lozano

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592593127

Category: Medical

Page: 368

View: 9213

In Surgical Treatment of Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders, a panel of highly experienced neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists, neuropsychologists, and neuroanatomists join forces to create an integrated, cutting-edge survey all of the methodologies necessary for successful surgical treatment.

Olivocerebellar Projection

A Review

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Author: A. Brodal,K. Kawamura

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642677754

Category: Medical

Page: 140

View: 365

In recent years the inferior olive and its projection to the cerebellum have attracted considerable interest. Numerous experimental anatomic and electrophysiologic studies have been undertaken, and much new information has been brought forward. Many apparently discordant observations have been reported however, and on many points the data obtained by the use of different methbds and approaches appear to be diffi cult to reconcile. Much of the interest in the olivocerebellar projection concerns the topographical localization within the projection. Particularly as a result of research in recent years the pattern of localization has turned out to be far more complex than previously be lieved. It was found useful, therefore, to attempt a review of the subject in the hope that a critical analysis of available observations might make it possible to obtain an integrated picture of the olivocerebellar projection and perhaps fmd some basic principles in the organization of this fiber system. As will be seen, our attempt has been only partly successful. There are still riddles that remain to be solved. In the present review attention will be focused on problems related to the locali zation within the olivocerebellar projection, particularly its anatomic aspects. An extensive review of the physiology of the inferior olive has been published recently by Armstrong (1974), who considers some anatomicophysiologic correlations as well. Physiologic fmdings will be referred to here mainly in relation to our main theme.