The Mathematical Century

The 30 Greatest Problems of the Last 100 Years


Author: Piergiorgio Odifreddi

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691128054

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 5639

The twentieth century was a time of unprecedented development in mathematics, as well as in all sciences: more theorems were proved and results found in a hundred years than in all of previous history. In The Mathematical Century, Piergiorgio Odifreddi distills this unwieldy mass of knowledge into a fascinating and authoritative overview of the subject. He concentrates on thirty highlights of pure and applied mathematics. Each tells the story of an exciting problem, from its historical origins to its modern solution, in lively prose free of technical details. Odifreddi opens by discussing the four main philosophical foundations of mathematics of the nineteenth century and ends by describing the four most important open mathematical problems of the twenty-first century. In presenting the thirty problems at the heart of the book he devotes equal attention to pure and applied mathematics, with applications ranging from physics and computer science to biology and economics. Special attention is dedicated to the famous "23 problems" outlined by David Hilbert in his address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900 as a research program for the new century, and to the work of the winners of the Fields Medal, the equivalent of a Nobel prize in mathematics. This eminently readable book will be treasured not only by students and their teachers but also by all those who seek to make sense of the elusive macrocosm of twentieth-century mathematics.

6000 Jahre Mathematik

Eine kulturgeschichtliche Zeitreise - 2. Von Euler bis zur Gegenwart


Author: Hans Wußing

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540773142

Category: Mathematics

Page: 675

View: 4019

Mit dem Namen Euler wird der Beginn der modernen Mathematik verknüpft. Ausgehend von Eulers Leben und seiner wissenschaftlichen Arbeit illustriert der Autor im 2. Teil der mathematisch-kulturhistorischen Zeitreise den Werdegang der heutigen Mathematik. Dabei konzentriert er sich angesichts der hoch komplexen und fragmentierten Entwicklung der Mathematik im ausgehenden 20. Jahrhundert auf wichtige und exemplarische Entwicklungen. Ein spannendes Lesevergnügen für Mathematiker und alle, die sich für die Kulturgeschichte der Mathematik interessieren.

The Mathematical Sciences

A Report


Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Support of Research in the Mathematical Sciences

Publisher: National Academies


Category: Endowment of research

Page: 256

View: 8232

Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences


Author: I. Grattan-Guinness

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801873973

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1806

View: 8966

Mathematics is one of the most basic -- and most ancient -- types of knowledge. Yet the details of its historical development remain obscure to all but a few specialists. The two-volume Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences recovers this mathematical heritage, bringing together many of the world's leading historians of mathematics to examine the history and philosophy of the mathematical sciences in a cultural context, tracing their evolution from ancient times to the twentieth century. In 176 concise articles divided into twelve parts, contributors describe and analyze the variety of problems, theories, proofs, and techniques in all areas of pure and applied mathematics, including probability and statistics. This indispensable reference work demonstrates the continuing importance of mathematics and its use in physics, astronomy, engineering, computer science, philosophy, and the social sciences. Also addressed is the history of higher education in mathematics. Carefully illustrated, with annotated bibliographies of sources for each article, The Companion Encyclopedia is a valuable research tool for students and teachers in all branches of mathematics. Contents of Volume 1: •Ancient and Non-Western Traditions •The Western Middle Ages and the Renaissance •Calculus and Mathematical Analysis •Functions, Series, and Methods in Analysis •Logic, Set Theories, and the Foundations of Mathematics •Algebras and Number Theory Contents of Volume 2: •Geometries and Topology •Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering •Physics, Mathematical Physics, and Electrical Engineering •Probability, Statistics, and the Social Sciences •Higher Education and Institutions •Mathematics and Culture •Select Bibliography, Chronology, Biographical Notes, and Index

The Mathematical Work of Charles Babbage


Author: J. M. Dubbey,John Michael Dubbey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521524766

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 9362

This book describes Babbage's work on the design and implementation of the difference and analytical engines.

Perfect Rigor

A Genius and the Mathematical Breakthrough of the Century


Author: Masha Gessen

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0547427565

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 256

View: 5373

A gripping and tragic tale that sheds rare light on the unique burden of genius In 2006, an eccentric Russian mathematician named Grigori Perelman solved the Poincare Conjecture, an extremely complex topological problem that had eluded the best minds for over a century. A prize of one million dollars was offered to anyone who could unravel it, but Perelman declined the winnings, and in doing so inspired journalist Masha Gessen to tell his story. Drawing on interviews with Perelman’s teachers, classmates, coaches, teammates, and colleagues in Russia and the United States—and informed by her own background as a math whiz raised in Russia—Gessen uncovered a mind of unrivaled computational power, one that enabled Perelman to pursue mathematical concepts to their logical (sometimes distant) end. But she also discovered that this very strength turned out to be Perelman's undoing and the reason for his withdrawal, first from the world of mathematics and then, increasingly, from the world in general.

Computable Foundations for Economics


Author: K. Vela Velupillai

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134253370

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 512

View: 6577

Computable Foundations for Economics is a unified collection of essays, some of which are published here for the first time and all of which have been updated for this book, on an approach to economic theory from the point of view of algorithmic mathematics. By algorithmic mathematics the author means computability theory and constructive mathematics. This is in contrast to orthodox mathematical economics and game theory, which are formalised with the mathematics of real analysis, underpinned by what is called the ZFC formalism, i.e., set theory with the axiom of choice. This reliance on ordinary real analysis and the ZFC system makes economic theory in its current mathematical mode completely non-algorithmic, which means it is numerically meaningless. The book provides a systematic attempt to dissect and expose the non-algorithmic content of orthodox mathematical economics and game theory and suggests a reformalization on the basis of a strictly rigorous algorithmic mathematics. This removes the current schizophrenia in mathematical economics and game theory, where theory is entirely divorced from algorithmic applicability – for experimental and computational exercises. The chapters demonstrate the uncomputability and non-constructivity of core areas of general equilibrium theory, game theory and recursive macroeconomics. The book also provides a fresh look at the kind of behavioural economics that lies behind Herbert Simon’s work, and resurrects a role for the noble classical traditions of induction and verification, viewed and formalised, now, algorithmically. It will therefore be of particular interest to postgraduate students and researchers in algorithmic economics, game theory and classical behavioural economics.

Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research


Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications,Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309298512

Category: Mathematics

Page: 142

View: 8167

Like most areas of scholarship, mathematics is a cumulative discipline: new research is reliant on well-organized and well-curated literature. Because of the precise definitions and structures within mathematics, today's information technologies and machine learning tools provide an opportunity to further organize and enhance discoverability of the mathematics literature in new ways, with the potential to significantly facilitate mathematics research and learning. Opportunities exist to enhance discoverability directly via new technologies and also by using technology to capture important interactions between mathematicians and the literature for later sharing and reuse. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research discusses how information about what the mathematical literature contains can be formalized and made easier to express, encode, and explore. Many of the tools necessary to make this information system a reality will require much more than indexing and will instead depend on community input paired with machine learning, where mathematicians' expertise can fill the gaps of automatization. This report proposes the establishment of an organization; the development of a set of platforms, tools, and services; the deployment of an ongoing applied research program to complement the development work; and the mobilization and coordination of the mathematical community to take the first steps toward these capabilities. The report recommends building on the extensive work done by many dedicated individuals under the rubric of the World Digital Mathematical Library, as well as many other community initiatives. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics envisions a combination of machine learning methods and community-based editorial effort that makes a significantly greater portion of the information and knowledge in the global mathematical corpus available to researchers as linked open data through a central organizational entity-referred to in the report as the Digital Mathematics Library. This report describes how such a library might operate - discussing development and research needs, role in facilitating discover and interaction, and establishing partnerships with publishers.

The Mathematical Papers of Isaac Newton:


Author: Isaac Newton,D. T. Whiteside

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521045959

Category: Mathematics

Page: 648

View: 6817

The bringing together, in an annotated and critical edition, of all the known mathematical papers of Isaac Newton marks a step forward in the publication of the works of this great natural philosopher. In all, there are eight volumes in this present edition. Translations of papers in Latin face the original text and notes are printed on the page-openings to which they refer, so far as possible. Each volume contains a short index of names only and an analytical table of contents; a comprehensive index to the complete work is included in Volume VIII. Volume I covers three exceptionally productive years: Newton's final year as an undergraduate at Trinity College, Cambridge, and the two following years, part of which were spent at his home in Lincolnshire on account of the closure of the university during an outbreak of bubonic plague.

A Century of Mathematics

Through the Eyes of the Monthly


Author: John Ewing

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780883854570

Category: History

Page: 335

View: 3681

This is the story of American mathematics during the past century. It contains articles and excerpts from a century of the American Mathematical Monthly, giving the reader an opportunity to skim all one hundred volumes of this popular mathematics magazine without actually opening them. It samples mathematics year by year and decade by decade. The reader can glimpse the mathematical community at the turn of the century, the controversy about Einstein and relativity, the debates about formalism in logic, the immigration of mathematicians from Europe, and the frantic effort to organize as the war began. More recent articles deal with the advent of computers and the changes they brought, and with some of the triumphs of modern research.

Mathematical and Conceptual Foundations of 20th-Century Physics


Author: G.G. Emch

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080872117

Category: Science

Page: 548

View: 5099

This book is primarily intended for Mathematicians, but students in the physical sciences will find here information not usually available in physics texts. The main aim of this book is to provide a unified mathematical account of the conceptual foundations of 20th-Century Physics, in a form suitable for a one-year survey course in Mathematics or Mathematical Physics. Emphasis is laid on the interlocked historical development of mathematical and physical ideas.

Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathematical Practice in the Seventeenth Century


Author: Paolo Mancosu

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195132440

Category: Drama

Page: 275

View: 8794

The seventeenth century saw dramatic advances in mathematical theory and practice than any era before or since. With the recovery of many of the classical Greek mathematical texts, new techniques were introduced, and within 100 years, analytic geometry, the geometry of indivisibles, the arithmetic of infinites, and the calculus had been developed. Although many technical studies have been devoted to these innovations, Paolo Mancosu provides the first comprehensive account of the relationship between mathematical advances of the seventeenth century and the philosophy of mathematics of the period. Beginning with the Renaissance debates on the certainty of mathematics, Mancosu leads the reader through the foundational issues raised by the emergence of these new mathematical techniques, including the influence of the Aristotelian conception of science in Cavalieri and Guldin, the foundational relevance of Descartes' Geometrie, the relationship between empiricist epistemology and infinitistic theorems in geometry, and the debates concerning the foundations of the Leibnizian calculus In the process Mancosu draws a sophisticated picture of the subtle dependencies between technical development and philosophical reflection in seventeenth century mathematics.

Form, Zahl, Ordnung

Studien zur Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte : Ivo Schneider zum 65. Geburtstag


Author: Rudolf Seising,Menso Folkerts,Ulf Hashagen

Publisher: Franz Steiner Verlag

ISBN: 9783515085250

Category: History

Page: 926

View: 2526

Dieser Band mit 42 aktuellen Arbeiten von 45 Wissenschafts- und Technikwissenschaftlern erscheint aus Anlass des 65. Geburtstages des Muenchner Wissenschaftshistorikers Ivo Schneider. In den einzelnen Beitragen der Autoren, von denen die meisten der Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte, einige aber auch der Wissenschaftsphilosophie bzw. anderen Wissenschaftsdisziplinen entstammen, werden Arbeiten zur gesamten Wissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte von der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert prasentiert. Aus den verschiedenen Kontexten heraus verweisen die Beitrage auf die Bedeutung von Form(en) in Mathematik und Philosophie, sie zeigen, dass keine moderne Naturwissenschaft ohne Zahl und Ordnung auskommt, wie auch die (moderne) Mathematik oft mehr mit Ordnung denn mit Zahl zu tun hat. Dem Leser wird in diesem Band das groae Spektrum reflektionswissenschaftlicher Forschung ausgebreitet, das in der gegenwartigen Wissenschaftslandschaft leider immer weniger beruecksichtigt wird.

The Mathematical Experience, Study Edition


Author: Philip Davis,Reuben Hersh,Elena Anne Marchisotto

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0817682945

Category: Mathematics

Page: 500

View: 949

Winner of the 1983 National Book Award! "...a perfectly marvelous book about the Queen of Sciences, from which one will get a real feeling for what mathematicians do and who they are. The exposition is clear and full of wit and humor..." - The New Yorker (1983 National Book Award edition) Mathematics has been a human activity for thousands of years. Yet only a few people from the vast population of users are professional mathematicians, who create, teach, foster, and apply it in a variety of situations. The authors of this book believe that it should be possible for these professional mathematicians to explain to non-professionals what they do, what they say they are doing, and why the world should support them at it. They also believe that mathematics should be taught to non-mathematics majors in such a way as to instill an appreciation of the power and beauty of mathematics. Many people from around the world have told the authors that they have done precisely that with the first edition and they have encouraged publication of this revised edition complete with exercises for helping students to demonstrate their understanding. This edition of the book should find a new generation of general readers and students who would like to know what mathematics is all about. It will prove invaluable as a course text for a general mathematics appreciation course, one in which the student can combine an appreciation for the esthetics with some satisfying and revealing applications. The text is ideal for 1) a GE course for Liberal Arts students 2) a Capstone course for perspective teachers 3) a writing course for mathematics teachers. A wealth of customizable online course materials for the book can be obtained from Elena Anne Marchisotto ([email protected]) upon request.

A Century of Mathematics in America


Author: Peter L. Duren,Richard Askey,Uta C. Merzbach

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821801307

Category: Mathematics

Page: 585

View: 8479

The first section of the book deals with some of the influential mathematics departments in the United States. Functioning as centers of research and training, these departments played a major role in shaping the mathematical life in this country. The second section deals with an extraordinary conference held at Princeton in 1946 to commemorate the university's bicentennial. The influence of women in American mathematics, the burgeoning of differential geometry in the last 50 years, and discussions of the work of von Karman and Weiner are among other topics covered. To download free chapters of this book, click here.

Bevölkerungsforschung und Politik in Deutschland im 20. Jahrhundert


Author: Rainer Mackensen

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3531904272

Category: Political Science

Page: 332

View: 4604

Die Autoren der Beiträge zeigen Merkmale und Varianten bevölkerungsbezogener Forschungen und ihre Anwendungen in der NS-Zeit. Im Mittelpunkt stehen Zusammenhänge zwischen der deutschen Bevölkerungswissenschaft und der Bevölkerungspolitik des NS-Staates. Erörtert werden Aspekte der Verbindungen von Wissenschaft und Politik und ihre wechselseitigen Instrumentalisierungen wie zum Beispiel die bevölkerungswissenschaftliche Handhabung empirischer Daten zur Prüfung von Hypothesen.

The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art

Companion and Commentary


Author: Kangshen Shen,John N. Crossley,Anthony Wah-Cheung Lun,Hui Liu

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198539360

Category: Mathematics

Page: 596

View: 2663

' a rich compilation of attractive problems telling wonderful fairy tales full of imaginative and delightful connections' Zentralbaltt MathematikThe Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art is a classic text: the most important mathematical source in China during the past 2000 years, and comparable in significance to Euclid's Elements in the West. This volume contains the first complete English translation of the Nine Chapters, together with two commentaries written in the 3rd century (by Liu Hui) and 7th century AD, and a further commentary by the translators.

Mathematical Thought From Ancient to Modern Times


Author: Morris Kline

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199840423

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 3297

This comprehensive history traces the development of mathematical ideas and the careers of the men responsible for them. Volume 1 looks at the disciplines origins in Babylon and Egypt, the creation of geometry and trigonometry by the Greeks, and the role of mathematics in the medieval and early modern periods. Volume 2 focuses on calculus, the rise of analysis in the 19th century, and the number theories of Dedekind and Dirichlet. The concluding volume covers the revival of projective geometry, the emergence of abstract algebra, the beginnings of topology, and the influence of Godel on recent mathematical study.

The Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Second Edition


Author: Richard B. Hetnarski,Jozef Ignaczak

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 143982889X

Category: Science

Page: 837

View: 3525

Through its inclusion of specific applications, The Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Second Edition continues to provide a bridge between the theory and applications of elasticity. It presents classical as well as more recent results, including those obtained by the authors and their colleagues. Revised and improved, this edition incorporates additional examples and the latest research results. New to the Second Edition Exposition of the application of Laplace transforms, the Dirac delta function, and the Heaviside function Presentation of the Cherkaev, Lurie, and Milton (CLM) stress invariance theorem that is widely used to determine the effective moduli of elastic composites The Cauchy relations in elasticity A body force analogy for the transient thermal stresses A three-part table of Laplace transforms An appendix that explores recent developments in thermoelasticity Although emphasis is placed on the problems of elastodynamics and thermoelastodynamics, the text also covers elastostatics and thermoelastostatics. It discusses the fundamentals of linear elasticity and applications, including kinematics, motion and equilibrium, constitutive relations, formulation of problems, and variational principles. It also explains how to solve various boundary value problems of one, two, and three dimensions. This professional reference includes access to a solutions manual for those wishing to adopt the book for instructional purposes.