The Spotted Hyena: A Study of Predation and Social Behavior

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Author: Hans Kruuk,Senior Principal Officer Nerc Hans Kruuk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781626548527

Category: Nature

Page: 388

View: 8891

In this seminal study, Hans Kruuk redefines the image of the spotted hyena, not as a common scavenger, but as a complex matriarchal predator with links to human evolution. "The Spotted Hyena" is the first study to capture the true behavior and ecology of these formidable predators, who instinctively adapt their social structure to meet their ecological needs. Kruuk's research reveals for the first time that hyenas combine carnivorous habits with group territoriality, thus drawing parallels between their existence and that of wolves, lions, and arguably early humans. In addition to being lovable rogues, spotted hyenas are sophisticated hunters that live in complex communities of up to 80 animals. Covering more than broad facts about this species, Kruuk addresses the vital questions concerning hyena behavior such as why females are dominant, why lions scavenge from hyenas, why hyenas hunt zebra and wildebeest differently, and how their social behavior correlates with ecology. Since its original publication, "The Spotted Hyena" has transformed the common perception of the spotted hyena. With nearly 2,000 citations in scientific literature, "The Spotted Hyena" has become a classic work and trailblazer for linking changes in animal behavior with the environment, in addition to its concentration on a large carnivore that shares several characteristics with select primates. Although this is a science book, Kruuk skips the jargon and complicated theory, thus making its conclusions easily accessible to any student of natural history, African predators, or social behavior within animal communities. "The Spotted Hyena" features exciting field notes in addition to comprehensive graphs and tables that have made it an invaluable contribution to behavioral ecology and its methodology. Hans Kruuk studied hyenas while living in the wilderness of Africa's Serengeti and Ngorongoro Crater for many years. After completing his doctorate with Nobel Prize winner Niko Tinbergen at the University of Oxford, Kruuk was asked by the former Tanganyika (now Tanzania) National Parks to study predation in the Serengeti. Kruuk focused on the most important carnivore there—the spotted hyena—and co-founded the Serengeti Research Institute in Tanzania to carry out his research. Many years later in 1997, he retired emeritus from his position as Senior Principal Research Officer at the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology in Banchory, Scotland. Kruuk has carried out research projects on mammals and birds on all continents, published seven books and over 120 scientific papers. Among his awards are scientific medals from the Zoological Society of London and British Mammal Society, and secondary Doctorate of Science from the University of Aberdeen where he is also Honorary Professor.

Kognition bei Menschen und Tieren

Eine vergleichende philosophische Perspektive

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Author: Tobias Starzak

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3110368900

Category: Philosophy

Page: 262

View: 2423

What distinguishes humans from all other animals? In this book, rationality, social learning, and cooperation – the basis of cultural evolution – are placed under the microscope from a comparative philosophical perspective. The view is developed that anthropological difference is based upon the sum of many small differences, and that we are more like other animals than we often think.

Beute

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Author: Michael Crichton

Publisher: Karl Blessing Verlag

ISBN: 3641135354

Category: Fiction

Page: N.A

View: 9049

Ein Forschungslabor mitten in der Wüste von Nevada: Hier werden mit Hilfe der Nanotechnologie Miniaturkameras für die Kriegsführung entwickelt, die auf der Struktur von Bakterien aufbauen. Aber eines Tages können einige dieser Mikroroboter aus dem Labor entweichen, und nun machen sie Jagd auf alles, was in der Wüste lebt: Schlangen, Kaninchen – und Menschen. Der Biotechnologe Jack Forman soll den Killerschwarm vernichten. Doch er steht vor einer scheinbar hoffnungslosen Mission ...

Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers

The Acclaimed Guide to Stress, Stress-Related Diseases, and Coping - Now Revised and Updated

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Author: Robert M. Sapolsky

Publisher: Holt Paperbacks

ISBN: 9781429935654

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 560

View: 713

Renowned primatologist Robert Sapolsky offers a completely revised and updated edition of his most popular work, with over 225,000 copies in print Now in a third edition, Robert M. Sapolsky's acclaimed and successful Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers features new chapters on how stress affects sleep and addiction, as well as new insights into anxiety and personality disorder and the impact of spirituality on managing stress. As Sapolsky explains, most of us do not lie awake at night worrying about whether we have leprosy or malaria. Instead, the diseases we fear-and the ones that plague us now-are illnesses brought on by the slow accumulation of damage, such as heart disease and cancer. When we worry or experience stress, our body turns on the same physiological responses that an animal's does, but we do not resolve conflict in the same way-through fighting or fleeing. Over time, this activation of a stress response makes us literally sick. Combining cutting-edge research with a healthy dose of good humor and practical advice, Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers explains how prolonged stress causes or intensifies a range of physical and mental afflictions, including depression, ulcers, colitis, heart disease, and more. It also provides essential guidance to controlling our stress responses. This new edition promises to be the most comprehensive and engaging one yet.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

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Author: Yuval Noah Harari

Publisher: DVA

ISBN: 364110498X

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 5404

Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation

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Author: Matthew E. Gompper

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191640115

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 9573

Dogs are the world's most common and widespread carnivores and are nearly ubiquitous across the globe. The vast majority of these dogs, whether owned or un-owned, pure-bred or stray, spend a large portion of their life as unconfined, free-roaming animals, persisting at the interface of human and wildlife communities. Their numbers are particularly large throughout the developing world, where veterinary care and population control are often minimal and human populations are burgeoning. This volume brings together the world's experts to provide a comprehensive, unifying, and accessible review of the effects of dogs on native wildlife species. With an emphasis on addressing how free-ranging dogs may influence wildlife management and native species of conservation concern, chapters address themes such as the global history and size of dog populations, dogs as predators, competitors, and prey of wildlife, the use of dogs as hunting companions, the role of dogs in maintaining diseases of wildlife, and the potential for dogs to hybridize with wild canid species. In addition, the potential role of dogs as mediators of conservation conflict is assessed, including the role of dogs as livestock guardians, the potential for dogs to aid researchers in locating rare wildlife species of conservation interest, and the importance of recognizing that some populations of dogs such as dingoes have a long history of genetic isolation and are themselves important conservation concerns. A common theme woven throughout this volume is the potential for dogs to mediate how humans interact with wildlife and the recognition that the success of wildlife conservation and management efforts are often underpinned by understanding and addressing the potential roles of free-ranging dogs in diverse natural ecosystems. Free-Ranging Dogs and Wildlife Conservation is aimed at professional wildlife and conservation ecologists, managers, graduate students, and researchers with an interest in human-dog-wildlife interactions. It will also be of relevance and use to dog welfare researchers, veterinary scientists, disease ecologists, and readers with an interest in the interface of domestic animals and wildlife.

Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution

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Author: John L. Gittleman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475747160

Category: Science

Page: 620

View: 3744

Carnivores have always fascinated us, even though they make up only 10% of all mammalian genera and only about 2% of all mammalian biomass. In Greek mythology most of the gods adorned their robes and helmets with depictions of carnivores, and the great hero Hercules' most famous feat was killing the "invulnerable" lion with his bare hands. Part· of our fascination with carnivores stems from fright and intrigue, and sometimes even hatred because of our direct competition with them. Cases of "man-eating" lions, bears, and wolves, as well as carnivores' reputation as killers of livestock and game, provoke communities and governrpents to adopt sweeping policies to exterminate them. Even President Theodore Roosevelt, proclaimer of a new wildlife protectionism, described the wolf as "the beast of waste and desolation. " The sheer presence and power of carnivores is daunt ing: they can move quickly yet silently through forests, attaining rapid bursts of speed when necessary; their massive muscles are aligned to deliver powerful attacks, their large canines and strong jaws rip open carcasses, and their scis sor-like carnassials slice meat. Partly because of our fear of these attributes, trophy hunting of carnivores has been, and to a certain extent still is, a sign of bravery and skill. Among some Alaskan Inuit, for example, a man is not eligible for marriage until he has killed a succession of animals of increasing size and dangerousness, culminating with the most menacing, the polar bear.

Fathering Behaviors

The Dynamics of the Man-Child Bond

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Author: Wade C. Mackey

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461324254

Category: Psychology

Page: 220

View: 7605

Like the lines of a secret map made dimly apparent by the chemical potion brushed on a piece of paper from a child's detective kit, the outlines of what may be a substantial behavioral biology of human life seem to be coming clear. From genetic science at its most molecular to demography with its assessment of the vital experience of massive populations, there is a growing understanding of the various ways in which the human species reveals underlying commonalities of experi ence through the life cycle and over the web of interactions that constitutes the basic matter of social life. At the same time, research has been successful in two super ficially and contradictory directions: first, in showing the enormous variation in human arrangements and consciousness across and with in cultures; and second, in showing the similarity between cultures as far as basic processes of physiology, neurophysiology, and even so ciallife are concerned. But the contradiction only exists in the absence of an understanding of the fact that in a species living under as many ecological, historical, and economic niches as Homo sapiens, cultural variation is what one would naturally expect.

Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior

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Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128132523

Category: Science

Page: 3048

View: 3226

Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, Second Edition, the latest update since the 2010 release, builds upon the solid foundation established in the first edition. Updated sections include Host-parasite interactions, Vertebrate social behavior, and the introduction of ‘overview essays’ that boost the book's comprehensive detail. The structure for the work is modified to accommodate a better grouping of subjects. Some chapters have been reshuffled, with section headings combined or modified. Represents a one-stop resource for scientifically reliable information on animal behavior Provides comparative approaches, including the perspective of evolutionary biologists, physiologists, endocrinologists, neuroscientists and psychologists Includes multimedia features in the online version that offer accessible tools to readers looking to deepen their understanding

Hyena Nights & Kalahari Days

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Author: Gus Mills,Margie Mills

Publisher: Jacana Media

ISBN: 1770098119

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 221

View: 1825

In this fascinating account of scientific study among forbidding wilderness, a husband-and-wife team describe their trek to the Kalahari to study the little-known brown hyena. The details of the scientific inquiry are provided while the daily challenges of living with children 420 kilometers from the nearest town are described. Despite the hardships, the couple becomes so enchanted by these intelligent animals that they stay for 12 years, documenting many hyena clans and observing behavior only a handful of people have ever seen.

Behavioral Ecology of Tropical Animals

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Author: Regina H. Macedo

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 9780123808950

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 9621

Advances in the Study of Behavior was initiated over 40 years ago to serve the increasing number of scientists engaged in the study of animal behavior. That number is still expanding. This thematic volume makes another important "contribution to the development of the field" by bringing together material that aggregates studies conducted on the behavior of tropical animals. Advances in the Study of Behavior is now available online at ScienceDirect--full-text online from volume 30 onward.

The Nature of Carnivores

Life and Travels with a Field Biologist

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Author: Hans Kruuk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781784271930

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 6767

Carnivores include some of the most impressive, dangerous and mysterious animals in the world. Hans Kruuk has spent his life studying them against magnificent backdrops, from the Serengeti savannahs and Kalahari deserts to the Scottish Highlands, from the Galápagos Islands to the Far East. In each location he has used meticulous observation of animal behaviour to understand the ecology and natural history of wild carnivore populations, and ultimately to promote their conservation. This book describes the methods, challenges and rewards of the science of behavioural ecology. However, it essentially concerns the personal, rather than the scientific, side of that work, and above all the field experiences involved. With photographs and line drawings, it brings to life African safaris, the hyena in his bath, flights with vultures, dives with otters, attacks by a badger in Scotland and by feral dogs in Galápagos, gull-eating hedgehogs in Britain and the role of animals in African witchcraft. The author communicates his lifelong fascination with wildlife through these unique experiences and the insights they afforded him. Professor Kruuk is a leading authority on animal behaviour and the author of classic studies of hyaenas, otters and badgers, as well as a biography of his Oxford mentor Niko Tinbergen.

The African Wild Dog

Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation

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Author: Scott Creel,Nancy Marusha Creel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691016542

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 516

With only 5,000 surviving, the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) is one of the world's most endangered large carnivores--and one of the most remarkable. This comprehensive portrait of wild dogs incorporates previously scattered information with important new findings from a six-year study in Tanzania's Selous Game Reserve, Africa's largest protected area. The book emphasizes ecology, concentrating on why wild dogs fare poorly in protected areas that maintain healthy populations of lions, hyenas, or other top carnivores. In addition to conservation issues, it covers fascinating aspects of wild dog behavior and social evolution. The Creels use demographic, behavioral, endocrine, and genetic approaches to examine how and why nonbreeding pack mates help breeding pairs raise their litters. They also present the largest data set ever collected on mammalian predator-prey interactions and the evolution of cooperative hunting, allowing them to account for wild dogs' prowess as hunters. By using a large sample size and sophisticated analytical tools, the authors step well beyond previous research. Their results include some surprises that will cause even specialists to rethink certain propositions, such as the idea that wild dogs are unusually vulnerable to infectious disease. Several findings apply broadly to the management of other protected areas. Of clear appeal to ecologists studying predation and cooperation in any population, this book collects and expands a cache of information useful to anyone studying conservation as well as to amateurs intrigued by the once-maligned but extraordinary wild dog.

Sociobiology

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Author: Edward O. Wilson

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674744179

Category: Science

Page: 711

View: 9729

When this classic work was first published in 1975, it created a new discipline and started a tumultuous round in the age-old nature versus nurture debate. The controversy surrounding the book's publication--and surrounding its central claim that human social behavior has a biological foundation--reverberates to this day. In the introduction to this twenty-fifth anniversary edition, Edward O. Wilson shows how research in human genetics and neuroscience over the past quarter of a century has strengthened the case for a biological understanding of human nature.

Kalahari Hyenas

Comparative Behavioral Ecology of Two Species

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Author: M. G. L. Mills

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781930665835

Category: Nature

Page: 304

View: 8970

Originally published in 1990, this text focuses on a comparison of the feeding ecology and social systems of the brown and spotted hyenas. Set in the semi-arid region of the Kalahari, the book examines roles and interactions of the two species in this finely balanced ecosystem and highlights the factors and mechanisms responsible for regulating the populations.

A View to a Kill

Investigating Middle Palaeolithic Subsistence Using an Optimal Foraging Perspective

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Author: Gerrit Leendert Dusseldorp

Publisher: Sidestone Press

ISBN: 9088900205

Category: Social Science

Page: 199

View: 2836

The sophistication of Neanderthal behavioural strategies have been the subject of debate from the moment of their recognition as a separate species of hominin in 1856. This book presents a study on Neanderthal foraging prowess. Novel ethnographic and primatological insights, suggest that increasing dependence on high quality foods, such as meat, caused the brain to evolve to a large size and thus led to highly intelligent hominins. From this baseline, the author studies the Neanderthal archaeological record in order to gain insight into the knowledge-intensity of Neanderthal hunting behaviour. In this research, an optimal foraging perspective is applied to Pleistocene bone assemblages. According to this perspective, foraging success is an important factor in an individuals evolutionary fitness. Therefore foraging is organised as efficiently as possible. The prey species that were selected and hunted by Neanderthals are analysed. The author investigates economic considerations that influenced Neanderthal prey choice. These considerations are based on estimates of the population densities of the available prey species and on estimates of the relative difficulty of hunting those species. The results demonstrate that when Neanderthals operated within poor environments, their prey choice was constrained: they were not able to hunt species living in large herds. In these environments, solitary species were the preferred prey. It is striking that Neanderthals successfully focussed on the largest and most dangerous species in poor environments. However, in richer environments, these constraints were lifted and species living in herds were successfully exploited. In order to assess the accuracy of this approach, bone assemblages formed by cave hyenas are also analysed. The combined results of the Neanderthal and hyena analyses show that an optimal foraging perspective provides a powerful tool to increase our understanding of Pleistocene ecology. The niches of two social carnivores of similar size, which were seemingly similar, are successfully distinguished. This result lends extra credence to the conclusions regarding Neanderthal foraging strategies. This book contributes to the debate surrounding Neanderthal competence and ability. It combines an up-to-date review of current knowledge on Neanderthal biology and archaeology, with novel approaches to the archaeological record. It is thus an important contribution to the current knowledge of this enigmatic species.

Advances in the Study of Behavior

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Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080493408

Category: Psychology

Page: 289

View: 6306

The aim of Advances in the Study of Behavior remains as it has been since the series began: to serve the increasing number of scientists who are engaged in the study of animal behavior by presenting their theoretical ideas and research to their colleagues and to those in neighboring fields. We hope that the series will continue its "contribution to the development of the field", as its intended role was phrased in the Preface to the first volume in 1965. Since that time, traditional areas of animal behavior have achieved new vigor by the links they have formed with related fields and by the closer relationship that now exists between those studying animal and human subjects. Advances in the Study of Behavior, Volume 31 continues to serve scientists across a wide spectrum of disciplines. Focusing on new theories and research developments with respect to behavioral ecology, evolutionary biology, and comparative psychology, these volumes foster cooperation and communications in these dense fields.