The Spotted Hyena: A Study of Predation and Social Behavior

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Author: Hans Kruuk,Senior Principal Officer Nerc Hans Kruuk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781626548527

Category: Nature

Page: 388

View: 9669

In this seminal study, Hans Kruuk redefines the image of the spotted hyena, not as a common scavenger, but as a complex matriarchal predator with links to human evolution. "The Spotted Hyena" is the first study to capture the true behavior and ecology of these formidable predators, who instinctively adapt their social structure to meet their ecological needs. Kruuk's research reveals for the first time that hyenas combine carnivorous habits with group territoriality, thus drawing parallels between their existence and that of wolves, lions, and arguably early humans. In addition to being lovable rogues, spotted hyenas are sophisticated hunters that live in complex communities of up to 80 animals. Covering more than broad facts about this species, Kruuk addresses the vital questions concerning hyena behavior such as why females are dominant, why lions scavenge from hyenas, why hyenas hunt zebra and wildebeest differently, and how their social behavior correlates with ecology. Since its original publication, "The Spotted Hyena" has transformed the common perception of the spotted hyena. With nearly 2,000 citations in scientific literature, "The Spotted Hyena" has become a classic work and trailblazer for linking changes in animal behavior with the environment, in addition to its concentration on a large carnivore that shares several characteristics with select primates. Although this is a science book, Kruuk skips the jargon and complicated theory, thus making its conclusions easily accessible to any student of natural history, African predators, or social behavior within animal communities. "The Spotted Hyena" features exciting field notes in addition to comprehensive graphs and tables that have made it an invaluable contribution to behavioral ecology and its methodology. Hans Kruuk studied hyenas while living in the wilderness of Africa's Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater for many years. After completing his doctorate with Nobel Prize winner Niko Tinbergen at the University of Oxford, Kruuk was asked by the former Tanganyika (now Tanzania) National Parks to study predation in the Serengeti. Kruuk focused on the most important carnivore there—the spotted hyena—and co-founded the Serengeti Research Institute in Tanzania to carry out his research. Many years later in 1997, he retired emeritus from his position as Senior Principal Research Officer at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology in Banchory, Scotland. Kruuk has carried out research projects on mammals and birds on all continents, published seven books and over 120 scientific papers. Among his awards are scientific medals from the Zoological Society of London and British Mammal Society, and secondary Doctorate of Science from the University of Aberdeen where he is also Honorary Professor.

Kalahari Hyenas

Comparative Behavioral Ecology of Two Species

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Author: M. G. L. Mills

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781930665835

Category: Nature

Page: 304

View: 3430

Originally published in 1990, this text focuses on a comparison of the feeding ecology and social systems of the brown and spotted hyenas. Set in the semi-arid region of the Kalahari, the book examines roles and interactions of the two species in this finely balanced ecosystem and highlights the factors and mechanisms responsible for regulating the populations.

Hyena Nights & Kalahari Days

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Author: Gus Mills,Margie Mills

Publisher: Jacana Media

ISBN: 1770098119

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 221

View: 3420

In this fascinating account of scientific study among forbidding wilderness, a husband-and-wife team describe their trek to the Kalahari to study the little-known brown hyena. The details of the scientific inquiry are provided while the daily challenges of living with children 420 kilometers from the nearest town are described. Despite the hardships, the couple becomes so enchanted by these intelligent animals that they stay for 12 years, documenting many hyena clans and observing behavior only a handful of people have ever seen.

The Hyena Scientist

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Author: Sy Montgomery,Nic Bishop

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 1328476626

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 80

View: 2314

This myth-busting new addition to the critically acclaimed Scientists in the Field series by Sibert medal winning team Sy Montgomery and Nic Bishop is perfect for nonfiction readers looking for more female scientist narratives, or a fresh perspective on an underrepresented animal—Hyenas! Timely and inspiring, The Hyena Scientist sets the record straight about one of history’s most hated and misunderstood mammals, while featuring the groundbreaking, pioneering research of a female scientist in a predominately male field in this offering by Sibert-winning duo Sy Montgomery and Nic Bishop. As a scientist studying one of the only mammalian societies led entirely by females, zoologist Kay Holecamp has made it her life’s work to understand hyenas, the fascinating, complex creatures that are playful, social, and highly intelligent—almost nothing like the mangy monsters of pop culture lore.

Among the Bone Eaters

Encounters with Hyenas in Harar

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Author: Marcus Baynes-Rock

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271074043

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 9655

Biologists studying large carnivores in wild places usually do so from a distance, using telemetry and noninvasive methods of data collection. So what happens when an anthropologist studies a clan of spotted hyenas, Africa’s second-largest carnivores, up close—and in a city of a hundred thousand inhabitants? In Among the Bone Eaters, Marcus Baynes-Rock takes us to the ancient city of Harar in Ethiopia, where the gey waraba (hyenas of the city) are welcome in the streets and appreciated by the locals for the protection they provide from harmful spirits and dangerous “mountain” hyenas. They’ve even become a local tourist attraction. At the start of his research in Harar, Baynes-Rock contended with difficult conditions, stone-throwing children, intransigent bureaucracy, and wary hyena subjects intent on avoiding people. After months of frustration, three young hyenas drew him into the hidden world of the Sofi clan. He discovered the elements of a hyena’s life, from the delectability of dead livestock and the nuisance of dogs to the unbounded thrill of hyena chase-play under the light of a full moon. Baynes-Rock’s personal relations with the hyenas from the Sofi clan expand the conceptual boundaries of human-animal relations. This is multispecies ethnography that reveals its messy, intersubjective, dangerously transformative potential.

Hyaena

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Author: Hans Kruuk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780198573951

Category: Nature

Page: 80

View: 3285

Hyena

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Author: Mikita Brottman

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 9781861899217

Category: Nature

Page: 167

View: 7334

Hyenas are almost universally regarded as nasty, scheming charlatans that skulk in the back alleyways of the animal kingdom. They have been scorned for centuries as little more than scavenging carrion-eaters, vandals, and thieves. Here to restore the Hyena’s reputation is Mikita Brottman, who offers an alternate view of these mistreated and misunderstood creatures and proves that they are complex, intelligent, and highly sociable animals. Investigating representations of the hyena throughout history, Brottman divulges that the hyena, though shrouded in taboo, has been the source of talismanic objects since the ancient Greek and Roman empires. She discovers that many cultures use parts of the hyena—from excrement and blood to genitalia and hair—to make charms that both avert evil and promote fertility. Brottman also considers representations of hyenas in today’s popular fiction, including The Lion King and The Life of Pi,where they are often depicted as villains, cowardly henchmen, or clowns, while ignoring their more noble qualities. Rightly returning hyenas to their proper place in the animal pantheon, this richly illustrated book will be enjoyed by any animal lover with an interest in the unusual and offbeat.

The Tribe of Tiger

Cats and Their Culture

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Author: Elizabeth Marshall Thomas

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1504015576

Category: Science

Page: 275

View: 7040

From the majestic Bengal tiger to the domesticated Siamese comes a meditation on cats from the bestselling author of The Hidden Life of Dogs and The Social Lives of Dogs From as far back in time as the disappearance of the dinosaurs, cats have occupied an important place in our evolutionary, social, and cultural history. The family of the cat is as diverse as it is widespread, ranging from the lions, tigers, and pumas of the African and Asian wilds to the domesticated cats of our homes, zoos, and circuses. When she witnesses her housecat, Rajah, effortlessly scare off two fully-grown deer, acclaimed anthropologist Elizabeth Marshall Thomas starts studying the links that bind the feline family together. Immersing herself in the subtle differences of their social orders, feeding behaviors, and means of communication, Thomas explores the nature of the cat, both wild and domestic, and the resilient streak that has ensured its survival over thousands of years.

The Gnu's World

Serengeti Wildebeest Ecology and Life History

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Author: Richard Estes

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520273184

Category: Nature

Page: 351

View: 2063

This is the first scholarly book on the antelope that dominates the savanna ecosystems of eastern and southern Africa. It presents a synthesis of research conducted over a span of fifty years, mainly on the wildebeest in the Ngorongoro and Serengeti ecosystems, where eighty percent of the world’s wildebeest population lives. Wildebeest and other grazing mammals drive the ecology and evolution of the savanna ecosystem. Richard D. Estes describes this process and also details the wildebeest’s life history, focusing on its social organization and unique reproductive system, which are adapted to the animal’s epic annual migrations. He also examines conservation issues that affect wildebeest, including range-wide population declines.

Large Carnivore Conservation and Management

Human Dimensions

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Author: Tasos Hovardas

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351706802

Category: Nature

Page: 364

View: 9048

Large carnivores include iconic species such as bears, wolves and big cats. Their habitats are increasingly being shared with humans, and there is a growing number of examples of human-carnivore coexistence as well as conflict. Next to population dynamics of large carnivores, there are considerable attitude shifts towards these species worldwide with multiple implications. This book argues and demonstrates why human dimensions of relationships to large carnivores are crucial for their successful conservation and management. It provides an overview of theoretical and methodological perspectives, heterogeneity in stakeholder perceptions and behaviour as well as developments in decision making, stakeholder involvement, policy and governance informed by human dimensions of large carnivore conservation and management. The scope is international, with detailed examples and case studies from Europe, North and South America, Central and South Asia, as well as debates of the challenges faced by urbanization, agricultural expansion, national parks and protected areas. The main species covered include bears, wolves, lynx, and leopards. The book provides a novel perspective for advanced students, researchers and professionals in ecology and conservation, wildlife management, human-wildlife interactions, environmental education and environmental social science.

Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 11

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Author: Jane Hurst,Robert J. Beynon,S. Craig Roberts,Tristram Wyatt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387739459

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 6332

This volume contains the proceedings of the conference of the same name held in July 2006 at the University of Chester in the United Kingdom. It includes all the latest research on chemical communication relevant to vertebrates, particularly focusing on new research since the last meeting in 2003. Topics covered include the chemical ecology, biochemistry, behavior, olfactory receptors, and the neurobiology of both the main olfactory and vomeronasal systems of vertebrates.

Spatial Point Patterns

Methodology and Applications with R

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Author: Adrian Baddeley,Ege Rubak,Rolf Turner

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482210215

Category: Mathematics

Page: 810

View: 7668

Modern Statistical Methodology and Software for Analyzing Spatial Point Patterns Spatial Point Patterns: Methodology and Applications with R shows scientific researchers and applied statisticians from a wide range of fields how to analyze their spatial point pattern data. Making the techniques accessible to non-mathematicians, the authors draw on their 25 years of software development experiences, methodological research, and broad scientific collaborations to deliver a book that clearly and succinctly explains concepts and addresses real scientific questions. Practical Advice on Data Analysis and Guidance on the Validity and Applicability of Methods The first part of the book gives an introduction to R software, advice about collecting data, information about handling and manipulating data, and an accessible introduction to the basic concepts of point processes. The second part presents tools for exploratory data analysis, including non-parametric estimation of intensity, correlation, and spacing properties. The third part discusses model-fitting and statistical inference for point patterns. The final part describes point patterns with additional "structure," such as complicated marks, space-time observations, three- and higher-dimensional spaces, replicated observations, and point patterns constrained to a network of lines. Easily Analyze Your Own Data Throughout the book, the authors use their spatstat package, which is free, open-source code written in the R language. This package provides a wide range of capabilities for spatial point pattern data, from basic data handling to advanced analytic tools. The book focuses on practical needs from the user’s perspective, offering answers to the most frequently asked questions in each chapter.

Hyaenas

status survey and conservation action plan

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Author: M. G. L. Mills,Gus Mills,Heribert Hofer

Publisher: World Conservation Union

ISBN: 9782831704425

Category: Nature

Page: 154

View: 9127

Despite their low species density, hyaenas are both unique and vital components of most African and some Asian ecosystems. Although there are only 4 species, they tend to clash with the interests of humans to a greater extent than many other mammals and one of the biggest obstacles facing those committed to the conservation of this species is the negative feelings that many people have towards hyaenas. This Action Plan sets out to address some of the problems facing this species and, particularly the issue of public perception and awareness, and provides guidelines to rectify this situation.

The Serengeti Lion

A Study of Predator-Prey Relations

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Author: George B. Schaller

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226736600

Category: Nature

Page: 504

View: 5719

Based on three years of study in the Serengeti National Park, George B. Schaller’s The Serengeti Lion describes the vast impact of the lion and other predators on the vast herds of wildebeest, zebra, and gazelle for which the area is famous. The most comprehensive book available on the lion, this classic work includes the author’s findings on all aspects of lion behavior, including its social system, population dynamics, hunting behavior, and predation patterns. “If you have only enough time to read one book about field biology, this is the one I recommend.”—Edward O. Wilson, Science “This book conveys not only the fascination of its particular study of lion behavior but the drama and wonder and beauty of the intimate interdependence of all living things.”—Saturday Review “This is an important book, not just for its valuable information on lions, but for its broad, open, and intelligent approach to problems that cut across the fields of behavior, populations, ecology, wildlife management, evolution, anthropology, and comparative biology.”—Richard G. Van Gelder, Bioscience

Feral

Rewilding the Land, the Sea, and Human Life

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Author: George Monbiot

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022620555X

Category: Nature

Page: 319

View: 6900

As an investigative journalist, Monbiot found a mission in his ecological boredom, that of learning what it might take to impose a greater state of harmony between himself and nature. He was not one to romanticize undisturbed, primal landscapes, but rather in his attempts to satisfy his cravings for a richer, more authentic life, he came stumbled into the world of restoration and rewilding. When these concepts were first introduced in 2011, very recently, they focused on releasing captive animals into the wild. Soon the definition expanded to describe the reintroduction of animal and plant species to habitats from which they had been excised. Some people began using it to mean the rehabilitation not just of particular species, but of entire ecosystems: a restoration of wilderness. Rewilding recognizes that nature consists not just of a collection of species but also of their ever-shifting relationships with each other and with the physical environment. Ecologists have shown how the dynamics within communities are affected by even the seemingly minor changes in species assemblages. Predators and large herbivores have transformed entire landscapes, from the nature of the soil to the flow of rivers, the chemistry of the oceans, and the composition of the atmosphere. The complexity of earth systems is seemingly boundless."

Niko's Nature

The Life of Niko Tinbergen and his Science of Animal Behaviour

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Author: Hans Kruuk

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191622478

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 406

View: 8214

A charismatic naturalist, bird-watcher, teacher, artist, photographer, film-maker, and winner of the Nobel Prize, Niko Tinbergen was a prominent and influential scientist. Jointly with Konrad Lorenz, he laid the foundation for a new science, the biological study of animal behaviour. 'Ethology', and his talent for devising behaviour-testing experiments, provided an outlet for Niko's enthusiasm for gulls and sticklebacks, snow-buntings and foxes, wasps and falcons, and even children. This first full-length biography of Niko Tinbergen, lavishly illustrated with many of Niko's own drawings, describes his background in Holland, a naturalists' paradise, and the beginnings of his investigations into the behaviour of birds, fish, and insects. Hans Kruuk also explores is Niko's relationship with his colleague and co-Nobelist Konrad Lorenz. These were two men full of contrasts: Niko a charming, self-effacing field man and experimenter; Konrad a flamboyant and egocentric German, always full of new ideas. Niko's Nature goes on to follow Niko's progress in Oxford after the Second World War, where he became the world authority on the behaviour of animals in the wild: his inspiring book The Study of Instinct remains an all-time classic. As a scientist Niko will always be known for the four fundamentally different ways in which he asked the question 'why does an animal do this?' These questions, about physiology, development, evolution, and function, became known as 'Tinbergen's four whys'. But Niko's successes came at a price - severe and devastating depressions that were to plague him throughout his career. In this fascinating and engaging story, Niko's long-time friend and student Hans Kruuk argues that his impact as a scientist and naturalist was in large part due to his skills as a communicator, photographer, and film-maker. Niko's Nature is an intimate and insightful portrait of an extraordinary figure.

Sapiens

A Brief History of Humankind

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Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: Harper Collins

ISBN: 0062316109

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 4496

New York Times Bestseller A Summer Reading Pick for President Barack Obama, Bill Gates, and Mark Zuckerberg From a renowned historian comes a groundbreaking narrative of humanity’s creation and evolution—a #1 international bestseller—that explores the ways in which biology and history have defined us and enhanced our understanding of what it means to be “human.” One hundred thousand years ago, at least six different species of humans inhabited Earth. Yet today there is only one—homo sapiens. What happened to the others? And what may happen to us? Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book that begins about 70,000 years ago with the appearance of modern cognition. From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. Dr. Harari also compels us to look ahead, because over the last few decades humans have begun to bend laws of natural selection that have governed life for the past four billion years. We are acquiring the ability to design not only the world around us, but also ourselves. Where is this leading us, and what do we want to become? Featuring 27 photographs, 6 maps, and 25 illustrations/diagrams, this provocative and insightful work is sure to spark debate and is essential reading for aficionados of Jared Diamond, James Gleick, Matt Ridley, Robert Wright, and Sharon Moalem.

Kalahari Hyaenas

Comparative Behavioural Ecology of Two Species

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Author: M.G.L. Mills

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780044453284

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 5810

This beast has a stone in its eye, also called an Yena, which is believed to make a person able to foresee the future if he keeps it under his tongue. It is true that if an Yena walks round an animal three times, the animal cannot move. For this reason they affirm that it has some sort of magic skill about it. (Translated from Latin, from the twelfth century Bestiary in the University of Cambridge Library. ) Perhaps it is not merely fortuitous that of all the African animals, the ancients should have selected the hyaena as a vehicle for magical powers. Of course, there are solid scientific explanations for this; the animals' nocturnal habits around human habitation, the consumption of people's mortal remains, the spectacular hermaphroditic appearance, the uncanny similarity between the calls of a spotted hyaena and the utterances of deranged humanity. But apart from all rational explanations for the strange hold of the animal over people, there is a magic about hyaenas which can only be understood by those who have watched them for some time. There is a now growing band of us, who came to the African bush with all our prejudices, with all that 'common knowledge' about hyaenas which proved so totally wrong, and who just fell for the spell of animals which were so totally different.

Zebra Stripes

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Author: Tim Caro

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022641101X

Category: Science

Page: 318

View: 5720

Why do zebras have stripes? Popular explanations range from camouflage to confusion of predators, social facilitation, and even temperature regulation. It is a challenge to test these proposals on large animals living in the wild, but using a combination of careful observations, simple field experiments, comparative information, and logic, Caro concludes that black-and-white stripes are an adaptation to thwart biting fly attack.