The INS on the Line

Making Immigration Law on the US-Mexico Border, 1917-1954

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Author: S. Deborah Kang

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199757437

Category:

Page: 296

View: 3437

"For much of the twentieth century, Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) officials recognized that the US-Mexico border region was a special case. Here, the INS confronted a set of political, social, and environmental obstacles that prevented it from replicating its achievements at the immigration stations of Angel Island and Ellis Island. In response to these challenges, local INS officials resorted to the law--amending, nullifying, and even rewriting the nation's immigration laws for the borderlands, as well as enforcing them. In The INS on the Line, S. Deborah Kang traces the ways in which the INS on the US-Mexico border made the nation's immigration laws over the course of the twentieth century. While the INS is primarily thought to be a law enforcement agency, Kang demonstrates that the agency also defined itself as a lawmaking body. Through a nuanced examination of the agency's admission, deportation, and enforcement practices in the Southwest, she reveals how local immigration officials constructed a complex approach to border control, one that closed the line in the name of nativism and national security, opened it for the benefit of transnational economic and social concerns, and redefined it as a vast legal jurisdiction for the policing of undocumented immigrants. Despite its contingent and local origins, this composite approach to border control, Kang concludes, continues to inform the daily operations of the nation's immigration agencies, American immigration law and policy, and conceptions of this border today"--

The INS on the Line

Making Immigration Law on the US-Mexico Border, 1917-1954

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Author: S. Deborah Kang

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190655240

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 3352

For much of the twentieth century, Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) officials recognized that the US-Mexico border region was different. Here, they confronted a set of political, social, and environmental obstacles that prevented them from replicating their achievements on Angel Island and Ellis Island, the most restrictive immigration stations in the nation. In response to these challenges, local INS officials resorted to the law, nullifying, modifying, and creating the nation's immigration laws and policies for the borderlands. In The INS on the Line, S. Deborah Kang traces the ways in which the INS on the US-Mexico border made and remade the nation's immigration laws over the course of the twentieth century. Through a nuanced examination of the agency's legal innovations in the Southwest, Kang demonstrates that the agency defined itself not only as a law enforcement unit but also as a lawmaking body. In this role, the INS responded to the interests of local residents, businesses, politicians, and social organizations on both sides of the US-Mexico border as well as policymakers in Washington, DC. Given the sheer variety of local and federal demands, local immigration officials constructed a complex approach to border control, an approach that closed the line in the name of nativism and national security, opened it for the benefit of transnational economic and social concerns, and redefined it as a vast legal jurisdiction for the policing of undocumented immigrants. The composite approach to border control developed by the INS continues to inform the daily operations of the nation's immigration agencies, American immigration law and policy, and conceptions of the US-Mexico border today.

The INS on the Line

Making Immigration Law on the US-Mexico Border, 1917-1954

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Author: S. Deborah Kang

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190655232

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 7348

For much of the twentieth century, Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) officials recognized that the US-Mexico border region was different. Here, they confronted a set of political, social, and environmental obstacles that prevented them from replicating their achievements on Angel Island and Ellis Island, the most restrictive immigration stations in the nation. In response to these challenges, local INS officials resorted to the law, nullifying, modifying, and creating the nation's immigration laws and policies for the borderlands. In The INS on the Line, S. Deborah Kang traces the ways in which the INS on the US-Mexico border made and remade the nation's immigration laws over the course of the twentieth century. Through a nuanced examination of the agency's legal innovations in the Southwest, Kang demonstrates that the agency defined itself not only as a law enforcement unit but also as a lawmaking body. In this role, the INS responded to the interests of local residents, businesses, politicians, and social organizations on both sides of the US-Mexico border as well as policymakers in Washington, DC. Given the sheer variety of local and federal demands, local immigration officials constructed a complex approach to border control, an approach that closed the line in the name of nativism and national security, opened it for the benefit of transnational economic and social concerns, and redefined it as a vast legal jurisdiction for the policing of undocumented immigrants. The composite approach to border control developed by the INS continues to inform the daily operations of the nation's immigration agencies, American immigration law and policy, and conceptions of the US-Mexico border today.

Porous Borders

Multiracial Migrations and the Law in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

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Author: Julian Lim

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 146963550X

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 7612

With the railroad's arrival in the late nineteenth century, immigrants of all colors rushed to the U.S.-Mexico borderlands, transforming the region into a booming international hub of economic and human activity. Following the stream of Mexican, Chinese, and African American migration, Julian Lim presents a fresh study of the multiracial intersections of the borderlands, where diverse peoples crossed multiple boundaries in search of new economic opportunities and social relations. However, as these migrants came together in ways that blurred and confounded elite expectations of racial order, both the United States and Mexico resorted to increasingly exclusionary immigration policies in order to make the multiracial populations of the borderlands less visible within the body politic, and to remove them from the boundaries of national identity altogether. Using a variety of English- and Spanish-language primary sources from both sides of the border, Lim reveals how a borderlands region that has traditionally been defined by Mexican-Anglo relations was in fact shaped by a diverse population that came together dynamically through work and play, in the streets and in homes, through war and marriage, and in the very act of crossing the border.

The Other California

Land, Identity, and Politics on the Mexican Borderlands

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Author: Verónica Castillo-Muñoz

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520966724

Category: History

Page: 192

View: 8932

The Other California is the story of working-class communities and how they constituted the racially and ethnically diverse landscape of Baja California. Packed with new and transformative stories, the book examines the interplay of land reform and migratory labor on the peninsula from 1850 to 1954, as governments, foreign investors, and local communities shaped a vibrant and dynamic borderland alongside the booming cities of Tijuana, Mexicali, and Santa Rosalia. Migration and intermarriage between Mexican women and men from Asia, Europe, and the United States transformed Baja California into a multicultural society. Mixed-race families extended across national borders, forging new local communities, labor relations, and border politics.

They Came to Toil

Newspaper Representations of Mexicans and Immigrants in the Great Depression

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Author: Melita M. Garza

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 1477314059

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 9208

As the Great Depression gripped the United States in the early 1930s, the Hoover administration sought to preserve jobs for Anglo-Americans by targeting Mexicans, including long-time residents and even US citizens, for deportation. Mexicans comprised more than 46 percent of all people deported between 1930 and 1939, despite being only 1 percent of the US population. In all, about half a million people of Mexican descent were deported to Mexico, a "homeland" many of them had never seen, or returned voluntarily in fear of deportation. They Came to Toil investigates how the news reporting of this episode in immigration history created frames for representing Mexicans and immigrants that persist to the present. Melita M. Garza sets the story in San Antonio, a city central to the formation of Mexican American identity, and contrasts how the city's three daily newspapers covered the forced deportations of Mexicans. She shows that the Spanish-language La Prensa not surprisingly provided the fullest and most sympathetic coverage of immigration issues, while the locally owned San Antonio Express and the Hearst chain-owned San Antonio Light varied between supporting Mexican labor and demonizing it. Garza analyzes how these media narratives, particularly in the English-language press, contributed to the racial "othering" of Mexicans and Mexican Americans. Adding an important new chapter to the history of the Long Civil Rights Movement, They Came to Toil brings needed historical context to immigration issues that dominate today's headlines.

The Injustice Never Leaves You

Anti-Mexican Violence in Texas

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Author: Monica Muñoz Martinez

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674989384

Category: History

Page: 370

View: 4149

From 1910 to 1920, Texan vigilantes and law enforcement killed ethnic Mexican residents with impunity. Monica Muñoz Martinez turns to the keepers of this history to create a record of what occurred and how a determined community ensured that victims were not forgotten. Remembering and retelling, she shows, can inscribe justice on a legacy of pain.

Contested Bodies

Pregnancy, Childrearing, and Slavery in Jamaica

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Author: Sasha Turner

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812249186

Category: History

Page: 328

View: 1377

Contested Bodies explores how the end of the transatlantic trade impacted Jamaican slaves and their children. Examining the struggles for control over biological reproduction, Turner shows how central childbearing was to the organization of plantation work, the care of slaves, and the development of their culture.

Dreaming of Gold, Dreaming of Home

Transnationalism and Migration Between the United States and South China, 1882-1943

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Author: Madeline Y. Hsu

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804746878

Category: History

Page: 271

View: 1182

This book is a highly original study of transnationalism among immigrants from the county of Taishan, from which, until 1965, a high percentage of the Chinese in the United States originated. The author vividly depicts the continuing ties between Taishanese remaining in China and their kinsmen seeking their fortune in "Gold Mountain."

Grounds for Dreaming

Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the California Farmworker Movement

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Author: Lori A. Flores

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300196962

Category: Agricultural laborers

Page: 304

View: 6736

Known as "The Salad Bowl of the World," California's Salinas Valley became an agricultural empire due to the toil of diverse farmworkers, including Latinos. A sweeping critical history of how Mexican Americans and Mexican immigrants organized for their rights in the decades leading up to the seminal strikes led by Cesar Chavez, this important work also looks closely at how different groups of Mexicans--U.S. born, bracero, and undocumented--confronted and interacted with one another during this period. An incisive study of labor, migration, race, gender, citizenship, and class, Lori Flores's first book offers crucial insights for today's ever-growing U.S. Latino demographic, the farmworker rights movement, and future immigration policy.

The Rag Race

How Jews Sewed Their Way to Success in America and the British Empire

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Author: Adam D. Mendelsohn

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 1479847186

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 6616

Winner of the 2015 Book Prize from the Southern Jewish Historical Society Winner of the 2014 National Jewish Book Award in American Jewish Studies presented by the Jewish Book Council The majority of Jewish immigrants who made their way to the United States between 1820 and 1924 arrived nearly penniless; yet today their descendants stand out as exceptionally successful. How can we explain their dramatic economic ascent? Have Jews been successful because of cultural factors distinct to them as a group, or because of the particular circumstances that they encountered in America? The Rag Race argues that the Jews who flocked to the United States during the age of mass migration were aided appreciably by their association with a particular corner of the American economy: the rag trade. From humble beginnings, Jews rode the coattails of the clothing trade from the margins of economic life to a position of unusual promise and prominence, shaping both their societal status and the clothing industry as a whole. Comparing the history of Jewish participation within the clothing trade in the United States with that of Jews in the same business in England, The Rag Race demonstrates that differences within the garment industry on either side of the Atlantic contributed to a very real divergence in social and economic outcomes for Jews in each setting. In few other areas of the modern economy did Jews play such a central role. As The Rag Race shows, their involvement in the clothing trade left a significant legacy for both American economic and modern Jewish history.

Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications

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Author: Kazutami Sakamoto,Robert Lochhead,Howard Maibach,Yuji Yamashita

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128020547

Category: Science

Page: 854

View: 7284

Cosmetic Science and Technology: Theoretical Principles and Applications covers the fundamental aspects of cosmetic science that are necessary to understand material development, formulation, and the dermatological effects that result from the use of these products. The book fulfills this role by offering a comprehensive view of cosmetic science and technology, including environmental and dermatological concerns. As the cosmetics field quickly applies cutting-edge research to high value commercial products that have a large impact in our lives and on the world's economy, this book is an indispensable source of information that is ideal for experienced researchers and scientists, as well as non-scientists who want to learn more about this topic on an introductory level. Covers the science, preparation, function, and interaction of cosmetic products with skin Addresses safety and environmental concerns related to cosmetics and their use Provides a graphical summary with short introductory explanation for each topic Relates product type performance to its main components Describes manufacturing methods of oral care cosmetics and body cosmetics in a systematic manner

Corazón de Dixie

Mexicanos in the U.S. South since 1910

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Author: Julie M. Weise

Publisher: UNC Press Books

ISBN: 1469624974

Category: Social Science

Page: 358

View: 2980

When Latino migration to the U.S. South became increasingly visible in the 1990s, observers and advocates grasped for ways to analyze "new" racial dramas in the absence of historical reference points. However, as this book is the first to comprehensively document, Mexicans and Mexican Americans have a long history of migration to the U.S. South. Corazon de Dixie recounts the untold histories of Mexicanos' migrations to New Orleans, Mississippi, Arkansas, Georgia, and North Carolina as far back as 1910. It follows Mexicanos into the heart of Dixie, where they navigated the Jim Crow system, cultivated community in the cotton fields, purposefully appealed for help to the Mexican government, shaped the southern conservative imagination in the wake of the civil rights movement, and embraced their own version of suburban living at the turn of the twenty-first century. Rooted in U.S. and Mexican archival research, oral history interviews, and family photographs, Corazon de Dixie unearths not just the facts of Mexicanos' long-standing presence in the U.S. South but also their own expectations, strategies, and dreams.

Catholicism and the Shaping of Nineteenth-Century America

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Author: Jon Gjerde,S. Deborah Kang

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107010241

Category: History

Page: 273

View: 864

"Catholicism and the Shaping of Nineteenth-Century America offers one of the first comparative treatments of Protestant and Catholic history in nineteenth-century America. Gjerde argues that Protestant-Catholic conflicts helped shape the nation, fostering the development of broader ideas about religious diversity in American society"--

Who are We?

The Challenges to America's National Identity

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Author: Samuel P. Huntington

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 9780684870533

Category: Political Science

Page: 428

View: 626

Analyzes the gradual erosion of American identity over the recent decades because of bilingualism, multiculturalism, and other factors and explores signs of a revival of American identity in the wake of September 11th.

Deportation

The Origins of U.S. Policy

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Author: Torrie Hester

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812294025

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 6282

Before 1882, the U.S. federal government had never formally deported anyone, but that year an act of Congress made Chinese workers the first group of immigrants eligible for deportation. Over the next forty years, lawmakers and judges expanded deportable categories to include prostitutes, anarchists, the sick, and various kinds of criminals. The history of that lengthening list shaped the policy options U.S. citizens continue to live with into the present. Deportation covers the uncertain beginnings of American deportation policy and recounts the halting and uncoordinated steps that were taken as it emerged from piecemeal actions in Congress and courtrooms across the country to become an established national policy by the 1920s. Usually viewed from within the nation, deportation policy also plays a part in geopolitics; deportees, after all, have to be sent somewhere. Studying deportations out of the United States as well as the deportation of U.S. citizens back to the United States from abroad, Torrie Hester illustrates that U.S. policy makers were part of a global trend that saw officials from nations around the world either revise older immigrant removal policies or create new ones. A history of immigration policy in the United States and the world, Deportation chronicles the unsystematic emergence of what has become an internationally recognized legal doctrine, the far-reaching impact of which has forever altered what it means to be an immigrant and a citizen.

Against the Deportation Terror

Organizing for Immigrant Rights in the Twentieth Century

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Author: Rachel Ida Buff

Publisher: Temple University Press

ISBN: 1439915342

Category: History

Page: 282

View: 1519

Despite being characterized as a "nation of immigrants," the United States has seen a long history of immigrant rights struggles. In her timely book Against the Deportation Terror, Rachel Ida Buff uncovers this multiracial history. She traces the story of the American Committee for the Protection of the Foreign Born (ACPFB) from its origins in the 1930s through repression during the early Cold War, to engagement with "new" Latinx and Caribbean immigrants in the 1970s and early 1980s. Functioning as a hub connecting diverse foreign-born communities and racial justice advocates, the ACPFB responded to various, ongoing crises of what they called "the deportation terror." Advocates worked against repression, discrimination, detention, and expulsion in migrant communities across the nation at the same time as they supported reform of federal immigration policy. Prevailing in some cases and suffering defeats in others, the story of the ACPFB is characterized by persistence in multiracial organizing even during periods of protracted repression. By tracing the work of the ACPFB and its allies over half a century, Against the Deportation Terror provides important historical precedent for contemporary immigrant rights organizing. Its lessons continue to resonate today.

Laws Harsh As Tigers

Chinese Immigrants and the Shaping of Modern Immigration Law

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Author: Lucy E. Salyer

Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press

ISBN: 9780807864319

Category: Law

Page: 360

View: 7243

Focusing primarily on the exclusion of the Chinese, Lucy Salyer analyzes the popular and legal debates surrounding immigration law and its enforcement during the height of nativist sentiment in the early twentieth century. She argues that the struggles between Chinese immigrants, U.S. government officials, and the lower federal courts that took place around the turn of the century established fundamental principles that continue to dominate immigration law today and make it unique among branches of American law. By establishing the centrality of the Chinese to immigration policy, Salyer also integrates the history of Asian immigrants on the West Coast with that of European immigrants in the East. Salyer demonstrates that Chinese immigrants and Chinese Americans mounted sophisticated and often-successful legal challenges to the enforcement of exclusionary immigration policies. Ironically, their persistent litigation contributed to the development of legal doctrines that gave the Bureau of Immigration increasing power to counteract resistance. Indeed, by 1924, immigration law had begun to diverge from constitutional norms, and the Bureau of Immigration had emerged as an exceptionally powerful organization, free from many of the constraints imposed upon other government agencies.

Standing on Common Ground

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Author: Geraldo L. Cadava

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674726189

Category: History

Page: 321

View: 5295

Under constant, increasingly militarized surveillance, the Arizona-Sonora border is portrayed in the media as a site of sharp political and ethnic divisions. But this view obscures the region's deeper history. Bringing to light the shared cultural and commercial ties through which businessmen and politicians forged a transnational Sunbelt, Standing on Common Ground recovers the vibrant connections between Tucson, Arizona, and the neighboring Mexican state of Sonora. Geraldo L. Cadava corrects misunderstandings of the borderland's past and calls attention to the many types of exchange, beyond labor migrations, that demonstrate how the United States and Mexico continue to shape one another. In the 1940s, a flourishing cross-border traffic developed among entrepreneurs, tourists, and students, as politicians on both sides worked to cultivate a common ground of free enterprise.However, the modernizing forces of manufacturing, ranching, and agriculture marginalized the very workers who propped up the regional economy, and would eventually lead to the social and economic instability that has troubled the Arizona-Sonora corridor in recent times. Standing on Common Ground clarifies why we cannot understand today's fierce debates over illegal immigration and border enforcement without identifying the roots of these problems in the Sunbelt's complex pan-ethnic and transnational history.

The President and Immigration Law

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Author: PROFESSOR OF LAW ADAM. RODRIGUEZ COX (PROFESSOR OF LAW CRISTINA M.),Cristina M. Rodríguez

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780190694364

Category:

Page: 352

View: 9002

When President Barack Obama announced his plans to shield millions of immigrants from deportation, Congress and the commentariat pilloried him for acting unilaterally. When President Donald Trump attempted to ban immigration from six predominantly Muslim counties, a different collection of critics attacked the action as tyrannical. Beneath this polarized political resistance lies a widely shared belief: that Congress, not the President, makes our immigration policies, dictating who can come to the United States, and who can stay, in a detailed and comprehensive legislative code. In The President and Immigration Law, Adam Cox and Cristina Rodríguez shatter the myth that Congress controls immigration policy. Drawing on a wide range of sources-rich historical materials, unique data on immigration enforcement, and insider accounts of our nation's massive immigration bureaucracy-they tell the story of how the President became our immigration policymaker-in-chief over the course of two centuries. From founding-era debates over the Alien and Sedition Acts to Jimmy Carter's intervention during the Mariel boatlift from Cuba, presidential crisis management has played an important role in this story. Far more foundational, however, has been the ordinary executive obligation to enforce the law. Over time, the power born of that duty has become the central vehicle for making immigration policy in the United States. A pathbreaking account of the President's relationship to Congress, Cox and Rodríguez's analysis helps us better understand how the United States ended up running an enormous shadow immigration system-one in which nearly half of all noncitizens living in America are here in violation of the law. It also provides a blueprint for reform, one that accepts rather than laments the role the President plays in shaping the national community, while outlining strategies to curb the abuse of law enforcement authority in immigration and beyond.