The Mathematical Century

The 30 Greatest Problems of the Last 100 Years


Author: Piergiorgio Odifreddi

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691128054

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 9854

The twentieth century was a time of unprecedented development in mathematics, as well as in all sciences: more theorems were proved and results found in a hundred years than in all of previous history. In The Mathematical Century, Piergiorgio Odifreddi distills this unwieldy mass of knowledge into a fascinating and authoritative overview of the subject. He concentrates on thirty highlights of pure and applied mathematics. Each tells the story of an exciting problem, from its historical origins to its modern solution, in lively prose free of technical details. Odifreddi opens by discussing the four main philosophical foundations of mathematics of the nineteenth century and ends by describing the four most important open mathematical problems of the twenty-first century. In presenting the thirty problems at the heart of the book he devotes equal attention to pure and applied mathematics, with applications ranging from physics and computer science to biology and economics. Special attention is dedicated to the famous "23 problems" outlined by David Hilbert in his address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900 as a research program for the new century, and to the work of the winners of the Fields Medal, the equivalent of a Nobel prize in mathematics. This eminently readable book will be treasured not only by students and their teachers but also by all those who seek to make sense of the elusive macrocosm of twentieth-century mathematics.

Perfect Rigor

A Genius and the Mathematical Breakthrough of the Century


Author: Masha Gessen

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 0547427565

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 256

View: 2878

A gripping and tragic tale that sheds rare light on the unique burden of genius In 2006, an eccentric Russian mathematician named Grigori Perelman solved the Poincare Conjecture, an extremely complex topological problem that had eluded the best minds for over a century. A prize of one million dollars was offered to anyone who could unravel it, but Perelman declined the winnings, and in doing so inspired journalist Masha Gessen to tell his story. Drawing on interviews with Perelman’s teachers, classmates, coaches, teammates, and colleagues in Russia and the United States—and informed by her own background as a math whiz raised in Russia—Gessen uncovered a mind of unrivaled computational power, one that enabled Perelman to pursue mathematical concepts to their logical (sometimes distant) end. But she also discovered that this very strength turned out to be Perelman's undoing and the reason for his withdrawal, first from the world of mathematics and then, increasingly, from the world in general.

Oxford Figures

Eight Centuries of the Mathematical Sciences


Author: John Fauvel,Raymond Flood,Robin Wilson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191504203

Category: Mathematics

Page: 352

View: 2504

This is the story of the intellectual and social life of a community, and of its interactions with the wider world. For eight centuries mathematics has been researched and studied at Oxford, and the subject and its teaching have undergone profound changes during that time. This highly readable and beautifully illustrated book reveals the richness and influence of Oxford's mathematical tradition and the fascinating characters that helped to shape it. The story begins with the founding of the University of Oxford and the establishing of the medieval curriculum, in which mathematics had an important role. The Black Death, the advent of printing, the Civil War, and the Newtonian revolution all had a great influence on the development of mathematics at Oxford. So too did many well-known figures: Roger Bacon, Henry Savile, Robert Hooke, Christopher Wren, Edmond Halley, Florence Nightingale, Charles Dodgson (Lewis Carroll), and G. H. Hardy, to name but a few. Later chapters bring us to the 20th century, with some entertaining reminiscences by Sir Michael Atiyah of the thirty years he spent as an Oxford mathematician. In this second edition the story is brought right up to the opening of the new Mathematical Institute in 2013 with a foreword from Marcus du Sautoy and recent developments from Peter M. Neumann.

A Century of Advancing Mathematics


Author: Paul Zorn

Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America

ISBN: 0883855887

Category: Mathematics

Page: 420

View: 5311

The MAA was founded in 1915 to serve as a home for The American Mathematical Monthly. The mission of the Association-to advance mathematics, especially at the collegiate level-has, however, always been larger than merely publishing world-class mathematical exposition. MAA members have explored more than just mathematics; we have, as this volume tries to make evident, investigated mathematical connections to pedagogy, history, the arts, technology, literature, every field of intellectual endeavor. Essays, all commissioned for this volume, include exposition by Bob Devaney, Robin Wilson, and Frank Morgan; history from Karen Parshall, Della Dumbaugh, and Bill Dunham; pedagogical discussion from Paul Zorn, Joe Gallian, and Michael Starbird, and cultural commentary from Bonnie Gold, Jon Borwein, and Steve Abbott. This volume contains 35 essays by all-star writers and expositors writing to celebrate an extraordinary century for mathematics-more mathematics has been created and published since 1915 than in all of previous recorded history. We've solved age-old mysteries, created entire new fields of study, and changed our conception of what mathematics is. Many of those stories are told in this volume as the contributors paint a portrait of the broad cultural sweep of mathematics during the MAA's first century. Mathematics is the most thrilling, the most human, area of intellectual inquiry; you will find in this volume compelling proof of that claim.

The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art

Companion and Commentary


Author: Kangshen Shen,John N. Crossley,Anthony Wah-Cheung Lun,Hui Liu

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198539360

Category: Mathematics

Page: 596

View: 803

' a rich compilation of attractive problems telling wonderful fairy tales full of imaginative and delightful connections' Zentralbaltt MathematikThe Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art is a classic text: the most important mathematical source in China during the past 2000 years, and comparable in significance to Euclid's Elements in the West. This volume contains the first complete English translation of the Nine Chapters, together with two commentaries written in the 3rd century (by Liu Hui) and 7th century AD, and a further commentary by the translators.

6000 Jahre Mathematik

Eine kulturgeschichtliche Zeitreise - 2. Von Euler bis zur Gegenwart


Author: Hans Wußing

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3540773142

Category: Mathematics

Page: 675

View: 7124

Mit dem Namen Euler wird der Beginn der modernen Mathematik verknüpft. Ausgehend von Eulers Leben und seiner wissenschaftlichen Arbeit illustriert der Autor im 2. Teil der mathematisch-kulturhistorischen Zeitreise den Werdegang der heutigen Mathematik. Dabei konzentriert er sich angesichts der hoch komplexen und fragmentierten Entwicklung der Mathematik im ausgehenden 20. Jahrhundert auf wichtige und exemplarische Entwicklungen. Ein spannendes Lesevergnügen für Mathematiker und alle, die sich für die Kulturgeschichte der Mathematik interessieren.

Mathematics of the 19th Century

Mathematical Logic, Algebra, Number Theory, Probability Theory


Author: Andreĭ Nikolaevich Kolmogorov,Adolʹf Pavlovich I͡Ushkevich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764364410

Category: Mathematics

Page: 308

View: 8559

New Edition - New in Paperback - This is the second revised edition of the first volume of the outstanding collection of historical studies of mathematics in the nineteenth century compiled in three volumes by A. N. Kolmogorov and A. P. Yushkevich. This second edition was carefully revised by Abe Shenitzer, York University, Ontario, Canada. The historical period covered in this book extends from the early nineteenth century up to the end of the 1930s, as neither 1801 nor 1900 are, in themselves, turning points in the history of mathematics, although each date is notable fo a remarkable event: the first for the publication of Gauss' "Disquisitiones arithmeticae," the second for Hilbert's "Mathematical Problems." Beginning in the second quarter of the nineteenth century mathematics underwent a revolution as crucial and profound in its consequences for the general world outlook as the mathematical revolution in the beginning of the modern era. The main changes included a new statement of the problem of the existence of mathematical objects, particulary in the calculus, and soon thereafter the formation of non-standard structures in geometry, arithmetic and algebra. The primary objective of the work has been to treat the evolution of mathematics in the nineteenth century as a whole; the discussion is concentrated on the essential concepts, methods, and algorithms.

A Century of Mathematics

Through the Eyes of the Monthly


Author: John Ewing

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780883854570

Category: History

Page: 335

View: 2614

This is the story of American mathematics during the past century. It contains articles and excerpts from a century of the American Mathematical Monthly, giving the reader an opportunity to skim all one hundred volumes of this popular mathematics magazine without actually opening them. It samples mathematics year by year and decade by decade. The reader can glimpse the mathematical community at the turn of the century, the controversy about Einstein and relativity, the debates about formalism in logic, the immigration of mathematicians from Europe, and the frantic effort to organize as the war began. More recent articles deal with the advent of computers and the changes they brought, and with some of the triumphs of modern research.

The Mathematical Sciences

A Report


Author: National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Support of Research in the Mathematical Sciences

Publisher: National Academies


Category: Endowment of research

Page: 256

View: 6305

The Mathematical Career of Pierre de Fermat, 1601-1665

Second Edition


Author: Michael Sean Mahoney

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691187630

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8707

Hailed as one of the greatest mathematical results of the twentieth century, the recent proof of Fermat's Last Theorem by Andrew Wiles brought to public attention the enigmatic problem-solver Pierre de Fermat, who centuries ago stated his famous conjecture in a margin of a book, writing that he did not have enough room to show his "truly marvelous demonstration." Along with formulating this proposition--xn+yn=zn has no rational solution for n > 2--Fermat, an inventor of analytic geometry, also laid the foundations of differential and integral calculus, established, together with Pascal, the conceptual guidelines of the theory of probability, and created modern number theory. In one of the first full-length investigations of Fermat's life and work, Michael Sean Mahoney provides rare insight into the mathematical genius of a hobbyist who never sought to publish his work, yet who ranked with his contemporaries Pascal and Descartes in shaping the course of modern mathematics.

Perfect Rigour

A Genius and the Mathematical Breakthrough of a Lifetime


Author: Masha Gessen

Publisher: Icon Books Ltd

ISBN: 1848313098

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 256

View: 6332

In 2006, an eccentric Russian mathematician named Grigori Perelman solved one of the world's greatest intellectual puzzles. The Poincare conjecture is an extremely complex topological problem that had eluded the best minds for over a century. In 2000, the Clay Institute in Boston named it one of seven great unsolved mathematical problems, and promised a million dollars to anyone who could find a solution. Perelman was awarded the prize this year - and declined the money. Journalist Masha Gessen was determined to find out why. Drawing on interviews with Perelman's teachers, classmates, coaches, teammates, and colleagues in Russia and the US - and informed by her own background as a math whiz raised in Russia - she set out to uncover the nature of Perelman's astonishing abilities. In telling his story, Masha Gessen has constructed a gripping and tragic tale that sheds rare light on the unique burden of genius.

Fueling Innovation and Discovery

The Mathematical Sciences in the 21st Century


Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications,Committee on the Mathematical Sciences in 2025

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309254760

Category: Mathematics

Page: 64

View: 5030

The mathematical sciences are part of everyday life. Modern communication, transportation, science, engineering, technology, medicine, manufacturing, security, and finance all depend on the mathematical sciences. Fueling Innovation and Discovery describes recent advances in the mathematical sciences and advances enabled by mathematical sciences research. It is geared toward general readers who would like to know more about ongoing advances in the mathematical sciences and how these advances are changing our understanding of the world, creating new technologies, and transforming industries. Although the mathematical sciences are pervasive, they are often invoked without an explicit awareness of their presence. Prepared as part of the study on the Mathematical Sciences in 2025, a broad assessment of the current state of the mathematical sciences in the United States, Fueling Innovation and Discovery presents mathematical sciences advances in an engaging way. The report describes the contributions that mathematical sciences research has made to advance our understanding of the universe and the human genome. It also explores how the mathematical sciences are contributing to healthcare and national security, and the importance of mathematical knowledge and training to a range of industries, such as information technology and entertainment. Fueling Innovation and Discovery will be of use to policy makers, researchers, business leaders, students, and others interested in learning more about the deep connections between the mathematical sciences and every other aspect of the modern world. To function well in a technologically advanced society, every educated person should be familiar with multiple aspects of the mathematical sciences.

Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences


Author: I. Grattan-Guinness

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801873973

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1806

View: 7521

Mathematics is one of the most basic -- and most ancient -- types of knowledge. Yet the details of its historical development remain obscure to all but a few specialists. The two-volume Companion Encyclopedia of the History and Philosophy of the Mathematical Sciences recovers this mathematical heritage, bringing together many of the world's leading historians of mathematics to examine the history and philosophy of the mathematical sciences in a cultural context, tracing their evolution from ancient times to the twentieth century. In 176 concise articles divided into twelve parts, contributors describe and analyze the variety of problems, theories, proofs, and techniques in all areas of pure and applied mathematics, including probability and statistics. This indispensable reference work demonstrates the continuing importance of mathematics and its use in physics, astronomy, engineering, computer science, philosophy, and the social sciences. Also addressed is the history of higher education in mathematics. Carefully illustrated, with annotated bibliographies of sources for each article, The Companion Encyclopedia is a valuable research tool for students and teachers in all branches of mathematics. Contents of Volume 1: •Ancient and Non-Western Traditions •The Western Middle Ages and the Renaissance •Calculus and Mathematical Analysis •Functions, Series, and Methods in Analysis •Logic, Set Theories, and the Foundations of Mathematics •Algebras and Number Theory Contents of Volume 2: •Geometries and Topology •Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering •Physics, Mathematical Physics, and Electrical Engineering •Probability, Statistics, and the Social Sciences •Higher Education and Institutions •Mathematics and Culture •Select Bibliography, Chronology, Biographical Notes, and Index

The Mathematical Work of Charles Babbage


Author: J. M. Dubbey,John Michael Dubbey

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521524766

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 5390

This book describes Babbage's work on the design and implementation of the difference and analytical engines.

A Century of Mathematics in America


Author: Peter L. Duren,Richard Askey,Uta C. Merzbach

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821801307

Category: Mathematics

Page: 585

View: 9121

The first section of the book deals with some of the influential mathematics departments in the United States. Functioning as centers of research and training, these departments played a major role in shaping the mathematical life in this country. The second section deals with an extraordinary conference held at Princeton in 1946 to commemorate the university's bicentennial. The influence of women in American mathematics, the burgeoning of differential geometry in the last 50 years, and discussions of the work of von Karman and Weiner are among other topics covered. To download free chapters of this book, click here.

Lenses and Waves

Christiaan Huygens and the Mathematical Science of Optics in the Seventeenth Century


Author: Fokko Jan Dijksterhuis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402026986

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 9454

In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge. This book discusses the development of Huygens' wave theory, reconstructing the winding road that eventually led to Traité de la Lumière. For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account. In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in the context of his optics as a whole, which was dominated by his lifelong pursuit of theoretical and practical dioptrics. In so doing, this book offers the first account of the development of Huygens' mathematical analysis of lenses and telescopes and its significance for the origin of the wave theory of light. As Huygens applied his mathematical proficiency to practical issues pertaining to telescopes – including trying to design a perfect telescope by means of mathematical theory – his dioptrics is significant for our understanding of seventeenth-century relations between theory and practice. With this full account of Huygens' optics, this book sheds new light on the history of seventeenth-century optics and the rise of the new mathematical sciences, as well as Huygens' oeuvre as a whole. Students of the history of optics, of early mathematical physics, and the Scientific Revolution, will find this book enlightening.

The Changing Shape of Geometry

Celebrating a Century of Geometry and Geometry Teaching


Author: Chris Pritchard,Mathematical Association,Mathematical Association of America

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521531627

Category: Mathematics

Page: 541

View: 9945

Celebrating a century of geometry and geometry teaching, this book will give the reader an enjoyable insight into all things geometrical. There are a wealth of popular articles including sections on Pythagoras, the golden ratio and recreational geometry. Historical items, drawn principally from the Mathematical Gazette, are authored by mathematicians such as G. H. Hardy, Rouse Ball, Thomas Heath and Bertrand Russell as well as some more recent expositors. Thirty 'Desert Island Theorems' from distinguished mathematicians and educationalists give light to some surprising and beautiful results. Contributors include H. S. M. Coxeter, Michael Atiyah, Tom Apostol, Solomon Golomb, Keith Devlin, Nobel Laureate Leon Lederman, Carlo Séquin, Simon Singh, Christopher Zeeman and Pulitzer Prizewinner Douglas Hofstadter. The book also features the wonderful Eyeball Theorems of Peruvian geometer and web designer, Antonio Gutierrez. For anyone with an interest in mathematics and mathematics education this book will be an enjoyable and rewarding read.

Computable Foundations for Economics


Author: K. Vela Velupillai

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134253370

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 512

View: 1259

Computable Foundations for Economics is a unified collection of essays, some of which are published here for the first time and all of which have been updated for this book, on an approach to economic theory from the point of view of algorithmic mathematics. By algorithmic mathematics the author means computability theory and constructive mathematics. This is in contrast to orthodox mathematical economics and game theory, which are formalised with the mathematics of real analysis, underpinned by what is called the ZFC formalism, i.e., set theory with the axiom of choice. This reliance on ordinary real analysis and the ZFC system makes economic theory in its current mathematical mode completely non-algorithmic, which means it is numerically meaningless. The book provides a systematic attempt to dissect and expose the non-algorithmic content of orthodox mathematical economics and game theory and suggests a reformalization on the basis of a strictly rigorous algorithmic mathematics. This removes the current schizophrenia in mathematical economics and game theory, where theory is entirely divorced from algorithmic applicability – for experimental and computational exercises. The chapters demonstrate the uncomputability and non-constructivity of core areas of general equilibrium theory, game theory and recursive macroeconomics. The book also provides a fresh look at the kind of behavioural economics that lies behind Herbert Simon’s work, and resurrects a role for the noble classical traditions of induction and verification, viewed and formalised, now, algorithmically. It will therefore be of particular interest to postgraduate students and researchers in algorithmic economics, game theory and classical behavioural economics.

Problems and Solutions from The Mathematical Visitor, 1877-1896

Edited by Stanley Rabinowitz


Author: Stanley Rabinowitz

Publisher: MathPro Press

ISBN: 9780962640155

Category: Mathematics

Page: 258

View: 6303

This book contains all 344 problems that were originally published in the 19th century journal, The Mathematical Visitor, classified by subject. Little-known to most mathematicians today, these problems represent lost treasure from mathematical antiquity. All solutions that were originally published in the journal are also included.

Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research


Author: National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Board on Mathematical Sciences and Their Applications,Committee on Planning a Global Library of the Mathematical Sciences

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309298512

Category: Mathematics

Page: 142

View: 382

Like most areas of scholarship, mathematics is a cumulative discipline: new research is reliant on well-organized and well-curated literature. Because of the precise definitions and structures within mathematics, today's information technologies and machine learning tools provide an opportunity to further organize and enhance discoverability of the mathematics literature in new ways, with the potential to significantly facilitate mathematics research and learning. Opportunities exist to enhance discoverability directly via new technologies and also by using technology to capture important interactions between mathematicians and the literature for later sharing and reuse. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics Research discusses how information about what the mathematical literature contains can be formalized and made easier to express, encode, and explore. Many of the tools necessary to make this information system a reality will require much more than indexing and will instead depend on community input paired with machine learning, where mathematicians' expertise can fill the gaps of automatization. This report proposes the establishment of an organization; the development of a set of platforms, tools, and services; the deployment of an ongoing applied research program to complement the development work; and the mobilization and coordination of the mathematical community to take the first steps toward these capabilities. The report recommends building on the extensive work done by many dedicated individuals under the rubric of the World Digital Mathematical Library, as well as many other community initiatives. Developing a 21st Century Global Library for Mathematics envisions a combination of machine learning methods and community-based editorial effort that makes a significantly greater portion of the information and knowledge in the global mathematical corpus available to researchers as linked open data through a central organizational entity-referred to in the report as the Digital Mathematics Library. This report describes how such a library might operate - discussing development and research needs, role in facilitating discover and interaction, and establishing partnerships with publishers.