The Law & Politics of the Caspian Sea in the Twenty-first Century

The Positions and Views of Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, with Special Reference to Iran

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Author: Bahman Āqāyī,Bahman Aghai Diba

Publisher: Ibex Publishers, Inc.

ISBN: 158814027X

Category: Law

Page: 182

View: 6066

The Caspian Sea has been the focus of states and peoples in and out of the area for the last decade. The surrounding states are interested in getting a decent share of the lake's resources. The industrial states are interested in taking the oil, gas and other natural wealth of the Caspian Sea to world markets as soon as possible. The populations of the littoral states, which are all ruled by undemocratic regimes, are concerned with whether their governments will retain their just rights in the Caspian Sea. They realise that the highest priority for their current rulers is to keep their grip on power, not their nation's present or future interests. How have the respective governments in Azerbaijan, the Federation of Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and especially, Iran, thought and acted in regard to the situation of the Caspian Sea and their interests? The issue has a special reference to Iran because it is experiencing a terrible situation in regard to the Caspian Sea due to the poor management of its foreign policy and international relations. Iran will end up with the smallest share of the Caspian Sea, whether it likes it or not. This is a serious setback for a country that once shared the Caspian Sea with the former Soviet Union. Iran's mismanagement of its Caspian Sea rights is a political and diplomatic lesson in what not to do. This book gives everyone, even those without legal or political backgrounds in this issue, an opportunity to survey the facts and history; and to analyse the legal and political realities of the present political situation of the world's largest lake.

A Diplomatic History of the Caspian Sea

Treaties, Diaries and Other Stories

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Author: G. Mirfendereski

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230107575

Category: Political Science

Page: 261

View: 7685

In a series of short stories that both inform and amuse, this book transports the reader across the windswept shores of the Caspian Sea and provides a provocative view of the wars, peace, intrigues, and betrayals that have shaped the political geography of this important and volatile region. The demise of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the eclipsing of the old Iranian-Soviet regime of the sea have given rise to new challenges for the regional actors and unprecedented opportunities for international players to tap into the area's enormous oil and gas resources, third in size only behind Siberia and the Persian Gulf. This book explores the historical themes that inform and animate the more immediate and familiar discussions about petroleum, pipelines, and ethnic conflict in the Caspian region.

The Legal Status of the Caspian Sea

Current Challenges and Prospects for Future Development

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Author: Barbara Janusz-Pawletta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3662447304

Category: Law

Page: 176

View: 1707

This book analyzes the legal and economic situation concerning the removal and allocation of the natural resources in the Caspian Sea – the largest enclosed body of salt water in the world, which not only constitutes a fragile ecosystem with great fishery resources, but is also rich in oil and gas deposits. The economic advantages gained from the development of oil and gas are the basis for the economic and social development of the riparian states, but also cause significant transboundary harm to the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea. The book contends that, if the local environment grows more heavily contaminated through the extraction of mineral resources, it could lead to environmentally induced violence. It describes the ongoing conflicts, which are primarily due to various riparian states’ territorial claims concerning the extraction of oil and gas resources, and argues that the current legal framework on the use and protection of the Caspian Sea is obsolete. Thus, the main objective of the book is to point out corresponding international legal mechanisms that could be used in order to settle these disputes and protect the Caspian Sea’s fragile environment from transboundary harm.

Energy, Economics, and Politics in the Caspian Region

Dreams and Realities

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Author: Maureen S. Crandall

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275991302

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 245

View: 3738

Assesses the potential energy reserves of the Caspian region as an alternative source of oil for industrialized countries.

The Security of the Caspian Sea Region

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Author: Gennadiĭ Illarionovich Chufrin,Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780199250202

Category: Political Science

Page: 375

View: 8628

Over the past decade the Caspian Sea region has risen from relative obscurity to considerable prominence in global affairs. Located at the crossroads of traditional trade routes between Europe and Asia and possessing vast natural resources, oil and natural gas among them, it attracts widespread international interest. The emergence of new sovereign states in the region has fundamentally transformed its political landscape. The future of the Caspian region is far from certain, however, as it is challenged by a wide variety of political, socio-economic and military threats which include the declining living standards of vast segments of local populations, inter-ethnic and inter-confessional tensions and conflicts, militant separatism, international terrorism, and illegal trade in arms and drugs. The security of the region is also affected by the intensifying strategic competition among major outside powers over establishing their political and economic influence in regional affairs. The book offers a competent analysis of the major political, economic and security developments in the region by a diverse group of highly qualified experts from the Caspian littoral states, the USA and the European Union.

Oil and Geopolitics in the Caspian Sea Region

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Author: Michael P. Croissant,Bülent Aras

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275963958

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 305

View: 3737

The scramble for access to the vast energy riches of the Caspian Sea basin on the part of regional and global powers has become one of the most important geopolitical developments of the post-Cold War era. This essay collection offers diverse interpretations of the struggle for Caspian oil and its importance in shaping the geopolitical map of Eurasia in the 21st Century.

The Caspian Sea

A Quest for Environmental Security

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Author: William Ascher,Natalia Mirovitskaya

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401140324

Category: Social Science

Page: 364

View: 4558

This volume is based on the presentations and deliberations of an Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) "Caspian Sea: A Quest for Environmental Security" that was held on March 15-19, 1999, in Venice (Italy). The Workshop was sponsored by the NATO's Division for Scientific and Environmental Affairs, with additional support provided by the Trust for Mutual Understanding (USA). It was organized by Duke University's Center for International Development Research with the guidance of the International Committee of scientists from Russia, United States. Georgia and Italy and organizational assistance rendered by Venice International University. The Caspian Sea region is of profound importance from the perspective of global and regional environmental security. New geopolitical and economic circumstances have created a mixture of competition. reluctant collaboration, and legal, political, economic and ideological wrangling. There is an intense debate over how the Caspian and its resources should be divided among littoral states and how these resources are to be developed. While most littoral states and the international companies strive to develop the area's immense hydrocarbon potential, it is clear that the Caspian's unique and fragile ecosystem is at risk.

Boundary Politics and International Boundaries of Iran

A Study of the Origin, Evolution, and Implications of the Boundaries of Modern Iran with Its 1

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Author: Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1581129335

Category: Political Science

Page: 372

View: 6027

This book is about Iranian boundaries at a time when crisis of various nature are occurring around Iran, especially in Iraq and Afghanistan, with immediate effect on the Iranian borderlands and substantial effect of Iran's relations with her neighbours. Furthermore, issues like the legal regime of the Caspian Sea and the UAE claims on the Iranian-owned and Iranian-held islands of Tunbs and Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf create a situation in Iran's neighbourhood, which influence her foreign relations and engage the country in matters of international importance. Occurrence of all these issues on and around the boundaries of Iran and a thorough study of the unexplored foundation and evolution of these issues within the framework of the study of the Iranian boundaries make this book timely, special, original, and important.

The Caspian Sea Environment

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Author: Andrey G. Kostianoy,Aleksey N. Kosarev

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540282815

Category: Nature

Page: 271

View: 5564

The systematic description of the knowledge accumulated on the physical oceanography, marine chemistry and pollution, and marine biology of the Caspian Sea forms the basis of this book. It presents the principal characteristic features of the environmental conditions of the sea and their changes in the second half of the 20th century. At present, the principal problems of the Caspian Sea are related to the interannual sea level changes and their forecast and to the estimation of the intensity of the chemical pollution of the sea and its impact upon the biota. Special attention is paid to socio-economic, legal, and political issues in the Caspian Sea region. This publication is based on numerous observational data collected by the authors of the chapters during sea expeditions, on the archive data of several Russian oceanographic institutions, as well as on the broad scientific literature mainly published in Russian editions. This book is addressed to the specialists concerned with research in various fields of physical oceanography, marine chemistry, pollution studies, and biology; solving a wide scope of problems from the regional climate to the mesoscale processes; and using a variety of methods from remote sensing of the seas to numerical and laboratory modeling.

The Oil and the Glory

The Pursuit of Empire and Fortune on the Caspian Sea

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Author: Steve Levine

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1588366464

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 7733

Remote, forbidding, and volatile, the Caspian Sea long tantalized the world with its vast oil reserves. But outsiders, blocked by the closed Soviet system, couldn’t get to it. Then the Soviet Union collapsed, and a wholesale rush into the region erupted. Along with oilmen, representatives of the world’s leading nations flocked to the Caspian for a share of the thirty billion barrels of proven oil reserves at stake, and a tense geopolitical struggle began. The main players were Moscow and Washington–the former seeking to retain control of its satellite states, and the latter intent on dislodging Russia to the benefit of the West. The Oil and the Glory is the gripping account of this latest phase in the epochal struggle for control of the earth’s “black gold.” Steve LeVine, who was based in the region for The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, and Newsweek, weaves an astonishing tale of high-stakes political gamesmanship, greed, and scandal, set in one of the most opaque corners of the world. In LeVine’s telling, the world’s energy giants jockey for position in the rich Kazakh and Azeri oilfields, while superpowers seek to gain a strategic foothold in the region and to keep each other in check. At the heart of the story is the contest to build and operate energy pipelines out of the landlocked region, the key to controlling the Caspian and its oil. The oil pipeline that resulted, the longest in the world, is among Washington’s greatest foreign policy triumphs in at least a decade and a half. Along the way, LeVine introduces such players as James Giffen, an American moneyman who was also the political “fixer” for oil companies eager to do business on the Caspian and the broker for Kazakhstan’s president and ministers; John Deuss, the flamboyant Dutch oil trader who won big but lost even bigger; Heydar Aliyev, the oft-misunderstood Azeri president who transcended his past as a Soviet Politburo member and masterminded a scheme to loosen Russian control over its former colonies in the Caspian region; and all manner of rogues, adventurers, and others drawn by the irresistible pull of untold riches and the possible “final frontier” of the fossil-fuel era. The broader story is of the geopolitical questions of the Caspian oil bonanza, such as whether Russia can be a trusted ally and trading partner with the West, and what Washington’s entry into this important but chaotic region will mean for its long-term stability. In an intense and suspenseful narrative, The Oil and the Glory is the definitive chronicle of events that are understood by few, but whose political and economic impact will be both profound and lasting.

WHEEL OF FORTUNE

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Author: Thane Gustafson

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674070798

Category: History

Page: 672

View: 7543

The world’s largest exporter of oil is facing mounting problems that could send shock waves through every major economy. Gustafson provides an authoritative account of the Russian oil industry from the last years of communism to its uncertain future. The stakes extend beyond global energy security to include the threat of a destabilized Russia.

The Oil Road

Journeys From The Caspian Sea To The City Of London

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Author: James Marriott,Mika Minio-Paluello

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1844679276

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 8896

From Caspian drilling rigs and Caucasus mountain villages to Mediterranean fishing communities and European capitals, this is a journey through the heart of our oil-obsessed society. Blending travel writing and investigative journalism, it charts a history of violent confrontation between geopolitics, profit and humanity. From the revolutionary futurism of 1920s Baku to the unblinking capitalism of modern London, this book reveals the relentless drive to control fossil fuels. Harrowing, powerful and insightful, The Oil Road maps the true cost of oil.

The Caspian Sea Encyclopedia

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Author: Igor S. Zonn,Aleksey N Kosarev,Michael H. Glantz,Andrey G. Kostianoy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642115240

Category: Science

Page: 525

View: 8123

“The Caspian Sea Encyclopedia” is the second one in the new series of encyclo- dias about the seas of the former Soviet Union published by Springer-Verlag. The ?rst volume – “The Aral Sea Encyclopedia” was published by Springer in 2009. The series will be continued by “The Black Sea Encyclopedia” in 2010. Today the Caspian Sea is known to readers thanks to its oil and gas resources, sturgeon and caviar, signi?cant sea-level variations, socio-economic and political problems. The Caucasus and Central Asia (http://eurodialogue. org/?les/fckeditor_?les/Caspian-s- map2. png) vii viii Introduction For more than 250 years the Caspian Sea was shared by two states: Russia (the Soviet Union) and Persia (Iran). After the disintegration of the USSR in 1992, the new independent states of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan have radically changed the political and economic situation in the region. In addition to Russia and Iran, who had determined the situation on the Caspian for a long period, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan are now interested parties, beginning a new stage in the historical development of the Caspian region. This increase in the number of the Caspian legal entities from two to ?ve has given rise to a whole tangle of geopolitical, economic, international legal, ethnic and environmental problems, each of which demands its own approach and settlement mechanism.

The New Politics of Energy Security in the European Union and Beyond

States, Markets, Institutions

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Author: Andrea Prontera

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317022696

Category: Political Science

Page: 244

View: 7492

Combining theoretical reflections and empirical insights from paradigmatic case studies in the area of external energy governance, pipeline politics, Liquefied Natural Gas development and offshore petroleum policy and politics, this ground-breaking study demonstrates that a distinctive and new politics of energy security is definitively emerging in the European Union. Innovative not only in regard to the case studies presented (which include the Caspian region, the Baltic, Mediterrean countries, Central Asia and EU-Russia relations), but also in regard to the analytical framework adopted – an International Political Economy approach informed by an historical institutional perspective – the book challenges the common view of the ‘de-politicisation’ of energy security supported by the mainstream market approach and the power politics and ‘zero-sum game’ view supported by the geopolitical perspective. This book places the study of EU energy politics in the broader, evolving context of global energy markets and explores the complex interactions between EU and national political dynamics and between energy security and environmental concerns at the local level.

The Caspian Sea Chessboard

Geo-Political, Geo-Strategic And Geo-Economic Analysis

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Author: Carlo Frappi,Azad Garibov

Publisher: EGEA spa

ISBN: 8823813638

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

View: 6338

Stuck in the middle of different as well as relevant regional complexes, the Caspian Sea basin represents a critical geopolitical hub in the heart of Eurasia landmass. Political, economic as well as strategic considerations contribute to determine the systemic relevance of the Caspian Sea, whose reputation in the West is mainly linked to the vast availability of largely untapped oil and gas resources. However, behind the fierce competition aimed at the exploitation and transportation of the basin’s hydrocarbons lies a much more complex picture, consisting of interlinked legal, military and soft power issues and threats. Aim of the volume – result of a joint research project conducted by the Center for Strategic Studies under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan (SAM, Baku) and the Institute for International Political Studies (ISPI, Milan) – is to address the relevance of the Caspian Sea in the post-bipolar international system, analyzing both soft and had security threats emerging form the basin, as well as the policies of littoral and extra-regional actors.

The Caspian

Politics, Energy and Security

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Author: Shirin Akiner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135798508

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 432

View: 8865

The Caspian redefines a Caspian debate long characterized by one-sided and politically motivated analyses and, at times, fantastic reporting. Bringing together a range of influential voices from academia, the media, the oil industry, civil service, the military and diplomatic corps, this book rewrites the region's recent history.

The Politics of the Black Sea Region

EU Neighbourhood, Conflict Zone or Future Security Community?

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Author: Carol Weaver

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131701992X

Category: Political Science

Page: 178

View: 4877

The Black Sea region is a dynamic and complex area in which many national and international actors have key interests, including Russia and the US. The European Union stretches to the sea’s western coast where it meets former Soviet territory as well as EU candidate Turkey. Regional tensions include those over NATO enlargement, a US anti-ballistic missile system, access to the Black Sea, democratization, spheres of interest and the conflict zones of Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Transnistria. In addition, the region’s close proximity to the Caspian basin offers the prospect of alternative energy resources and routes to western states. The Politics of the Black Sea Region: EU Neighbourhood, Conflict Zone or Future Security Community? explores and examines the many diverse political, security and economic interests that affect the region and the possible outcomes for it. By reviewing the wider history and examining the political systems and policies of the Black Sea nations and organizations as well as analyzing current tensions and future trends, it provides an invaluable, comprehensive and unique political guide to this fascinating area.

International Energy Policy, the Arctic and the Law of the Sea

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Author: University of Virginia. Center for Oceans Law and Policy. Conference

Publisher: Center for Oceans Law and Poli

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 339

View: 1464

Maritime policy and energy resources: Russia, China, United States. Also discusses Iceland, Turkey, Black Sea, Caspian Sea, Arctic.

The Politics of the Caspian Oil

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Author: B. Gokay

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0333977637

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 4100

The Caspian-Caucasus region has received considerable attention over the past eight years. The old potential of this colossal territory is so significant that the analytical centres of the world's largest oil and refining companies consider it to be more long-term than the unstable Persian Gulf. The Politics of Caspian Oil is a collection of essays presenting the results of recent research, which should serve as a reference book for the politics of Caspian oil.

The Captive and the Gift

Cultural Histories of Sovereignty in Russia and the Caucasus

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Author: Bruce Grant

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801475412

Category: History

Page: 188

View: 5145

In this work the anthropologist Bruce Grant explores the long relationship between Russia and the Caucasus and the means by which sovereignty has been exercised in this contested area.