The Search for Ability

Standardized Testing in Social Perspective

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Author: David A. Goslin

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610446356

Category: Psychology

Page: 208

View: 698

A significant and eye-opening examination of the current state of the testing movement in the United States, where more than 150 million standardized intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests are administered annually by schools, colleges, business and industrial firms, government agencies, and the military services. Despite widespread acceptance of these ability tests, there is surprisingly little systematic information about their use or effect. This book examines, raises questions about, and points the way to needed research on ability testing. It considers the possible social, legal, and emotional impact on society, the groups and organizations that make use of the tests, and the individuals who are directly affected by the results.

The Search for Ability

Standardized Testing in Social Perspective

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Author: David A. Goslin

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 9780871543578

Category: Psychology

Page: 204

View: 9883

A significant and eye-opening examination of the current state of the testing movement in the United States, where more than 150 million standardized intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests are administered annually by schools, colleges, business and industrial firms, government agencies, and the military services. Despite widespread acceptance of these ability tests, there is surprisingly little systematic information about their use or effect. This book examines, raises questions about, and points the way to needed research on ability testing. It considers the possible social, legal, and emotional impact on society, the groups and organizations that make use of the tests, and the individuals who are directly affected by the results.

Ability to pay

a search for definitions and standards in factfinding and arbitration

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Author: Timothy Williams,University of Oregon. Labor Education and Research Center

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 83

View: 1154

Ability Testing: Report of the Committee

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Author: Alexandra K. Wigdor,Wendell R. Garner

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Ability

Page: 242

View: 4778

This document describes the theory and practice of testing; illuminates competing interests in a balanced fashion; and helps those who make decisions with tests or about testing to reach better-informed judgments. Part 1, the report of the Committee, presents a wide-ranging discussion of testing issues. The text has been kept largely free of the critical apparatus of scholarly literature. Chapters 1 through 3 provide an overview of the controversies surrounding testing, an introduction to the concepts, methods, and terminology of ability testing, a brief history of testing in the United States, and a discussion of the proliferation of legal requirements that have come to surround the use of tests. Chapters 4 through 6 describe test use for employment selection and educational purposes, point out common types of misuse, and make recommendations about how tests might be better used to preserve the integrity of the technology while at the same time responding to legitimate social, institutional, and individual goals. Chapter 7 takes a look at the limitations of standardized tests and then attempts to establish a sense of proportion by placing the controversy over testing within the context of the larger social currents that influence the course of national life. (Author/GK)

The Psychology of Abilities, Competencies, and Expertise

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Author: Robert Jeffrey Sternberg,Robert J. Sternberg,Elena L. Grigorenko

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521007764

Category: Psychology

Page: 280

View: 2553

The goal of this book is to characterize the nature of abilities, competencies, and expertise, and to understand the relations among them. While some psychologists see these sets of skills as rather distinct, others view them on a continuum with abilities developing into competencies and competencies developing into expertise. This book seeks to integrate into a coherent discipline what formerly have been, to a large extent, three separate disciplines by articulating the interrelationships between abilities, competencies, and expertise. The various chapters present theories, data, and concrete ways people can develop their own abilities into competencies and competencies into expertise.

Intelligence

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Author: Nathan Brody

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080917054

Category: Psychology

Page: 395

View: 5493

This is the Second Edition of Nathan Brody's popular book Intelligence, originally published in 1976. It presents a comprehensive review of contemporary research in this field, including coverage of such controversial topics as the genetic and environmental influences on IQ and individual and group differences in intelligence. The book also discusses both the psychometric and cognitive approaches to intelligence as well as new theories in the field. Discusses both the psychometric and cognitive approaches to intelligence Provides a comprehensive review of contemporary research in this realm Covers new theories of intelligence

Intelligence

The Psychometric View

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Author: Paul Kline

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134964811

Category: Psychology

Page: 176

View: 1265

Paul Kline's latest book provides a readable modern account of the psychometric view of intelligence. It explains factor analysis and the construction of intelligence tests, and shows how the resulting factors provide a picture of human abilities. Written to be clear and concise it none the less provides a rigorous account of the psychometric view of intelligence.

Concise Encyclopedia of Special Education

A Reference for the Education of the Handicapped and Other Exceptional Children and Adults

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Author: Cecil R. Reynolds,Elaine Fletcher-Janzen

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons

ISBN: 9780471652519

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 1062

View: 3443

The Concise Encyclopedia of Special Education, Second Edition is a comprehensive resource for those working in the fields of special education research and practice. Featuring reviews of assessment instruments and teaching approaches, legal issues, overviews of specific learning disabilities, dozens of biographies, and more, this complete desk reference is an indispensable guide for professionals, academics, and students alike. Named an American Library Association Top 25 Reference of the Year in its First Edition, The Concise Encyclopedia serves as an important reference for the education of handicapped and other exceptional children. Written and edited by highly regarded and respected experts in the fields of special education and psychology, this authoritative resource guide provides a reference base for educators as well as professionals in the areas of psychology, neuropsychology, medicine, health care, social work and law. Additionally, this acclaimed reference work is essential for administrators, psychologists, diagnosticians, and school counselors, as well as parents of the handicapped themselves. What's new in this edition Comprehensive coverage of new legislation such as Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act Cultural competence in Special Education, including new material on culturally/linguistically diverse students Many new entries including notable biographies, new service delivery systems, special education laws, new assessment instruments, cross-cultural issues, neuropsychology, and use of the Internet in research and service delivery. Some of the topics covered Academic assessment Achievement tests Addictions Bilingual education Child and adolescent behavior management Counseling with individuals and families with disabilities Early childhood education Gifted education Intelligence tests Mathematics disabilities Psychoeducational methods Rehabilitation Socioeconomic status Special education parent and student rights Traumatic brain injury

The Effects of Standardized Testing

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Author: T. Kelleghan,George F. Madaus,P.W. Airasian

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400973861

Category: Education

Page: 368

View: 2501

When George Bernard Shaw wrote his play, Pygmalion, he could hardly have foreseen the use of the concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy in debates about standardized testing in schools. Still less could he have foreseen that the validity of the concept would be examined many years later in Irish schools. While the primary purpose of the experimental study reported in this book was not to investigate the Pygmalion effect, it is inconceivable that a study of the effects of standardized testing, conceived in the 1960s and planned and executed in the 1970s, would not have been influenced by thinking about teachers' expectations and the influence of test information on the formation of those expectations. While our study did pay special attention to teacher expectations, its scope was much wider. It was planned and carried out in a much broader framework, one in which we set out to examine the impact of a standardized testing program, not just on teachers, but also on school practices, students, and students' parents.

Test Policy and Test Performance: Education, Language, and Culture

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Author: Bernard R. Gifford

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940092500X

Category: Education

Page: 306

View: 1401

Bernard R. Gifford In the United States, the standardized test has become one of the major sources of information for reducing uncertainty in the determination of individual merit and in the allocation of merit-based educational, training, and employment opportunities. Most major institutions of higher education require applicants to supplement their records of academic achievements with scores on standardized tests. Similarly, in the workplace, as a condition of employment or assignment to training programs, more and more employers are requiring prospective employees to sit for standardized tests. In short, with increasing frequency and intensity, individual members of the political economy are required to transmit to the opportunity marketplace scores on standardized examinations that purport to be objective measures of their abilities, talents, and potential. In many instances, these test scores are the only signals about their skills that job applicants are permitted to send to prospective employers. THE NATIONAL COMMISSION ON TESTING AND PUBLIC POLICY In view of the importance of these issues to our current national agenda, it was proposed that the Human Rights and Governance and the Education and Culture Programs of the Ford Foundation support the establishment of a ''blue ribbon" National Commission on Testing and Public Policy to investigate some of the major problems, as well as the untapped opportunities, created by recent trends in the use of standardized tests, particularly in the workplace and in schools.

Myths and Tradeoffs

The Role of Tests in Undergraduate Admissions

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Testing and Assessment,Steering Committee for the Workshop on Higher Education Admissions

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309184328

Category: Education

Page: 58

View: 3756

More than 8 million students enrolled in 4-year, degree-granting postsecondary institutions in the United States in 1996. The multifaceted system through which these students applied to and were selected by the approximately 2,240 institutions in which they enrolled is complex, to say the least; for students, parents, and advisers, it is often stressful and sometimes bewildering. This process raises important questions about the social goals that underlie the sorting of students, and it has been the subject of considerable controversy. The role of standardized tests in this sorting process has been one of the principal flashpoints in discussions of its fairness. Tests have been cited as the chief evidence of unfairness in lawsuits over admissions decisions, criticized as biased against minorities and women, and blamed for the fierce competitiveness of the process. Yet tests have also been praised for their value in providing a common yardstick for comparing students from diverse schools with different grading standards. Myths and Tradeoffs identifies and corrects some persistent myths about standardized admissions tests and highlight some of the specific tradeoffs that decisions about the uses of tests entail; presents conclusions and recommendations about the role of tests in college admissions; and lays out several issues about which information would clearly help decision makers, but about which the existing data are either insufficient or need synthesis and interpretation. This report will benefit a broad audience of college and university officials, state and other officials and lawmakers, and others who are wrestling with decisions about admissions policies, definitions of merit, legal actions, and other issues.

Global Communications Since 1844

Geopolitics and Technology

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Author: Peter J. Hugill

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801860744

Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 7772

In World Trade since 1431, Peter Hugill showed how the interplay of technology and geography guided the evolution of the modern global capitalistic system. Now, in the successor to that widely acclaimed book, Hugill shifts the focus to telecommunications, once again demonstrating that those nations that best developed and marketed new technologies were the nations that rose to world power. Beginning with the advent of the telegraph in the 1840s, Hugill shows how each major change in transportation and communications technologies brought about a corresponding transformation from one world economy to another. British advances in international telegraphy after the American Civil War, for example, kept that nation just ahead of the United States in the communications race, a position it held until 1945. Hugill explains how such developments as aerial bombardment of cities in World War I spurred the development of radio and, ultimately, radar. He also traces the steps that led to the British surrender of world hegemony to the United States at the end of World War II.

Teachers and Testing

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Author: David A. Goslin

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610446348

Category: Education

Page: 224

View: 729

Discusses the uses and abuses of intelligence testing in our educational systems. Dr. Goslin examines teachers' opinions and practices with regard to tests and finds considerable discrepancies between attitude and behavior. He points to the need for formulation of school policies that clearly specify what role teachers are to play in the measurement process. Dr. Goslin makes several policy recommendations, stressing the idea that the measuring process must take into account many aspects of a child's background and characteristics, and must guard against premature labeling or over-categorization.

Proceedings of the 2000 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference

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Author: Harlan E. Spotts,H. Lee Meadow

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319118854

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 489

View: 564

Founded in 1971, the Academy of Marketing Science is an international organization dedicated to promoting timely explorations of phenomena related to the science of marketing in theory, research, and practice. Among its services to members and the community at large, the Academy offers conferences, congresses and symposia that attract delegates from around the world. Presentations from these events are published in this Proceedings series, which offers a comprehensive archive of volumes reflecting the evolution of the field. Volumes deliver cutting-edge research and insights, complimenting the Academy’s flagship journals, the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science (JAMS) and AMS Review. Volumes are edited by leading scholars and practitioners across a wide range of subject areas in marketing science. This volume includes the full proceedings from the 2000 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference held in Montreal, Canada.

The Search for Beauty in Islam

A Conference of the Books

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Author: Khaled Abou El Fadl

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 0742550931

Category: Religion

Page: 407

View: 8487

In this updated and expanded edition of The Search for Beauty in Islam, Abou El Fadl offers eye-opening and enlightening insights into the contemporary realities of the current state of Islam and the West. Through a 'conference of the books, ' an imagined conference of Muslim intellects from centuries past, Abou El Fadl examines the ugliness that has come to plague Muslim realities and attempts to reclaim what he maintains is a core moral value in Islam-the value of beauty. Abou El Fadl argues that the rekindling of the forgotten value of beauty is essential for Muslims today to take back what has been lost to the fundamentalist forces that have denigrated their religion

The Search for Ultimate Reality

Intertextuality Between the Genesis and Johannine Prologues

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Author: Dan Lioy

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 9780820481210

Category: Religion

Page: 223

View: 9233

In analyzing the intertextuality between the Genesis and Johannine Prologues, Dr. Lioy maintains that both passages utilize polemical theology to refute distorted views of ultimate reality. Furthermore, he theorizes that the author of the Johannine Prologue deliberately reflected the structure and themes found in the Genesis Prologue to emphasize that the God-man, Jesus Christ, created all things and is a new (spiritual) beginning for all who believe in Him. Ultimate reality is found through faith in the Son.

The Search for the Meaning of Space, Time, and Matter

Images of Many Travels

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Author: Kai Woehler

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 146910198X

Category: Science

Page: 447

View: 7736

The book gives a comprehensive introduction for interested general readers, into the development and structure of concepts, ideas and theory formation about the elementary building blocks of matter, the forces with which these particles interact and about the fundamental nature of space itself. Einsteins theory of the cosmos and the recent discovery of the presence of a dark energy which leads to an accelerated expansion of cosmic space, provide the background for the most astonishing recent developments in the search for the origin of space and matter. The String-Theory revolution has led to the notion that nature may not follow one unique set of laws to build worlds, but that innumerable many possible universes may exist, that worlds may be emerging and disappearing like biological species and that our existence may be extraordinarily rare and therefore precious. An introduction to the concept of emergence in self-organizing systems is given to make the connection to the idea that Emergence may be the inherent creative property of space and matter at the quantum level.

Science, Religion, and the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence

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Author: David Wilkinson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019166961X

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 1843

If the discovery of life elsewhere in the universe is just around the corner, what would be the consequences for religion? Would it represent another major conflict between science and religion, even leading to the death of faith? Some would suggest that the discovery of any suggestion of extraterrestrial life would have a greater impact than even the Copernican and Darwinian revolutions. It is now over 50 years since the first modern scientific papers were published on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Yet the religious implications of this search and possible discovery have never been systematically addressed in the scientific or theological arena. SETI is now entering its most important era of scientific development. New observation techniques are leading to the discovery of extra-solar planets daily, and the Kepler mission has already collected over 1000 planetary candidates. This deluge of data is transforming the scientific and popular view of the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence. Earth-like planets outside of our solar system can now be identified and searched for signs of life. Now is a crucial time to assess the scientific and theological questions behind this search. This book sets out the scientific arguments undergirding SETI, with particular attention to the uncertainties in arguments and the strength of the data already assembled. It assesses not only the discovery of planets but other areas such as the Fermi paradox, the origin and evolution of intelligent life, and current SETI strategies. In all of this it reflects on how these questions are shaped by history and pop culture and their relationship with religion, especially Christian theology. It is argued that theologians need to take seriously SETI and to examine some central doctrines such as creation, incarnation, revelation, and salvation in the light of the possibility of extraterrestrial life.

Personality in Search of Individuality

In Search of Individuality

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Author: Nathan Brody

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080917070

Category: Psychology

Page: 270

View: 3262

In this, his fourth book published by Academic Press, the author pursues current theories in the expansive field of personality research. Presenting a unique perspective on recent developments in the field, the emphasis is on empirical research. Topics discussed include stability and change in traits, the behavior genetics of traits, a review and defense of trait theory, and a comprehensive review of research on the unconscious.