The Human Use of Animals

Case Studies in Ethical Choice

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Author: F. Barbara Orlans

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195119088

Category: Medical

Page: 330

View: 1357

The first set of case studies on animal use, this volume offers a thorough, up-to-date exploration of the moral issues related to animal welfare. Its main purpose is to examine how far it is ethically justifiable to harm animals in order to benefit mankind. An excellent introduction provides a framework for the cases and sets the background of philosophical and moral concepts underlying the subject. Sixteen original, previously unpublished essays cover controversies associated with the human use of animals in a broad range of contexts, including biomedical, behavioral, and wildlife research, cosmetic safety testing, education, the food industry, commerce, and animal use as pets and in religious practices. Scientific research is accorded the closest scrutiny. The authors represent a wide range of expertise within their specialized areas of research--physiology, public policy, ethics, philosophy, law, veterinary science, and psychology. The careful analysis of each case makes it possible to elevate the discourse beyond over-simplified positions, and to demonstrate the complexity of the issues. The Human Use of Animals will be welcomed by students and faculty in law, philosophy, ethics, public policy, religion, medicine, and veterinary medicine. It will also interest activists in the animal protection movement, and members of animal protection organizations and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees.

Ethics and Animals

An Introduction

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Author: Lori Gruen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139496972

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 5068

In this comprehensive introduction to animal ethics, Lori Gruen weaves together poignant and provocative case studies with discussions of ethical theory, urging readers to engage critically and empathetically reflect on our treatment of other animals. In clear and accessible language, Gruen provides a survey of the issues central to human-animal relations and a reasoned new perspective on current key debates in the field. She analyses and explains a range of theoretical positions and poses challenging questions that directly encourage readers to hone their ethical reasoning skills and to develop a defensible position about their own practices. Her book will be an invaluable resource for students in a wide range of disciplines including ethics, environmental studies, veterinary science, women's studies, and the emerging field of animal studies and is an engaging account of the subject for general readers with no prior background in philosophy.

Ethics of Animal Use

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Author: Peter Sandøe,Stine B. Christiansen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118691199

Category: Medical

Page: 192

View: 388

An interesting and accessible introduction to ethical issues raised by various forms of human use of animals. This textbook avoids moral lecturing and presents a range of ethical viewpoints without defending or applying any specific stance. Readers are encouraged and provoked to reflect for themselves, and to sharpen their own points of view regarding the ethical limits on our use of animals. They will also gain further understanding of the views held by other people. Early chapters of this interdisciplinary book cover changes over time in our view of animals, the principles of animal ethics, and different views of what counts as a good animal life. Later chapters apply the conceptual tools to specific issues including: food animal production, advanced veterinary treatment of pets, control of infectious diseases, wildlife management, as well as the use of animals in research. Specifically designed for students of veterinary medicine, animal science, welfare and behaviour, and veterinary nursing. Also of interest to those wanting to combine an up-to-date, science-based account of animal issues with clear-headed moral reflection. "The book covers an impressive range of topics with accuracy and fairness. Despite its ambitious scope, the authors have achieved remarkable unity in the book, and have produced a book that is easy and pleasant to read. Their work will surely provide a major tool for rationalizing the debate about the ethics of animal use, and I commend them for their invaluable contribution." From the Foreword by Professor Bernard Rollin, Colorado State University.

Responsible Conduct of Research

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Author: Adil E. Shamoo,David B. Resnik

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199376042

Category: Medical

Page: 440

View: 1124

Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the multitude of ethical issues of human subject protections. With the climate surrounding research conduct always shifting, developments in the field make an updated edition a necessity. All chapters have been revised and reflect the most current RCR landscape. New or further-developed topics include social responsibility and misconduct in social sciences, climate-change research, authorship, and peer review. Updates include new information on research involving human subjects or "vulnerable" biological subjects, as well as genetic research. Just like in previous editions, all chapters contain recent case studies and legal examples of various subjects.

Animal Ethics in Context

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Author: Clare Palmer

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231503024

Category: Nature

Page: 272

View: 2213

It is widely agreed that because animals feel pain we should not make them suffer gratuitously. Some ethical theories go even further: because of the capacities that they possess, animals have the right not to be harmed or killed. These views concern what not to do to animals, but we also face questions about when we should, and should not, assist animals that are hungry or distressed. Should we feed a starving stray kitten? And if so, does this commit us, if we are to be consistent, to feeding wild animals during a hard winter? In this controversial book, Clare Palmer advances a theory that claims, with respect to assisting animals, that what is owed to one is not necessarily owed to all, even if animals share similar psychological capacities. Context, history, and relation can be critical ethical factors. If animals live independently in the wild, their fate is not any of our moral business. Yet if humans create dependent animals, or destroy their habitats, we may have a responsibility to assist them. Such arguments are familiar in human cases-we think that parents have special obligations to their children, for example, or that some groups owe reparations to others. Palmer develops such relational concerns in the context of wild animals, domesticated animals, and urban scavengers, arguing that different contexts can create different moral relationships.

Experimenting with Humans and Animals

From Galen to Animal Rights

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Author: Anita Guerrini

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801871979

Category: History

Page: 165

View: 5322

Ethical questions about the use of animals and humans in research remain among the most vexing within both the scientific community and society at large. These often rancorous arguments have gone on, however, with little awareness of their historical antecedents. Experimentation on animals and particularly humans is often assumed to be a uniquely modern phenomenon, but the ideas and attitudes that encourage the biological and medical sciences to experiment on living creatures date from the earliest expression of Western thought. Here, Anita Guerrini looks at the history of these practices from vivisection in ancient Alexandria to present-day battles over animal rights and medical research employing human subjects. Guerrini discusses key historical episodes, including the discovery of blood circulation, the development of smallpox and polio vaccines, and recent AIDS research. She also explores the rise of the antivivisection movement in Victorian England, the modern animal rights movement, and current debates over gene therapy.--From publisher description.

Voracious Science and Vulnerable Animals

A Primate Scientist's Ethical Journey

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Author: John P. Gluck

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022637565X

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 313

View: 8660

Presents an account of how the author, trained as a behavioral scientist in the 1960s, came to grapple with the uncomfortable justifications offered for the use of primates in research labs, and became one of the scientists at the forefront of the movement to end research experiments on primates

Applied Ethics in Animal Research

Philosophy, Regulation, and Laboratory Applications

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Author: John P. Gluck,Tony DiPasquale,F. Barbara Orlans

Publisher: Purdue University Press

ISBN: 9781557531377

Category: Nature

Page: 188

View: 5974

This volume is a collection of chapters all contributed by individuals who have presented their ideas at conferences and who take moderate stands with the use of animals in research. Specifically the chapters bear of the issues of: notions of the moral standings of animals, history of the methods of argumentation, knowledge of the animal mind, nature and value of regulatory structures, how respect for animals can be converted from theory to action in the laboratory. The chapters have been tempered by open discussion with individuals with different opinions and not audiences of true believers. It is the hope of all, that careful consideration of the positions in these chapters will leave reader with a deepened understanding--not necessarily a hardened position.

In the Name of Science

Issues in Responsible Animal Experimentation

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Author: F. Barbara Orlans

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190281812

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 7023

Few arguments in biomedical experimentation have stirred such heated debate in recent years as those raised by animal research. In this comprehensive analysis of the social, political, and ethical conflicts surrounding the use of animals in scientific experiments, Barbara Orlans judges both ends of the spectrum in this debate -- unconditional approval or rejection of animal experimentation -- to be untenable. Instead of arguing for either view, she thoughtfully explores the ground between the extremes, and convincingly makes the case for public policy reforms that serve to improve the welfare of laboratory animals without jeopardizing scientific endeavor. This book presents controversial issues in a balanced manner based on careful historical analysis and original research. Different mechanisms of oversight for animal experiments are compared and those that have worked well are identified. This compelling work will be of interest to biomedical scientists, ethicists, animal welfare advocates and other readers concerned with this critical issue.

Animals are the Issue

Library Resources on Animal Issues

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Author: Linda S Katz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317951638

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 166

View: 5652

Supply your library with the best collection of resources on animal issues! Animals are the Issue: Library Resources on Animal Issues is a guide to books, journals, and Web sites on historic and modern animal treatment. Expert librarians and scholars provide helpful resources showing what ideals and practical solutions exist in animal rights and welfare debates. With this book, students, philosophers, and politicians can find the best of written and electronic resources about the protection and ethical use of animals by humankind. Animals are the Issue stands alone as a source for locating materials on animal protection and welfare. This valuable guide will help librarians save time and money in locating diverse areas of information regarding animal consumption and exploitation. The authors have noted what they consider to be the most essential resources for library collections. This book offers references that discuss the utilization of animals by humans: as companions in sports and entertainment in religion in science and education in industry in hunting Animals Are the Issue explores how animals are seen, viewed, and used by humans. With bibliographies, annotated lists, and short commentaries by the authors on nearly every item, you’ll be able to supply your patrons with a highly effective animal rights/welfare collection.

Body & Soul

Human Nature & the Crisis in Ethics

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Author: J. P. Moreland,Scott B. Rae

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 0830874593

Category: Religion

Page: 384

View: 8920

While most people throughout history have believed that we are both physical and spiritual beings, the rise of science has called into question the existence of the soul. Many now argue that neurophysiology demonstrates the radical dependence, indeed, identity, between mind and brain. Advances in genetics and in mapping human DNA, some say, show there is no need for the hypothesis of body-soul dualism. Even many Christian intellectuals have come to view the soul as a false Greek concept that is outdated and unbiblical. Concurrent with the demise of dualism has been the rise of advanced medical technologies that have brought to the fore difficult issues at both edges of life. Central to questions about abortion, fetal research, reproductive techologies, cloning and euthanasia is our understanding of the nature of human personhood, the reality of life after death and the value of ethical or religious knowledge as compared to scientific knowledge. In this careful treatment, J. P. Moreland and Scott B. Rae argue that the rise of these problems alongside the demise of Christian dualism is no coincidence. They therefore employ a theological realism to meet these pressing issues, and to present a reasonable and biblical depiction of human nature as it impinges upon critical ethical concerns. This vigorous philosophical and ethical defense of human nature as body and soul, regardless of whether one agrees or disagrees, will be for all a touchstone for debate and discussion for years to come.

Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare

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Author: Marc Bekoff,Carron A. Meaney

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135930090

Category: Social Science

Page: 470

View: 8032

Human beings' responsibility to and for their fellow animals has become an increasingly controversial subject. This book provides a provocative overview of the many different perspectives on the issues of animal rights and animal welfare in an easy-to-use encyclopedic format. Original contributions, from over 125 well-known philosophers, biologists, and psychologists in this field, create a well-balanced and multi-disciplinary work. Users will be able to examine critically the varied angles and arguments and gain a better understanding of the history and development of animal rights and animal protectionist movements around the world. Outstanding Reference Source Best Reference Source

What Animals Want

Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy

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Author: Larry Carbone

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199882991

Category: Medical

Page: 304

View: 8785

Larry Carbone, a veterinarian who is in charge of the lab animal welfare assurance program at a major research university, presents this scholarly history of animal rights. Biomedical researchers, and the less fanatical among the animal rights activists will find this book reasonable, humane, and novel in its perspective. It brings a novel, sociological perspective to an area that has been addressed largely from a philosophical perspective, or from the entrenched positions of highly committed advocates of a particular position in the debate.

Animals and Society

An Introduction to Human-Animal Studies

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Author: Margo DeMello

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231526768

Category: Nature

Page: 488

View: 5546

Considering that much of human society is structured through its interaction with non-human animals, and since human society relies heavily on the exploitation of animals to serve human needs, human–animal studies has become a rapidly expanding field of research, featuring a number of distinct positions, perspectives, and theories that require nuanced explanation and contextualization. The first book to provide a full overview of human–animal studies, this volume focuses on the conceptual construction of animals in American culture and the way in which it reinforces and perpetuates hierarchical human relationships rooted in racism, sexism, and class privilege. Margo DeMello considers interactions between humans and animals within the family, the law, the religious and political system, and other major social institutions, and she unpacks the different identities humans fashion for themselves and for others through animals. Essays also cover speciesism and evolutionary continuities; the role and preservation of animals in the wild; the debate over zoos and the use of animals in sports; domestication; agricultural practices such as factory farming; vivisection; animal cruelty; animal activism; the representation of animals in literature and film; and animal ethics. Sidebars highlight contemporary controversies and issues, with recommendations for additional reading, educational films, and related websites. DeMello concludes with an analysis of major philosophical positions on human social policy and the future of human–animal relations.

Scientific Perspectives on Animal Welfare

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Author: W. Jean Dodds,F. Barbara Orlans

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483263436

Category: Philosophy

Page: 146

View: 9838

Scientific Perspectives on Animal Welfare is a compendium of papers presented at the First Conference on Scientific Perspectives in Animal Welfare. This book discusses the role of scientists in the human use of animals in biomedical experiments. This text reviews the use of animals in medical research and also expounds on the work and goals of the Scientists Center for Animal Welfare. Section 1 discusses the responsibilities of the researcher involved in animal experimentations, including his choice of species and his compliance with guidelines and principles in the animal’s treatment. Section II describes the responsibilities of institutions involved in animal experimentation. One paper cites the Swedish Animal Welfare Act of 1944 with amendments incorporated in 1979 that can serve as a model. Section III describes the responsibilities of the funding agency in animal experimentation. One paper summarizes the agency’s responsibilities to include evaluation of animal issues during preaward merits, random site visits, and accountability of concerned committees. Section IV covers editorial responsibilities in animal experimentation such as publication polices and tasks. Section V deals with public policy and recommendations. The text also outlines the responsibility of the individual researcher and scientific societies in determining public policy. This collection of papers is suitable for scientists and technicians whose work involves animal experimentations, for veterinarians, and for students whose disciplines are in medicine, biology, or chemistry.

Personhood and Health Care

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Author: David C. Thomasma,David N. Weisstub,Christian Hervé

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401725721

Category: Philosophy

Page: 451

View: 2062

PERSONHOOD AND HEALTH CARE This book arose as a result of a pre-conference devoted to the topic held June 28, 1999 in Paris, France. The pre-conference preceded the Annual Congress of the International Academy ofLaw and Mental Health. Other chapters were solicited after the conference in order to more completely explore the relation of personhood to health care. The pre conference was held in honor of Yves Pelicier who led so many of our French colleagues in medicine, philosophy, and ethics as Christian Herve notes in his Tribute. As health care is aimed at healing persons, it is important to realize how difficult it is to construct a theory of personhood for health care, and thus, a theory of how healing in health care comes about or ought to occur. The book is divided into four parts, Concepts of the Person, Theories of Personhood in Relation to Health Care and Bioethics, Person and Identity, and Personhood and Hs Relations. Each section explores a critical arena in constructing the relation of personhood to health care. Although no exploration ofthis nature can be exhaustive, every effort was made to present both conflicting and complementary views of personhood from within similar and different philosophical and religious traditions. PART ONE: CONCEPTS OF THE PERSON Tracing the origins of the concept of person from antiquity through present day, Jean Delemeau provides an historical sketch of the development of a wide range of meanings.

Animal Rights Without Liberation

Applied Ethics and Human Obligations

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Author: Alasdair Cochrane

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231504438

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 3883

Alasdair Cochrane introduces an entirely new theory of animal rights grounded in their interests as sentient beings. He then applies this theory to different and underexplored policy areas, such as genetic engineering, pet-keeping, indigenous hunting, and religious slaughter. In contrast to other proponents of animal rights, Cochrane claims that because most sentient animals are not autonomous agents, they have no intrinsic interest in liberty. As such, he argues that our obligations to animals lie in ending practices that cause their suffering and death and do not require the liberation of animals. Cochrane's "interest-based rights approach" weighs the interests of animals to determine which is sufficient to impose strict duties on humans. In so doing, Cochrane acknowledges that sentient animals have a clear and discernable right not to be made to suffer and not to be killed, but he argues that they do not have a prima facie right to liberty. Because most animals possess no interest in leading freely chosen lives, humans have no moral obligation to liberate them. Moving beyond theory to the practical aspects of applied ethics, this pragmatic volume provides much-needed perspective on the realities and responsibilities of the human-animal relationship.

Chimpanzees in Research

Strategies for Their Ethical Care, Management, and Use

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Author: National Research Council,Commission on Life Sciences,Institute for Laboratory Animal Research,Committee on Long-Term Care of Chimpanzees

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309184762

Category: Science

Page: 108

View: 2517

Chimpanzees in biomedical and behavioral research constitute a national resource that has been valuable in addressing national health needs. Facilities that house chimpanzees owned and supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have successfully met the research requirements of the scientific community. The captive chimpanzee population in the United States has grown substantially, particularly over the last decade. That growth is due primarily to the success of the NIH-sponsored Chimpanzee Breeding and Research Program, which achieved the birth numbers thought necessary to meet the projected needs of biomedical research. However, the expected level of use of the chimpanzee model in biomedical research did not materialize, and that has created a complex problem that threatens both the availability of chimpanzees for research in the future and the infrastructure required to ensure the well-being of captive chimpanzees used in biomedical research. Because the present system is fragmented, it is impossible to formulate an accurate overview of the size and nature of the chimpanzee population. But, if the chimpanzee is to continue to be used in biomedical research responsibly, effectively, and cost-effectively, we must be able to oversee, track, and coordinate the maintenance and use of chimpanzees and to control the size of the population. To assess the long-range situation and to develop, implement, and monitor the application of policies for the proper use and care of chimpanzees, an authoritative, centralized oversight structure is imperative. Once it is in place, it will be possible to refine and implement this report's recommendations.

The Punisher's Brain

The Evolution of Judge and Jury

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Author: Morris B. Hoffman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107038065

Category: Law

Page: 368

View: 6699

"Evolution built us to punish cheaters. Without that punishment instinct, we would never have been able to live in small groups, and would never have realized all the significant benefits that small-group living conferred, including mutual defense, cooperative hunting, property, divisions of labor and economies of scale. In fact, to a large extent our notions of right and wrong, of empathy and compassion, of fairness and justice, all come from the tensions of group living, and thus indirectly owe their very existence to punishment. It may sound strange that one key to civilization is our willingness to punish each other, but every parent knows it's true. Every parent also feels the irresistible pull not to punish too much, and in fact maybe not to punish at all - to forgive - and this, too, is a remnant of evolution. Our punishment instinct is not so much a sword ready to fall as it is a finely tuned balance, sometimes susceptible to the gentlest of breezes"--