The Mathematical Century

The 30 Greatest Problems of the Last 100 Years

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Author: Piergiorgio Odifreddi

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691128054

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 5160

The twentieth century was a time of unprecedented development in mathematics, as well as in all sciences: more theorems were proved and results found in a hundred years than in all of previous history. In The Mathematical Century, Piergiorgio Odifreddi distills this unwieldy mass of knowledge into a fascinating and authoritative overview of the subject. He concentrates on thirty highlights of pure and applied mathematics. Each tells the story of an exciting problem, from its historical origins to its modern solution, in lively prose free of technical details. Odifreddi opens by discussing the four main philosophical foundations of mathematics of the nineteenth century and ends by describing the four most important open mathematical problems of the twenty-first century. In presenting the thirty problems at the heart of the book he devotes equal attention to pure and applied mathematics, with applications ranging from physics and computer science to biology and economics. Special attention is dedicated to the famous "23 problems" outlined by David Hilbert in his address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900 as a research program for the new century, and to the work of the winners of the Fields Medal, the equivalent of a Nobel prize in mathematics. This eminently readable book will be treasured not only by students and their teachers but also by all those who seek to make sense of the elusive macrocosm of twentieth-century mathematics.

The Mathematical Century

The 30 Greatest Problems of the Last 100 Years

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Author: Piergiorgio Odifreddi

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691092942

Category: Mathematics

Page: 204

View: 2329

The twentieth century was a time of unprecedented development in mathematics, as well as in all sciences: more theorems were proved and results found in a hundred years than in all of previous history. In The Mathematical Century, Piergiorgio Odifreddi distills this unwieldy mass of knowledge into a fascinating and authoritative overview of the subject. He concentrates on thirty highlights of pure and applied mathematics. Each tells the story of an exciting problem, from its historical origins to its modern solution, in lively prose free of technical details. Odifreddi opens by discussing the four main philosophical foundations of mathematics of the nineteenth century and ends by describing the four most important open mathematical problems of the twenty-first century. In presenting the thirty problems at the heart of the book he devotes equal attention to pure and applied mathematics, with applications ranging from physics and computer science to biology and economics. Special attention is dedicated to the famous "23 problems" outlined by David Hilbert in his address to the International Congress of Mathematicians in 1900 as a research program for the new century, and to the work of the winners of the Fields Medal, the equivalent of a Nobel prize in mathematics. This eminently readable book will be treasured not only by students and their teachers but also by all those who seek to make sense of the elusive macrocosm of twentieth-century mathematics.

Mathematical Century: The 30 Graeatest Problems Of The Last 100 Years

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Author: Piergiorgio Odifreddi

Publisher: Universities Press

ISBN: 9788173715426

Category:

Page: 224

View: 5022

In this book, the author concentrates on thirty highlights of pure and applied mathematics. The author opens by discussing the four main philosophical foundations of mathematics of the nineteenth century and ends by describing the four most important open mathematical problems of the twenty first century.

The World as a Mathematical Game

John von Neumann and Twentieth Century Science

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Author: Giorgio Israel,Ana Millán Gasca

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3764398965

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 8099

Galileo and Newton’s work towards the mathematisation of the physical world; Leibniz’s universal logical calculus; the Enlightenment’s mathématique sociale. John von Neumann inherited all these aims and philosophical intuitions, together with an idea that grew up around the Vienna Circle of an ethics in the form of an exact science capable of guiding individuals to make correct decisions. With the help of his boundless mathematical capacity, von Neumann developed a conception of the world as a mathematical game, a world globally governed by a universal logic in which individual consciousness moved following different strategies: his vision guided him from set theory to quantum mechanics, to economics and to his theory of automata (anticipating artificial intelligence and cognitive science). This book provides the first comprehensive scientific and intellectual biography of John von Neumann, a man who perhaps more than any other is representative of twentieth century science.

Mathematical Logic in the 20th Century

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Author: Gerald E Sacks

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814490199

Category: Mathematics

Page: 708

View: 4164

This invaluable book is a collection of 31 important — both in ideas and results — papers published by mathematical logicians in the 20th Century. The papers have been selected by Professor Gerald E Sacks. Some of the authors are Gödel, Kleene, Tarski, A Robinson, Kreisel, Cohen, Morley, Shelah, Hrushovski and Woodin. Contents:The Independence of the Continuum Hypothesis (P J Cohen)Higher Set Theory and Mathematical Practice (H M Friedman)Measurable Cardinals and Analytic Games (D A Martin)Categoricity in Power (M Morley)Hyperanalytic Predicates (Y N Moschovakis)Stable Theories (S Shelah)On the Singular Cardinals Problem (J Silver)On Degrees of Recursive Unsolvability (C Spector)Denumerable Models of Complete Theories (R L Vaught)Supercompact Cardinals, Sets of Reals, and Weakly Homogeneous Trees (W H Woodin)and other papers Readership: Researchers and graduate students in logic. Keywords:JFM 65.0185.02;Mathematical LogicReviews:“… overall we must be grateful for getting all this wonderful stuff available in one convenient place.” Zentralblatt MATH “This volume makes an indispensable addition to the numerous lecture notes and monographs on mathematical logic lying on our bookshelves.”Acta Scientiarum Mathematicarum

Lenses and Waves

Christiaan Huygens and the Mathematical Science of Optics in the Seventeenth Century

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Author: Fokko Jan Dijksterhuis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402026986

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 779

In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge. This book discusses the development of Huygens' wave theory, reconstructing the winding road that eventually led to Traité de la Lumière. For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account. In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in the context of his optics as a whole, which was dominated by his lifelong pursuit of theoretical and practical dioptrics. In so doing, this book offers the first account of the development of Huygens' mathematical analysis of lenses and telescopes and its significance for the origin of the wave theory of light. As Huygens applied his mathematical proficiency to practical issues pertaining to telescopes – including trying to design a perfect telescope by means of mathematical theory – his dioptrics is significant for our understanding of seventeenth-century relations between theory and practice. With this full account of Huygens' optics, this book sheds new light on the history of seventeenth-century optics and the rise of the new mathematical sciences, as well as Huygens' oeuvre as a whole. Students of the history of optics, of early mathematical physics, and the Scientific Revolution, will find this book enlightening.

Perfect Rigour

A Genius and the Mathematical Breakthrough of a Lifetime

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Author: Masha Gessen

Publisher: Icon Books Ltd

ISBN: 1848313098

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 256

View: 4226

In 2006, an eccentric Russian mathematician named Grigori Perelman solved one of the world's greatest intellectual puzzles. The Poincare conjecture is an extremely complex topological problem that had eluded the best minds for over a century. In 2000, the Clay Institute in Boston named it one of seven great unsolved mathematical problems, and promised a million dollars to anyone who could find a solution. Perelman was awarded the prize this year - and declined the money. Journalist Masha Gessen was determined to find out why. Drawing on interviews with Perelman's teachers, classmates, coaches, teammates, and colleagues in Russia and the US - and informed by her own background as a math whiz raised in Russia - she set out to uncover the nature of Perelman's astonishing abilities. In telling his story, Masha Gessen has constructed a gripping and tragic tale that sheds rare light on the unique burden of genius.

Mathematical Events of the Twentieth Century

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Author: A.A. Bolibruch,OSIPOV YURIY S.,Yakov G. Sinai

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642062254

Category: Mathematics

Page: 545

View: 837

This book contains several contributions on the most outstanding events in the development of twentieth century mathematics, representing a wide variety of specialities in which Russian and Soviet mathematicians played a considerable role. The articles are written in an informal style, from mathematical philosophy to the description of the development of ideas, personal memories and give a unique account of personal meetings with famous representatives of twentieth century mathematics who exerted great influence in its development. This book will be of great interest to mathematicians, who will enjoy seeing their own specialities described with some historical perspective. Historians will read it with the same motive, and perhaps also to select topics for future investigation.

Naming Infinity

A True Story of Religious Mysticism and Mathematical Creativity

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Author: Loren Graham,Jean-Michel Kantor

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674032934

Category: History

Page: 239

View: 2963

Looks at the competition between French and Russian mathematicians over the nature of infinity during the twentieth century.

Mathematical Lives

Protagonists of the Twentieth Century From Hilbert to Wiles

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Author: CLAUDIO BARTOCCI,Renato Betti,Angelo Guerraggio,Roberto Lucchetti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642136061

Category: Mathematics

Page: 238

View: 6678

Steps forward in mathematics often reverberate in other scientific disciplines, and give rise to innovative conceptual developments or find surprising technological applications. This volume brings to the forefront some of the proponents of the mathematics of the twentieth century, who have put at our disposal new and powerful instruments for investigating the reality around us. The portraits present people who have impressive charisma and wide-ranging cultural interests, who are passionate about defending the importance of their own research, are sensitive to beauty, and attentive to the social and political problems of their times. What we have sought to document is mathematics’ central position in the culture of our day. Space has been made not only for the great mathematicians but also for literary texts, including contributions by two apparent interlopers, Robert Musil and Raymond Queneau, for whom mathematical concepts represented a valuable tool for resolving the struggle between ‘soul and precision.’

Mainstream Mathematical Economics in the 20th Century

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Author: PierCarlo Nicola

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 366204238X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 521

View: 5784

To write everything about nothing, or to write nothing about everything: this is the problem. (Anonym, circa 1996-97) The first idea to write a book on M athematical Economics, more or less ordered in a historical sequence, occurred to me in 1995, when I was asked, by Istituto delta Enciclopedia Italiana, to write the entry "Storia dell'economia 1 2 matematica" , for the collective work "Storia deI XX Secolo". I thought that it would be interesting to elaborate on the text presented to the editors, to turn it into a book aiming at giving a panorama of what, in my opinion, are the main 20th century contributions to mathematical eco nomics. Of course, only a narrow set of the contributions made by economic theorists could be included, both for space limitations and necessity, because 3 of the limited competence of any single author. For instance, I have paid very limited attention to what is now called Macroeconomics, and also to Game Theory, which actually has grown so much as to acquire scientific in dependence as a living branch of applied mathematics. For the same reason, I have also left completely untouched such fields as Mathematical Finance, Public Economics, Theory of Taxation, etc. I have always based my presentation on published material only, assuming that what is contained in working papers still waits to be confirmed, possibly in the first years of the 21th century.

Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathematical Practice in the Seventeenth Century

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Author: Paolo Mancosu

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195132440

Category: Drama

Page: 275

View: 3657

The seventeenth century saw dramatic advances in mathematical theory and practice than any era before or since. With the recovery of many of the classical Greek mathematical texts, new techniques were introduced, and within 100 years, analytic geometry, the geometry of indivisibles, the arithmetic of infinites, and the calculus had been developed. Although many technical studies have been devoted to these innovations, Paolo Mancosu provides the first comprehensive account of the relationship between mathematical advances of the seventeenth century and the philosophy of mathematics of the period. Beginning with the Renaissance debates on the certainty of mathematics, Mancosu leads the reader through the foundational issues raised by the emergence of these new mathematical techniques, including the influence of the Aristotelian conception of science in Cavalieri and Guldin, the foundational relevance of Descartes' Geometrie, the relationship between empiricist epistemology and infinitistic theorems in geometry, and the debates concerning the foundations of the Leibnizian calculus In the process Mancosu draws a sophisticated picture of the subtle dependencies between technical development and philosophical reflection in seventeenth century mathematics.

Mathematical Analysis During the 20th Century

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Author: Jean-Paul Pier

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198503941

Category: Mathematics

Page: 428

View: 2177

'Will be a valuable source book for analysts interested in the history of the main ideas of analysis, as well as for others wanting to know about developments in other fields.' -EMS'This is a superb history of 20th century mathematical analysis.' -Zentralblatt MathematikThis book studies the 20th century evolution of essential ideas in mathematical analysis, a field that since the times of Newton and Leibnitz has been one of the most important and prestigious in mathematics. Each chapter features a comprehensive first part on developments during the period 1900-1950, and then provides outlooks on representative achievements during the later part of the century. The book will be an interesting and useful reference for graduate students and lecturers in mathematics, professional mathematicians and historians of science, as well as the interested layperson.

A Mathematical Space Odyssey

Solid Geometry in the 21st Century

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Author: Claudi Alsina,Roger B. Nelsen

Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America

ISBN: 0883853582

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 4199

Solid geometry is the traditional name for what we call today the geometry of three-dimensional Euclidean space. Courses in solid geometry have largely disappeared from American high schools and colleges. The authors are convinced that a mathematical exploration of three-dimensional geometry merits some attention in today’s curriculum. A Mathematical Space Odyssey: Solid Geometry in the 21st Century is devoted to presenting techniques for proving a variety of mathematical results in three-dimensional space, techniques that may improve one’s ability to think visually. Special attention is given to the classical icons of solid geometry (prisms, pyramids, platonic solids, cones, cylinders, and spheres) and many new and classical results: Cavalieri’s principle, Commandino’s theorem, de Gua’s theorem, Prince Rupert’s cube, the Menger sponge, the Schwarz lantern, Euler’s rotation theorem, the Loomis-Whitney inequality, Pythagorean theorems in three dimensions, etc. The authors devote a chapter to each of the following basic techniques for exploring space and proving theorems: enumeration, representation, dissection, plane sections, intersection, iteration, motion, projection, and folding and unfolding. In addition to many figures illustrating theorems and their proofs, a selection of photographs of three-dimensional works of art and architecture are included. Each chapter includes a selection of Challenges for the reader to explore further properties and applications. It concludes with solutions to all the Challenges in the book, references, and a complete index. Readers should be familiar with high school algebra, plane and analytic geometry, and trigonometry. While brief appearances of calculus do occur, no knowledge of calculus is necessary to enjoy this book.

A Century of Mathematics in America

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Author: Peter L. Duren,Richard Askey,Uta C. Merzbach

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 9780821801307

Category: Mathematics

Page: 585

View: 7990

The first section of the book deals with some of the influential mathematics departments in the United States. Functioning as centers of research and training, these departments played a major role in shaping the mathematical life in this country. The second section deals with an extraordinary conference held at Princeton in 1946 to commemorate the university's bicentennial. The influence of women in American mathematics, the burgeoning of differential geometry in the last 50 years, and discussions of the work of von Karman and Weiner are among other topics covered. To download free chapters of this book, click here.

Fueling Innovation and Discovery

The Mathematical Sciences in the 21st Century

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Author: Committee on the Mathematical Sciences in 2025,Board on Mathematical Sciences And Their Applications,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309254744

Category: Mathematics

Page: 57

View: 2636

The mathematical sciences are part of everyday life. Modern communication, transportation, science, engineering, technology, medicine, manufacturing, security, and finance all depend on the mathematical sciences. Fueling Innovation and Discovery describes recent advances in the mathematical sciences and advances enabled by mathematical sciences research. It is geared toward general readers who would like to know more about ongoing advances in the mathematical sciences and how these advances are changing our understanding of the world, creating new technologies, and transforming industries. Although the mathematical sciences are pervasive, they are often invoked without an explicit awareness of their presence. Prepared as part of the study on the Mathematical Sciences in 2025, a broad assessment of the current state of the mathematical sciences in the United States, Fueling Innovation and Discovery presents mathematical sciences advances in an engaging way. The report describes the contributions that mathematical sciences research has made to advance our understanding of the universe and the human genome. It also explores how the mathematical sciences are contributing to healthcare and national security, and the importance of mathematical knowledge and training to a range of industries, such as information technology and entertainment. Fueling Innovation and Discovery will be of use to policy makers, researchers, business leaders, students, and others interested in learning more about the deep connections between the mathematical sciences and every other aspect of the modern world. To function well in a technologically advanced society, every educated person should be familiar with multiple aspects of the mathematical sciences.

Half a Century of Pythagoras Magazine

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Author: Alex Van Den Brandhof,Jan Guichelaar,Arnout Jaspers

Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America

ISBN: 0883855879

Category: Mathematics

Page: 302

View: 3494

Half a Century of Pythagoras Magazine is a selection of the best and most inspiring articles from this Dutch magazine for recreational mathematics. Founded in 1961 and still thriving today, Pythagoras has given generations of high school students in the Netherlands a perspective on the many branches of mathematics that are not taught in schools. The book contains a mix of easy, yet original puzzles, more challenging - and at least as original – problems, as well as playful introductions to a plethora of subjects in algebra, geometry, topology, number theory and more. Concepts like the sudoku and the magic square are given a whole new dimension. One of the first editors was a personal friend of world famous Dutch graphic artist Maurits Escher, whose 'impossible objects' have been a recurring subject over the years. Articles about his work are part of a special section on 'Mathematics and Art'. While many books on recreational mathematics rely heavily on 'folklore', a reservoir of ancient riddles and games that are being recycled over and over again, most of the puzzles and problems in Half a Century of Pythagoras Magazine are original, invented for this magazine by Pythagoras' many editors and authors over the years. Some are no more than cute little brainteasers which can be solved in a minute, others touch on profound mathematics and can keep the reader entranced indefinitely. Smart high school students and anyone else with a sharp and inquisitive mind will find in this book a treasure trove which is rich enough to keep his or her mind engaged for many weeks and months.

Mathematics of the 19th Century

Mathematical Logic, Algebra, Number Theory, Probability Theory

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Author: Andreĭ Nikolaevich Kolmogorov,Adolʹf Pavlovich I͡Ushkevich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783764364410

Category: Mathematics

Page: 308

View: 5201

New Edition - New in Paperback - This is the second revised edition of the first volume of the outstanding collection of historical studies of mathematics in the nineteenth century compiled in three volumes by A. N. Kolmogorov and A. P. Yushkevich. This second edition was carefully revised by Abe Shenitzer, York University, Ontario, Canada. The historical period covered in this book extends from the early nineteenth century up to the end of the 1930s, as neither 1801 nor 1900 are, in themselves, turning points in the history of mathematics, although each date is notable fo a remarkable event: the first for the publication of Gauss' "Disquisitiones arithmeticae," the second for Hilbert's "Mathematical Problems." Beginning in the second quarter of the nineteenth century mathematics underwent a revolution as crucial and profound in its consequences for the general world outlook as the mathematical revolution in the beginning of the modern era. The main changes included a new statement of the problem of the existence of mathematical objects, particulary in the calculus, and soon thereafter the formation of non-standard structures in geometry, arithmetic and algebra. The primary objective of the work has been to treat the evolution of mathematics in the nineteenth century as a whole; the discussion is concentrated on the essential concepts, methods, and algorithms.

Solving Mathematical Problems

A Personal Perspective

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Author: Terence Tao

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0199205612

Category: Mathematics

Page: 103

View: 5813

Authored by a leading name in mathematics, this engaging and clearly presented text leads the reader through the tactics involved in solving mathematical problems at the Mathematical Olympiad level. With numerous exercises and assuming only basic mathematics, this text is ideal for students of14 years and above in pure mathematics.

Infinitesimal

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Author: Amir Alexander

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780745338

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 4019

On August 10, 1632, five leading Jesuits convened in a sombre Roman palazzo to pass judgment on a simple idea: that a continuous line is composed of distinct and limitlessly tiny parts. The doctrine would become the foundation of calculus, but on that fateful day the judges ruled that it was forbidden. With the stroke of a pen they set off a war for the soul of the modern world. Amir Alexander takes us from the bloody religious strife of the sixteenth century to the battlefields of the English civil war and the fierce confrontations between leading thinkers like Galileo and Hobbes. The legitimacy of popes and kings, as well as our modern beliefs in human liberty and progressive science, hung in the balance; the answer hinged on the infinitesimal. Pulsing with drama and excitement, Infinitesimal will forever change the way you look at a simple line.