The Problem of the Color Line at the Turn of the Twentieth Century

The Essential Early Essays

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Author: W. E. B. Du Bois

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0823254550

Category: Philosophy

Page: 370

View: 2757

This volume assembles essential essays some published only posthumously, others obscure, another only recently translated by W. E. B. Du Bois from 1894 to early 1906. They show the first formulations of some of his most famous ideas, namely, "the veil," "double-consciousness," and the "problem of the color line." Moreover, the deep historical sense of the formation of the modern world that informs Du Bois's thought and gave rise to his understanding of "the problem of the color line" is on display here. Indeed, the essays constitute an essential companion to Du Bois's masterpiece published in 1903 as The Souls of Black Folk. The collection is based on two editorial principles: presenting the essays in their entirety and in strict chronological order. Copious annotation affords both student and mature scholar an unprecedented grasp of the range and depth of Du Boiss everyday intellectual and scholarly reference. These essays commence at the moment of Du Bois's return to the United States from two years of graduate-level study in Europe at the University of Berlin. At their center is the moment of Du Boi's first full, self-reflexive formulation of a sense of vocation: as a student and scholar in the pursuit of the human sciences (in their still-nascent disciplinary organization that is, the institutionalization of a generalized "sociology" or general "ethnology"), as they could be brought to bear on the study of the situation of the so-called Negro question in the United States in all of its multiply refracting dimensions. They close with Du Bois's realization that the commitments orienting his work and intellectual practice demanded that he move beyond the institutional frames for the practice of the human sciences. The ideas developed in these early essays remained the fundamental matrix for the ongoing development of Du Boiss thought. The essays gathered here will therefore serve as the essential reference for those seeking to understand the most profound registers of this major American thinker.

The Souls of Black Folk

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Author: W. E. B. Du Bois

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191604909

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 272

View: 4837

'The problem of the twentieth-century is the problem of the color-line.' Originally published in 1903, The Souls of Black Folk is a classic study of race, culture, and education at the turn of the twentieth century. With its singular combination of essays, memoir, and fiction, this book vaulted W. E. B. Du Bois to the forefront of American political commentary and civil rights activism. The Souls of Black Folk is an impassioned, at times searing account of the situation of African Americans in the United States. Du Bois makes a forceful case for the access of African Americans to higher education, memorably extols the achievements of black culture (above all the spirituals or 'sorrow songs'), and advances the provocative and influential argument that due to the inequalities and pressures of the 'race problem', African American identity is characterized by 'double consciousness'. This edition includes a valuable appendix of other writing by Du Bois, which sheds light on his attitudes and intentions. ABOUT THE SERIES: For over 100 years Oxford World's Classics has made available the widest range of literature from around the globe. Each affordable volume reflects Oxford's commitment to scholarship, providing the most accurate text plus a wealth of other valuable features, including expert introductions by leading authorities, helpful notes to clarify the text, up-to-date bibliographies for further study, and much more.

W. E. B. DuBois's Exhibit of American Negroes

African Americans at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century

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Author: Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr.

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 1442226285

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 920

This book takes readers through W.E.B. DuBois’ groundbreaking exhibit about African Americans at the 1900 World’s Fair in Paris. With more than 200 black-and-white images, Provenzo explores the diverse lives of African Americans, from challenges to accomplishments.

Photography on the Color Line

W. E. B. Du Bois, Race, and Visual Culture

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Author: Shawn Michelle Smith

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822333432

Category: Photography

Page: 225

View: 2530

DIVAn exploration of the visual meaning of the color line and racial politics through the analysis of archival photographs collected by W.E.B. Du Bois and exhibited at the Paris Exposition of 1900./div

The Problem of the Future World

W. E. B. Du Bois and the Race Concept at Midcentury

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Author: Eric Porter

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822393190

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 252

View: 5456

The Problem of the Future World is a compelling reassessment of the later writings of the iconic African American activist and intellectual W. E. B. Du Bois. As Eric Porter points out, despite the outpouring of scholarship devoted to Du Bois, the broad range of writing he produced during the 1940s and early 1950s has not been thoroughly examined in its historical context, nor has sufficient attention been paid to the theoretical interventions he made during those years. Porter locates Du Bois’s later work in relation to what he calls “the first postracial moment.” He suggests that Du Bois’s midcentury writings are so distinctive and so relevant for contemporary scholarship because they were attuned to the shape-shifting character of modern racism, and in particular to the ways that discredited racial taxonomies remained embedded and in force in existing political-economic arrangements at both the local and global levels. Porter moves the conversation about Du Bois and race forward by building on existing work about the theorist, systematically examining his later writings, and looking at them from new perspectives, partly by drawing on recent scholarship on race, neoliberalism, and empire. The Problem of the Future World shows how Du Bois’s later writings help to address race and racism as protean, global phenomena in the present.

Problem of the Century

Racial Stratification in the United States

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Author: Elijah Anderson,Douglas Massey

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610448391

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 6990

In 1899 the great African American scholar, W.E.B. DuBois, published The Philadelphia Negro, the first systematic case study of an African American community and one of the foundations of American sociology. DuBois prophesied that the color line would be the problem of the twentieth century. One hundred years later, Problem of the Century reflects upon his prophecy, exploring the ways in which the color line is still visible in the labor market, the housing market, education, family structure, and many other aspects of life at the turn of a new century. The book opens with a theoretical discussion of the way racial identity is constructed and institutionalized. When the government classifies races and confers group rights upon them, is it subtly reenforcing damaging racial divisions, or redressing the group privileges that whites monopolized for so long? The book also delineates the social dynamics that underpin racial inequality. The contributors explore the causes and consequences of high rates of mortality and low rates of marriage in black communities, as well as the way race affects a person's chances of economic success. African Americans may soon lose their historical position as America's majority minority, and the book also examines how race plays out in the sometimes fractious relations between blacks and immigrants. The final part of the book shows how the color line manifests itself at work and in schools. Contributors find racial issues at play on both ends of the occupational ladder—among absentee fathers paying child support from their meager earnings and among black executives prospering in the corporate world. In the schools, the book explores how race defines a student's peer group and how peer pressure affects a student's grades. Problem of the Century draws upon the distinguished faculty of sociologists at the University of Pennsylvania, where DuBois conducted his research for The Philadelphia Negro. The contributors combine a scrupulous commitment to empirical inquiry with an eclectic openness to different methods and approaches. Problem of the Century blends ethnographies and surveys, statistics and content analyses, census data and historical records, to provide a far-reaching examination of racial inequality in all its contemporary manifestations.

Sport and the Color Line

Black Athletes and Race Relations in Twentieth Century America

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Author: Patrick B. Miller,David K. Wiggins

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135941173

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 1258

The essays presented here examine the complexity of black American sports culture, from the organization of semi-pro baseball and athletic programs at historically black colleges and universities, to the careers of individual stars such as Jack.

Obama and the Biracial Factor

The Battle for a New American Majority

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Author: Andrew Jolivétte

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447301005

Category: Social Science

Page: 237

View: 2668

Obama and the Biracial Factor is the first book to explore the significance of mixed-race identity as a key factor in the election of President Obama and examines the sociological and political relationship between race, power, and public policy in the United States.

Tripping on the Color Line

Black-white Multiracial Families in a Racially Divided World

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Author: Heather M. Dalmage

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813528441

Category: Social Science

Page: 200

View: 7351

At the turn of the twentieth century W.E.B. DuBois predicted that the central problem facing the United States in the new century would be that of the “color line.” Now, at the beginning of a new century, we find many people straddling the color line. These people come from the growing number of multiracial families in America, families who search for places of comfort and familiarity in a racially polarized society whose educational system, places of worship, and neighborhoods continue to suffer a de facto segregation. This group has provoked an ever-widening debate and an upheaval in traditional racial thinking in the United States. Through in-depth interviews with individuals from black–white multiracial families, and insightful sociological analysis, Heather M. Dalmage examines the challenges faced by people living in such families and explores how their experiences demonstrate the need for rethinking race in America. She examines the lived reality of race in the ways multiracial family members construct and describe their own identities and sense of community and politics. She shows how people whose own very lives complicate the idea of the color line must continually negotiate and contest it in order not to reproduce it. Their lack of language to describe their multiracial existence, along with their experience of coping with racial ambiguity and with institutional demands to conform to a racially divided, racist system is the central theme of Tripping on the Color Line. By connecting the stories to specific issues, such as census categories, transracial adoption, intermarriage, as well as the many social responses to violations of the color line, Dalmage raises the debate to a broad discussion on racial essentialism and social justice. Exploring the dynamic of race as it pervades the lives of those close to the color line, Dalmage argues that the struggle for racial justice must include an understanding that race is a complex construct that is constantly shifting, and is something we do rather than something we simply are.

Free at Last?

Black America in the Twenty-First Century

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Author: Juan Jose Battle,Michael Bennett,Anthony J. Lemelle, Jr.

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412823920

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 1152

W.E.B. Du Bois said that "the problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line." It has been one hundred years since Du Bois made that prescient statement, which naturally leads to the question: "What is the problem of the twenty-first century?" In this anthology, the authors address a wide range of topics: race, gender, class, sexual orientation, globalism, migration, health, politics, culture, and urban issues--from a diversity of disciplinary perspectives. Paul Attewell, David Lavin, Thurston Domina, and Tania Levey examine the black middle class at the turn of the millennium. Todd C. Shaw considers how race shapes patriotism in the wake of the September 11 attacks. Robert A. Brown focuses on the growing chasm between blacks and whites with regard to views of government's obligation to address citizens' basic needs. H. Alexander Welcome details instances where white scholars have improperly analyzed black experiences. Antonio Pastrana revisits Du Bois's theories about the problems facing blacks. Joy James shows that the United States possesses the means and wealth to record and preserve (or censor) its slave/penal discourse as part of its vast warehouse of (neo)slave narratives. Ajuan Maria Mance hypothesizes that African-American literature will become less consumed with exploration and documentation of interracial differences, and more concerned with the relationships within ethnic groups. Rosamond S. King explores literary embodiments of the increasing prevalence of interracial relationships. Anthony J. Lemelle and BarBara Scott present a comparative historical policy analysis of the HIV/AIDS experience among African Americans. Sandra Barnes examines sociological promises and problems of the contemporary black church. Juan Battle and Natalie Bennett scrutinize the experiences of African American gays and lesbians in the context of the larger community. Verna Keith and Diane Brown assess the state of African American health in the context of social group structures. Michael Bennett looks at the problems and opportunities facing black Americans from the perspective of urban studies. Juan Battle is professor of sociology at Hunter College and the City University of New York Graduate Center. Michael Bennett is professor of English at Long Island University, Brooklyn. Anthony Lemelle is professor of sociology at the University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee and the editor of the Journal of African American Studies, published by Transaction.

Shadowing the White Man’s Burden

U.S. Imperialism and the Problem of the Color Line

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Author: Gretchen Murphy

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 9780814796191

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 288

View: 5877

During the height of 19th century imperialism, Rudyard Kipling published his famous poem “The White Man’s Burden.” While some of his American readers argued that the poem served as justification for imperialist practices, others saw Kipling’s satirical talents at work and read it as condemnation. Gretchen Murphy explores this tension embedded in the notion of the white man’s burden to create a new historical frame for understanding race and literature in America. Shadowing the White Man’s Burden maintains that literature symptomized and channeled anxiety about the racial components of the U.S. world mission, while also providing a potentially powerful medium for multiethnic authors interested in redrawing global color lines. Through a range of archival materials from literary reviews to diplomatic records to ethnological treatises, Murphy identifies a common theme in the writings of African-, Asian- and Native-American authors who exploited anxiety about race and national identity through narratives about a multiracial U.S. empire. Shadowing the White Man’s Burden situates American literature in the context of broader race relations, and provides a compelling analysis of the way in which literature came to define and shape racial attitudes for the next century.

The Urban Sociology Reader

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Author: Jan Lin

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415323428

Category: Architecture

Page: 363

View: 8503

The urban world is a provocative terrain on which to contemplate the central institutions, structures and problems of the social world and how they have transformed over the last 200 years. This Reader traverses this terrain through sections on urban social theory, social difference in the city, culture in everyday life, culture and the urban economy, globalization and the world system and urban social movements. Drawing together seminal selections covering the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries, this Reader includes forty significant writings from eminent names such as Simmel, Wirth, Park, Burgess, Zukin, Sassen, Smith and Castells. Selections are predominantly sociological, but some readings cross disciplinary boundaries. Providing an essential resource for students of urban studies, this book brings together important but, until now, widely dispersed writings. Editorial commentaries precede each entry; introducing the text, demonstrating its significance, and outlining the issues surrounding its topic, whilst the associated bibliography enables deeper investigations.

Divided by Color

Racial Politics and Democratic Ideals

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Author: Donald R. Kinder,Lynn M. Sanders

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226435749

Category: Political Science

Page: 391

View: 8683

Describes the racial attitudes of white and Black Americans, and argues that white views are influenced by racial resentment based on self-interest and ideology

Interracialism

Black-White Intermarriage in American History, Literature, and Law

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Author: Werner Sollors

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198029519

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 560

View: 2893

Interracialism, or marriage between members of different races, has formed, torn apart, defined and divided our nation since its earliest history. This collection explores the primary texts of interracialism as a means of addressing core issues in our racial identity. Ranging from Hannah Arendt to George Schuyler and from Pace v. Alabama to Loving v. Virginia, it provides extraordinary resources for faculty and students in English, American and Ethnic Studies as well as for general readers interested in race relations. By bringing together a selection of historically significant documents and of the best essays and scholarship on the subject of "miscegenation," Interracialism demonstrates that notions of race can be fruitfully approached from the vantage point of the denial of interracialism that typically informs racial ideologies.

Whitewashing Race

The Myth of a Color-Blind Society

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Author: Michael K. Brown,Martin Carnoy,Elliott Currie,Troy Duster,David B. Oppenheimer

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520938755

Category: Social Science

Page: 349

View: 8189

White Americans, abetted by neo-conservative writers of all hues, generally believe that racial discrimination is a thing of the past and that any racial inequalities that undeniably persist—in wages, family income, access to housing or health care—can be attributed to African Americans' cultural and individual failures. If the experience of most black Americans says otherwise, an explanation has been sorely lacking—or obscured by the passions the issue provokes. At long last offering a cool, clear, and informed perspective on the subject, this book brings together a team of highly respected sociologists, political scientists, economists, criminologists, and legal scholars to scrutinize the logic and evidence behind the widely held belief in a color-blind society—and to provide an alternative explanation for continued racial inequality in the United States. While not denying the economic advances of black Americans since the 1960s, Whitewashing Race draws on new and compelling research to demonstrate the persistence of racism and the effects of organized racial advantage across many institutions in American society—including the labor market, the welfare state, the criminal justice system, and schools and universities. Looking beyond the stalled debate over current antidiscrimination policies, the authors also put forth a fresh vision for achieving genuine racial equality of opportunity in a post-affirmative action world.

Race and the Production of Modern American Nationalism

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Author: Reynolds J. Scott-Childress

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317777565

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 424

View: 7198

First published in 1999. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Born along the Color Line

The 1933 Amenia Conference and the Rise of a National Civil Rights Movement

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Author: Eben Miller

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199913463

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 4047

In August, 1933, dozens of people gathered amid seven large, canvas tents in a field near Amenia, in upstate New York. Joel Spingarn, president of the board of the NAACP, had called a conference to revitalize the flagging civil rights organization. In Amenia, such old lions as the 65 year-old W.E.B. DuBois would mingle with "the coming leaders of Negro thought." It was a fascinating encounter that would transform the civil rights movement. With elegant writing and piercing insight, historian Eben Miller narrates how this little-known conference brought together a remarkable young group of African American activists, capturing through the lives of five extraordinary participants--youth activist Juanita Jackson, diplomat Ralph Bunche, economist Abram Harris, lawyer Louis Redding, and Harlem organizer Moran Weston--how this generation shaped the ongoing movement for civil rights during the Depression, World War II, and beyond. Miller describes how Jackson, Bunche, Harris, and the others felt that, amidst the global crisis of the 1930s, it was urgent to move beyond the NAACP's legal and political focus to build an economic movement that reached across the racial divide to challenge the capitalist system that had collapsed so devastatingly. They advocated alliances with labor groups, agitated for equal education, and campaigned for anti-lynching legislation and open access to the ballot and employment--spreading their influential ideas through their writings and by mass organizing in African American communities across the country, North and South. In their arguments and individual awakenings, they formed a key bridge between the turn-of-the-century Talented Tenth and the postwar civil rights generation, broadening and advancing the fight for racial equality through the darkest economic times the country has ever faced. In Born along the Color Line, Miller vividly captures the emergence of a forgotten generation of African American leaders, a generation that made Brown v. Board of Education and all that followed from it possible. It is an illuminating portrait of the "long civil rights movement," not the movement that began in the 1950s, but the one that took on new life at Amenia in 1933

To Make a New Race

Gurdjieff, Toomer, and the Harlem Renaissance

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Author: Jon Woodson

Publisher: Univ. Press of Mississippi

ISBN: 1578061318

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 202

View: 5845

Jean Toomer's adamant stance against racism and his call for a raceless society were far more complex than the average reader of works from the Harlem Renaissance might believe. In To Make a New Race Jon Woodson explores the intense influence of Greek-born mystic G. I. Gurdjieff on the thinking of Toomer and his coterie--Zora Neale Hurston, Nella Larson, George Schuyler, Wallace Thurman--and, through them, the mystic's influence on many of the notables in African American literature. Gurdjieff, born of poor Greco-Armenian parents on the Russo-Turkish frontier, espoused the theory that man is asleep and in prison unless he strains against the major burdens of life, especially those of identification, like race. Toomer, whose novel Cane became an inspiration to many later Harlem Renaissance writers, traveled to France and labored at Gurdjieff's Institute for the Harmonious Development of Man. Later, the writer became one of the primary followers approved to teach Gurdjieff's philosophy in the United States. Woodson's is the first study of Gurdjieff, Toomer, and the Harlem Renaissance to look beyond contemporary portrayals of the mystic in order to judge his influence. Scouring correspondence, manuscripts, and published texts, Woodson finds the direct links in which Gurdjieff through Toomer played a major role in the development of "objective literature." He discovers both coded and explicit ways in which Gurdjieff's philosophy shaped the world views of writers well into the 1960s. Moreover Woodson reinforces the extensive contribution Toomer and other African-American writers with all their international influences made to the American cultural scene. Jon Woodson, an associate professor of English at Howard University in Washington, D.C., is a contributor to the collection, Black American Poets Between Worlds, 1940-1960. He has published articles in African American Review and other journals.

Phenomenology of the Political

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Author: Kevin Thompson,Lester Embree

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940172606X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 213

View: 5063

This volume is a collection of phenomenological investigations of the political domain. Its aim is to present recent examinations of political matters and to foster a renewal of this sort of inquiry in phenomenology generally. Although it has often gone unrecognized, investigations of this sort have been a part of the phenomenological project since its inception. Two phases can be identified: the first governed primarily by the methods of realistic and constitutive phenomenology, and the second under the guidance of existential and hermeneutical approaches. Standard accounts of the history of phenomenology begin, of course, with the publication of Husserl's Logische Untersuchungen (1900-1901) in which for the first time he publicly developed and applied his distinctively descriptive approach-the so-called method of eidetic analysis with its unique emphasis on the concept of evidence understood as intention fulfillment-to the fields of logical and mathematical systems. But those around him in Gottingen quickly saw the innovative character of this method and began employing it in a wide variety of other areas of research: literature, sociology, ethics, action theory, and even theology, for example.

The New Colored People

The Mixed-Race Movement in America

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Author: Jon M. Spencer

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814739806

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 1365

With a foreword by Richard E. Vander Ross In recent years, dramatic increases in racial intermarriage have given birth to a generation who refuse to be shoehorned into neat, pre-existing racial categories. Energized by a refusal to allow mixed-race people to be rendered invisible, this movement lobbies aggressively to have the category multiracial added to official racial classifications. While applauding the self-awareness and activism at the root of this movement, Jon Michael Spencer questions its ultimate usefulness, deeply concerned that it will unintentionally weaken minority power. Focusing specifically on mixed-race blacks, Spencer argues that the mixed-race movement in the United States would benefit from consideration of how multiracial categories have evolved in South Africa. Americans, he shows us, are deeply uninformed about the tragic consequences of the former white South African government's classification of mixed-race people as Coloured. Spencer maintains that a multiracial category in the U.S. could be equally tragic, not only for blacks but formultiracials themselves. Further, splintering people of color into such classifications of race and mixed race aggravates race relations among society's oppressed. A group that can attain some privilege through a multiracial identity is unlikely to identify with the lesser status group, blacks. It may be that the undoing of racial classification will come not by initiating a new classification, but by our increased recognition that there are millions of people who simply defy easy classification.