The Importance of Common Metrics for Advancing Social Science Theory and Research

A Workshop Summary

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Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Social Science Evidence for Use,Committee on Advancing Social Science Theory: The Importance of Common Metrics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030921100X

Category: Social Science

Page: 108

View: 4123

In February 2010, the National Research Council convened a workshop to investigate the feasibility of developing well-grounded common metrics to advance behavioral and social science research, both in terms of advancing the development of theory and increasing the utility of research for policy and practice. The Workshop on Advancing Social Science Theory: The Importance of Common Metrics had three goals: To examine the benefits and costs involved in moving from metric diversity to greater standardization, both in terms of advancing the development of theory and increasing the utility of research for policy and practice. To consider whether a set of criteria can be developed for understanding when the measurement of a particular construct is ready to be standardized. To explore how the research community can foster a move toward standardization when it appears warranted. This book is a summary of the two days of presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop.

Perils of Information Age

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Author: Pranav Prabhash

Publisher: Notion Press

ISBN: 1947949144

Category: Computers

Page: 206

View: 2765

Inexpensive data storage and computational capabilities, together with the internet, have ushered in the Information Age, providing tremendous benefits that we are reaping with great success. However, there are negative side effects of easily available abundant information from diverse sources. Information has fostered a plethora of knowledge subjects that are not all equal. Vulnerabilities of the scientific method are getting exposed more often and thereby eroding science’s credibility with the general public. Our mental capacity has limitations in dealing with the quantity and variety of the information overload. Far from being just a criticism, Perils of Information Age is an intellectual trip based on thought experiments, head-smacking experiences, and curious observations. It lays out a structured framework that outlines how to assess and deal with the perils of Information Age—the impotency of certain college majors and academic training, the junk science behind statistical studies analyzing complexity, the analysis-paralysis of data analytics, and increasing strain on our cognitive abilities.

Philosophy of Social Science

A New Introduction

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Author: Nancy Cartwright,Eleonora Montuschi

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191030082

Category: Philosophy

Page: 320

View: 2103

This is a much-needed new introduction to a field that has been transformed in recent years by exciting new subjects, ideas, and methods. It is designed both for students with central interests in philosophy and those planning to concentrate on the social sciences, and it presupposes no particular background in either domain. From the wide range of topics at the forefront of debate in philosophy of social science, the editors have chosen those which are representative of the most important and interesting contemporary work. A team of distinguished experts explore key aspects of the field such as social ontology (what are the things that social science studies?), objectivity, formal methods, measurement, and causal inference. Also included are chapters focused on notable subjects of social science research, such as well-being and climate change. Philosophy of Social Science provides a clear, accessible, and up-to-date guide to this fascinating field.

Dynamic Process Methodology in the Social and Developmental Sciences

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Author: Jaan Valsiner,Peter C. M. Molenaar,Maria C.D.P. Lyra,Nandita Chaudhary

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387959221

Category: Psychology

Page: 668

View: 6177

All psychological processes—like biological and social ones—are dynamic. Phenomena of nature, society, and the human psyche are context bound, constantly changing, and variable. This feature of reality is often not recognized in the social sciences where we operate with averaged data and with homogeneous stereotypes, and consider our consistency to be the cornerstone of rational being. Yet we are all inconsistent in our actions within a day, or from, one day to the next, and much of such inconsistency is of positive value for our survival and development. Our inconsistent behaviors and thoughts may appear chaotic, yet there is generality within this highly variable dynamic. The task of scientific methodologies—qualitative and quantitative—is to find out what that generality is. It is the aim of this handbook to bring into one framework various directions of construction of methodology of the dynamic processes that exist in the social sciences at the beginning of the 21st century. This handbook is set up to bring together pertinent methodological scholarship from all over the world, and equally from the quantitative and qualitative orientations to methodology. In addition to consolidating the pertinent knowledge base for the purposes of its further growth, this book serves the major educational role of bringing practitioners—students, researchers, and professionals interested in applications—the state of the art know-how about how to think about extracting evidence from single cases, and about the formal mathematical-statistical tools to use for these purposes.

Race, Ethnicity, and Health

A Public Health Reader

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Author: Thomas A. LaVeist,Lydia A. Isaac

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118086988

Category: Medical

Page: 848

View: 1399

Race, Ethnicity and Health, Second Edition, is a new andcritical selection of hallmark articles that address healthdisparities in America. It effectively documents the need for equaltreatment and equal health status for minorities. Intended as aresource for faculty and students in public health as well as thesocial sciences, it will be also be valuable to public healthadministrators and frontline staff who serve diverse racial andethnic populations. The book brings together the bestpeer reviewed research literature from the leading scholars andfaculty in this growing field, providing a historical and politicalcontext for the study of health, race, and ethnicity, with keyfindings on disparities in access, use, and quality. This volumealso examines the role of health care providers in healthdisparities and discusses the issue of matching patients anddoctors by race. There has been considerable new research since the originalmanuscript’s preparation in 2001 and publication in 2002, andreflecting this, more than half the book is newcontent. New chapters cover: reflections on demographicchanges in the US based on the current census; metrics andnomenclature for disparities; theories of genetic basis fordisparities; the built environment; residential segregation;environmental health; occupational health; health disparities inintegrated communities; Latino health; Asian populations; stressand health; physician/patient relationships; hospital treatment ofminorities; the slavery hypertension hypothesis; geographicdisparities; and intervention design.

Aggressive Behavior

Current Perspectives

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Author: L.Rowell Huesmann

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306445538

Category: Psychology

Page: 305

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Discusses theories of aggression; peers, sex-roles, and aggression; environmental investigation and mitigation of aggression; development of adult aggression; and group aggression in adolescents and adults. In this important work, twelve eminent scholars review the theoretical work on human aggressive behavior.

NASA SP.

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Author: United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Aeronautics

Page: N.A

View: 7193

Human Behavior and Environment

Advances in Theory and Research

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Author: Irwin Altman,Joachim F. Wohlwill

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1468408089

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 7676

The papers comprising this second volume of Human Behavior and the Environment represent, as do their predecessors, a cross section of current work in the broad area of problems dealing with interrelation ships between the physical environment and human behavior, at both the individual and the aggregate levels. Considering the two volumes as a unit, we have included papers covering a broad spectrum of problems ranging from the theoretical to the applied, and from the disciplinary-based to the interdisciplinary and professional. Approxi mately half of the papers are written by psychologists, with the remainder coming, in part, from such other disciplines as sociology, geography, and from such diverse applied and professional fields as natural recreation, landscape architecture, urban planning, and opera tions research. The volumes thus provide an overview of work on current topical problems. Yet, as the field is developing, specialization is inevitably increasing apace, and the editors as well as the publisher have become convinced of the desirability for futu're volumes in this series to be organized along topical lines, with successive volumes devoted to different aspects of this rather sprawling field. Thus, Volume 3, currently in the planning stage, will be devoted exclusively to the interaction of children with the physical environment, considered from diverse viewpoints, again including authors from diverse fields of specialization.

Stewarding Sustainability Transformations

An Emerging Theory and Practice of SDG Implementation

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Author: Petra Kuenkel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 303003691X

Category: Science

Page: 321

View: 9303

In the context of the world’s pressing sustainability challenges this new Report to the Club of Rome presents a novel approach to navigating collaborative change in partnerships between governments, research institutions, corporations and civil society activists. With reference to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals and the Planetary Boundaries it introduces the theory and practice of Collective Stewardship as a management tool that respects the integrity of human and natural systems. Drawing on the work of transdisciplinary scientific scholars and seasoned sustainability practitioners, it shows how transformative change can be built on life’s inherent tendency to generate patterns of vitality and resilience. This ground-breaking monograph shows workable pathways to stewarding patterns of aliveness in social and ecological systems at all levels of the global society. As a highly regarded author and expert in collective leadership, Petra Kuenkel inspires academics and practitioners alike to explore new routes towards co-creating responsible futures in the era of the Anthropocene, where the human footprint has begun to change the course of planetary evolution. She invites decision-makers, researchers, planners and social activists to become stewards of systems patterns, enhance their collaborative competencies and guide life-enhancing socio-ecological interaction at scale. The conceptual architecture the author elaborates builds transformation literacy and boils down to a practical guidance for planning and implementing interventions across all sectors of society. It helps bring about change through a deliberate combination of enlivening narratives, empowering metrics, enabling processes, multi-level governance, guiding regulations, and life-supporting innovation. This comprehensive book sets a new direction in the field of sustainability transformations and will become a foundation for planning collective action and achieving impact at scale.

Frontier and Future Development of Information Technology in Medicine and Education

ITME 2013

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Author: Shaozi Li,Qun Jin,Xiaohong Jiang,James J. (Jong Hyuk) Park

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400776187

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 3581

View: 8097

IT changes everyday’s life, especially in education and medicine. The goal of ITME 2013 is to further explore the theoretical and practical issues of IT in education and medicine. It also aims to foster new ideas and collaboration between researchers and practitioners.

Intelligent Computing

Proceedings of the 2018 Computing Conference

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Author: Kohei Arai,Supriya Kapoor,Rahul Bhatia

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3030011747

Category: Computers

Page: 1165

View: 9123

This book, gathering the Proceedings of the 2018 Computing Conference, offers a remarkable collection of chapters covering a wide range of topics in intelligent systems, computing and their real-world applications. The Conference attracted a total of 568 submissions from pioneering researchers, scientists, industrial engineers, and students from all around the world. These submissions underwent a double-blind peer review process. Of those 568 submissions, 192 submissions (including 14 poster papers) were selected for inclusion in these proceedings. Despite computer science’s comparatively brief history as a formal academic discipline, it has made a number of fundamental contributions to science and society—in fact, along with electronics, it is a founding science of the current epoch of human history (‘the Information Age’) and a main driver of the Information Revolution. The goal of this conference is to provide a platform for researchers to present fundamental contributions, and to be a premier venue for academic and industry practitioners to share new ideas and development experiences. This book collects state of the art chapters on all aspects of Computer Science, from classical to intelligent. It covers both the theory and applications of the latest computer technologies and methodologies. Providing the state of the art in intelligent methods and techniques for solving real-world problems, along with a vision of future research, the book will be interesting and valuable for a broad readership.

Crime in Europe

Causes and Consequences

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Author: Horst Entorf,Hannes Spengler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540423263

Category: Political Science

Page: 235

View: 1593

The generous social welfare system in Europe is one of the most important differences between Europe and the US. Defenders of the European welfare state argue that it improves social cohesion and prevents crime. Others argue that the "invisible hand" in the US economy is equally powerful in reducing unemployment and preventing crime. This book takes this trade-off as a starting point and contributes to a better interdisciplinary understanding of the interactions between crime, economic performance and social exclusion. In doing so, it evaluates the existing economic and criminological research and provides innovative empirical investigations on the basis of international panel data sets from different levels of regional aggregation.

Social Media Marketing in Tourism and Hospitality

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Author: Roberta Minazzi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319051822

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 163

View: 1570

This book describes ongoing developments in social media within the tourism and hospitality sector, highlighting impacts on both the demand and the supply side. It offers a combination of theory and practice, with discussion of real-life business experiences. The book is divided into three parts, the first of which provides an overview of recent trends in social media and user-generated content, clarifies concepts that are often used in an overlapping way and examines the “digitization of word of mouth” via online networks. The second part analyzes the impacts that social media can have on traveler behavior for each step in the travel process and also on suppliers, highlighting opportunities, threats and strategies. In the third part of the book, future potential trends deriving from the mobile marketing technologies are explored and possible methods for social monitoring by means of key performance indicators are examined. It is considered how engaging customers and prospects by means of social media might increase customer loyalty, foster electronic word-of-mouth communication, and consequently have important effects on corporate sales and revenues. The discussion encompasses methods to measure company performance on each of the social media in order to understand the optimal mix that will support and improve business strategies.