The Local Configuration of New Research Fields

On Regional and National Diversity

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Author: Martina Merz,Philippe Sormani

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319226835

Category: Social Science

Page: 247

View: 2581

This new Yearbook addresses the question of how policy, place, and organization are made to matter for a new research field to emerge. Bringing together leading historians, sociologists, and organizational researchers on science and technology, the volume answers this question by offering in-depth case studies and comparative perspectives on multiple research fields in their nascent stage, including molecular biology and materials science, nanotechnology, and synthetic biology. The Yearbook brings to bear the lessons of constructivist ethnography and the “practice turn” in Science and Technology Studies (STS) more broadly on the qualitative, comparative, and critical inquiry of new research fields. In doing so, it offers unprecedented insights into the complex interplay of national research policies, regional clusters, particular research institutions, and novel research practices in and for any emerging field of (techno-)science. It systematically investigates national and regional differences, including the variable mobilization of such differences, and probes them for organizational topicality and policy relevance.

Organisational Transformation and Scientific Change

The Impact of Institutional Restructuring on Universities and Intellectual Innovation

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Author: Richard Whitley,Jochen Glaser

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1783506830

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 424

View: 9326

The first part of this book deals with the transformation of universities as strategic organisational actors - in some cases creating them as such - while the second shows how governance and authority shifts are affecting the kinds of research goals being pursued by academics in different public science systems.

Disciplines académiques en transformation

Entre innovation et résistance

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Author: Adriana Gorga ,Jean-Philippe Leresche

Publisher: Archives contemporaines

ISBN: 2813001651

Category: Social Science

Page: 267

View: 7179

Que sont devenues les disciplines académiques à l’heure de la globalisation scientifique, de l’hyper-spécialisation des savoirs et de l’interdisciplinarité ? Comment des champs disciplinaires émergent-ils ou se reconfigurent-ils, à partir de quels acteurs, orientations, ressources, discours et référentiels et comment d’autres tendent-ils à s’affaiblir, voire peut-être à disparaître… ou à résister et à se développer ? Dans cet ouvrage, les disciplines sont abordées à la fois comme instances de savoir et comme des institutions de contrôle social et politique. Elles constituent des lieux de pouvoir et de reproduction du pouvoir qui se manifestent autant à travers l’innovation scientifique et pédagogique que les résistances institutionnelles. Comme lieux traditionnels de reproduction des savoirs, les universités sont en partie structurées par les disciplines à travers notamment leur organisation, la gestion des carrières académiques, la production des plans d’études, la délivrance des diplômes ou les logiques et supports des publications. A partir de divers points de vue disciplinaires (sociologie, sciences de l’éducation, science politique et histoire), cet ouvrage cherche à entrer dans la « black box » des disciplines académiques à partir de quatre lieux d’observation principaux (gouvernance universitaire, recherche scientifique, pratiques curriculaires et pédagogiques et travail académique) choisis dans de nombreux pays (Belgique, Chine, Danemark, Espagne, Etats-Unis, France, Grande-Bretagne, Italie, Norvège, Portugal, Suisse). Avec des contributions de : Jean-Émile CHARLIER, Sarah CROCHÉ, Frédéric DARBELLAY, Farinaz FASSA, Anne-Vaïa FOURADOULAS, Priska GISLER, Gaële GOASTELLEC, Adriana GORGA, Sabine KRADOLFER, Monika KURATH, Denis LEMAÎTRE, Jean-Philippe LERESCHE, Séverine LOUVEL, Marte MANGSET, Martina MERZ, Enrico NATALE, Marianne NOËL, Catherine PARADEISE, Christophe PÉBARTHE, Cristina SIN, Miguel SOUTO LOPEZ, Jean-Claude THOENIG, Dominique VINCK

Perspectives on Social Media

A Yearbook

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Author: Piet Kommers,Pedro Isaias,Tomayess Issa

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113501101X

Category: Education

Page: 192

View: 8284

Perspectives on Social Media presents the most current research on the effectiveness of social media across sectors. Progress in finding better applications for social media relies on the difficult task of integrating media technologies into fields such as engineering, marketing, health, learning, art, tourism, and the service industry. This book is based on cutting-edge creative work among top international researchers and renowned designers and provides readers with a preview of the most visionary outcomes in the field of social media. Some of the major topics that the book discusses are: New social media design Sense of community in web applications App design and development for mobile devices. Perspectives on Social Media uniquely builds on recent disputes among the top scholars around the world, thus including the dynamics of knowledge-sharing and cross-fertilization that one would expect to happen on the web but that are rarely found in a book.

Le gouvernement des disciplines académiques

Acteurs, dynamiques, instruments, échelles

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Author: Martin Benninghoff,Cécile Crespy,Jean-Émile Charlier,Jean-Philippe Leresche,Collectif

Publisher: Archives contemporaines

ISBN: 2813002305

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 5383

Comment les disciplines sont-elles gouvernées? Comment se transforme le gouvernement des disciplines? Comment les modalités d’allocation des ressources matérielles et symboliques évoluent-elles entre les disciplines? Le gouvernement des disciplines agit-il sur la convergence ou la différenciation disciplinaire? Le gouvernement des disciplines est-il travaillé par une pluralité de logiques (académique, scientifique, managériale, économique), ou n’est-il plus guidé que par des logiques qui découlent d’injonctions néolibérales et managériales? Quels instruments d’action publique permettent de défendre les disciplines et quels sont ceux qui, au contraire, en fragilisent les frontières? Basé sur des enquêtes empiriques, cet ouvrage appréhende le gouvernement des disciplines à partir du travail sur les frontières épistémiques, du jeu d’échelles local/global et des instruments d’action publique. La diversité des contextes analysés (France, Royaume-Uni, Suisse, Belgique, Roumanie et Rwanda), les différentes disciplines étudiées (sciences pour l’ingénieur, chimie verte, science politique, géologie, sciences du vivant, médecine, génomique, micro-électronique) permettent de souligner que le gouvernement des disciplines est un processus complexe dont la configuration n’est pas imposée par la simple nécessité de s’adapter au contexte. Au contraire, il implique des médiations plurielles entre injonctions interdisciplinaires et «forces de rappel» disciplinaires, des découplages entre activités d’enseignement et de recherche, des dynamiques en lien avec les demandes sociales et les instruments du «gouvernement à distance».

Biology, Computing, and the History of Molecular Sequencing

From Proteins to DNA, 1945-2000

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Author: Miguel García-Sancho

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 0230250327

Category: History

Page: 242

View: 8890

Sequencing is often associated with the Human Genome Project and celebrated achievements concerning the DNA molecule. However, the history of this practice comprises not only academic biology, but also the world of computer-assisted information management. The book uncovers this history, qualifying the hype and expectations around genomics.

Yearbook of International Organizations 2010/2011

Guide to Global and Civil Society Networks: Organization Descriptions and Cross-Reference

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Author: Union of International Associations,Union of International Associations Staff

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783110230314

Category: Political Science

Page: 2984

View: 1814

Yearbook of International Organizations is the most comprehensive reference resource and provides current details of international non-governmental (NGO) and intergovernmental organizations (IGO). Collected and documented by the Union of International Associations (UIA), detailed information on international organizations worldwide can be found here. Besides historical and organizational information, details on activities, events or publications, contact details, biographies of the leading individuals as well as the presentation of networks of organizations are included.

Practicing Art/Science

Experiments in an Emerging Field

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Author: Philippe Sormani,Guelfo Carbone,Priska Gisler

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351708074

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 2686

Over the last two decades, multiple initiatives of transdisciplinary collaboration across art, science, and technology have seen the light of day. Why, by whom, and under what circumstances are such initiatives promoted? What does their experimental character look like - and what can be learned, epistemologically and institutionally, from probing the multiple practices of "art/science" at work? In answer to the questions raised, Practicing Art/Science contrasts topical positions and insightful case studies, ranging from the detailed investigation of "art at the nanoscale" to the material analysis of Leonardo’s Mona Lisa and its cracked smile. In so doing, this volume brings to bear the "practice turn" in science and technology studies on the empirical investigation of multifaceted experimentation across contemporary art, science, and technology in situ. Against the background of current discourse on "artistic research," the introduction not only explains the particular relevance of the "practice turn" in STS to tackle the interdisciplinary task at hand, but offers also a timely survey of varying strands of artistic experimentation. In bringing together ground-breaking studies from internationally renowned scholars and upcoming researchers in sociology, art theory and artistic practice, as well as history and philosophy of science, Practicing Art/Science will be essential reading for practitioners and professionals in said fields, as well as postgraduate students and representatives of higher education and research policy more broadly.

Flood Risk Management: Research and Practice

Extended Abstracts Volume (332 pages) + full paper CD-ROM (1772 pages)

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Author: Paul Samuels,Stephen Huntington,William Allsop,Jackie Harrop

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203883020

Category: Science

Page: 1772

View: 8424

Floods cause distress and damage wherever and whenever they happen. Flooding from rivers, estuaries and the sea threatens many millions of people worldwide and economic and insurance losses from flooding have increased significantly since 1990. Across the European Union, flood management policy is changing in response to the EU Directive on the assessment and management of flood risks, which requires a move from flood protection and defence to comprehensive flood risk management. Flood Risk Management: Research and Practice includes about 200 contributions from the international conference FLOODrisk 2008 (Oxford, UK, 30 September – 2 October 2008). FLOODrisk 2008 was an initiative of the FLOODsite research project on Integrated Flood Risk Analysis and Management Methodologies. FLOODsite was a major “Integrated Project” in the European Commission Sixth Framework Programme; contract number GOCE-CT-2004-505420. The conference provided a forum for leading researchers, flood risk managers, policy makers and practitioners from government, commercial and research organisations to gain an overview of advances in this important subject. Flood risk management practice crosses several professions and disciplines and these are represented in the breadth of the scope of the conference and these proceedings. The conference covered all aspects of flood risk: the causes of floods, their impacts on people, property and the environment, and portfolios of risk management measuresm, while the principal themes included: climate change, estimation of extremes, flash floods, flood forecasting and warning, inundation modelling, systems analysis, uncertainty, international programmes, flood defence infrastructure and assets, environmental impacts, human and social impacts, vulnerability and resilience, risk sharing, equity and social justice, and, civil contingency planning and emergency management. Flood Risk Management: Research and Practice will be of interest to an international readership, ranging from authorities, consultants and engineers involved in flood management; researchers, post graduate lecturers and students, to policy makers, particularly at national level.

The Oxford Handbook of Diversity in Organizations

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Author: Regine Bendl,Inge Bleijenbergh,Elina Henttonen,Albert J. Mills

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199679800

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 635

View: 2762

Description of the foundations of organizing and managing diversities, and multidisciplinary, intersectional and critical analyses on key issues.

Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research

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Author: Institute of Medicine,National Academy of Engineering,National Academy of Sciences,Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy,Committee on Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309165488

Category: Science

Page: 332

View: 4780

Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research examines current interdisciplinary research efforts and recommends ways to stimulate and support such research. Advances in science and engineering increasingly require the collaboration of scholars from various fields. This shift is driven by the need to address complex problems that cut across traditional disciplines, and the capacity of new technologies to both transform existing disciplines and generate new ones. At the same time, however, interdisciplinary research can be impeded by policies on hiring, promotion, tenure, proposal review, and resource allocation that favor traditional disciplines. This report identifies steps that researchers, teachers, students, institutions, funding organizations, and disciplinary societies can take to more effectively conduct, facilitate, and evaluate interdisciplinary research programs and projects. Throughout the report key concepts are illustrated with case studies and results of the committee’s surveys of individual researchers and university provosts.

World Yearbook of Education 2016

The Global Education Industry

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Author: Antoni Verger,Christopher Lubienski,Gita Steiner-Khamsi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317518713

Category: Education

Page: 294

View: 9754

This latest volume in the World Yearbook of Education series examines the global education industry both in OECD* countries as well as developing countries, and presents the works of scholars based in different parts of the word who have significantly contributed to this area of research. Focusing on the areas of cross-over in public-private partnerships in education, WYBE 2016 critically examines the actors and factors that have propelled the global rise of the education industry. Split into three key sections, Part I explores how education agendas are shaped; Part II considers the private financing of education and the export of school improvements to professional consultancies; and Part III analyses new market niches, such as low-fee private schooling and for-profit education provisions. The book draws upon case studies of many global organizations, including: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation Pearson Affordable Learning Fund Bridge International Academies Teach for All Omega Schools Co-edited by three internationally renowned scholars, Antoni Verger, Christopher Lubienski and Gita Steiner-Khamsi, WYBE 2016 will be a valuable resource for researchers, graduates and policy makers who are interested in the global education industry. *Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

The Social Process of Scientific Investigation

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Author: W.R. Knorr,R. Krohn,Richard P. Whitley

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400991096

Category: History

Page: 328

View: 9764

practice, some of which is translated into the standard forms of public discourse, in publication, and then retranslated by readers and adapted again to local practice at self-selected other sites. Less may be left implicit, and additional personal and contextual information is carried, by the "informal" methods of communication which mediate local projects and international publication. But both methods of communication are screens as well as conduits of information. History and Background of the Volume When the planning of this volume began in the spring of 1977, it seemed a natural part of the mandate for the Yearbook. There had also been a number of more specific calls for deeper studies of research in social and historical context (3). These calls can be seen as giving permission and legitimacy to ask questions otherwise seen as irrelevant, or even disrespectful, and as attempts to develop new perspectives from which to ask and to answer them. The implied and expressed irreverence toward traditions and institutions of great respect may have prolonged this process of initial apologetics. In any case, in May 1977 the theme of 'The Social Process of Scientific Investigation' was proposed to the Editorial Board for Volume IV as "the heart of the subject. " That is, the ethnographic and detailed historical study of actual scientific activity and thinking at or close to the work site.

Islam in Denmark

The Challenge of Diversity

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Author: Jørgen S. Nielsen

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 0739150928

Category: History

Page: 261

View: 4672

As a small country in western Europe, Denmark shares much of the regions experiences with the immigration and settlement of Muslims. But there are also differences, some significant, which can lead observers to misjudge events such as the cartoons affair of 2005-6. The 14 chapters in this volume present, for the first time in English, the fruits of extensive research and experience of the particular character of Islam in Denmark.

Silent Spring

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Author: Rachel Carson

Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

ISBN: 9780618249060

Category: Nature

Page: 378

View: 5175

Discusses the reckless annihilation of fish and birds by the use of pesticides and warns of the possible genetic effects on humans.

Scientific Understanding

Philosophical Perspectives

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Author: Henk W. de Regt,Sabina Leonelli,Kai Eigner

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 0822971240

Category: Science

Page: 365

View: 8764

To most scientists, and to those interested in the sciences, understanding is the ultimate aim of scientific endeavor. In spite of this, understanding, and how it is achieved, has received little attention in recent philosophy of science. Scientific Understanding seeks to reverse this trend by providing original and in-depth accounts of the concept of understanding and its essential role in the scientific process. To this end, the chapters in this volume explore and develop three key topics: understanding and explanation, understanding and models, and understanding in scientific practice. Earlier philosophers, such as Carl Hempel, dismissed understanding as subjective and pragmatic. They believed that the essence of science was to be found in scientific theories and explanations. In Scientific Understanding, the contributors maintain that we must also consider the relation between explanations and the scientists who construct and use them. They focus on understanding as the cognitive state that is a goal of explanation and on the understanding of theories and models as a means to this end. The chapters in this book highlight the multifaceted nature of the process of scientific research. The contributors examine current uses of theory, models, simulations, and experiments to evaluate the degree to which these elements contribute to understanding. Their analyses pay due attention to the roles of intelligibility, tacit knowledge, and feelings of understanding. Furthermore, they investigate how understanding is obtained within diverse scientific disciplines and examine how the acquisition of understanding depends on specific contexts, the objects of study, and the stated aims of research.

The Study Of Educational Politics

The 1994 Commemorative Yearbook Of The Politics Of Education Association 1969-1994

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Author: Jay D. Scribner,Donald H. Layton

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135718490

Category: Education

Page: 240

View: 5784

This text is intended to be of use as a guide for students, scholars and researchers of the politics of education and of educational policy studies. The comprehensive work surveys major trends between 1969 and 1994, with chapters synthesising political and policy developments at local, national and state levels in the US as well as in the international arena. The text contains in-depth examinations of the emerging micropolitics of the field of education as well as policy analysis and cultural and feminist studies, and bibliographies are provided at the end of each chapter.; Designed as both a text and a reference volume, this special yearbook was planned in conjunction with the 25th anniversary of the Politics of Education Association in 1994.

Knowledge, Power and Dissent

Critical Perspectives on Higher Education and Research in Knowledge Society

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Author: Guy R. Neave

Publisher: UNESCO

ISBN: 9231040405

Category: Science

Page: 382

View: 7864

This publication is based on the discussions of the 2004 Global Colloquium on Research and Higher Education Policy of the UNESCO Forum for Higher Education, Research and Knowledge, held in Paris in December 2004. It contains contributions from 17 international experts in the field of higher education which explore the global rise of the 'knowledge society' and its implications for higher education and for sustainable human development in the future.

Respecifying Lab Ethnography

An Ethnomethodological Study of Experimental Physics

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Author: Philippe Sormani

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317064925

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 552

Respecifying Lab Ethnography delivers the first ethnomethodological study of current experimental physics in action, describing the disciplinary orientation of lab work and exploring the discipline in its social order, formal stringency and skilful performance - in situ and in vivo. Drawing upon extensive participant observation, this book articulates and draws upon two major strands of ethnomethodological inquiry: reflexive ethnography and video analysis. In bringing together these two approaches, which have hitherto existed in parallel, Respecifying Lab Ethnography introduces a practice-based video analysis. In doing so, the book recasts conventional distinctions to shed fresh light on methodological issues surrounding the descriptive investigation of social practices more broadly. An engaged and innovative study of the encountered worksite, this book will appeal not only to sociologists with interests in ethnomethodology and the sociology of work, but also to scholars of science and technology studies and those working in the fields of ethnography and social science methodology.