The Human Meaning of Social Change

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Author: Angus and Converse, Philip E. Campbell,Angus Campbell,Philip E. Converse

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 9781610441025

Category: Psychology

Page: 560

View: 6874

This book is a companion piece to Sheldon and Moore’s Indicators of Social Change. Whereas Indicators of Social Change was concerned with various kinds of “hard” data, typically sociostructural, this book is devoted chiefly to so-called “softer” data of a more social-psychological sort: the attitudes, expectations, aspirations, and values of the American population. The book deals with the meaning of change from two points of view. First, it is interested in the human meaning which people attribute to the complex social environment in which they find themselves; their understanding of group relations, the political process, and the consumer economy in which they participate. Secondly, it discusses the impact that the various alternatives offered by the environment have on the nature of their lives and the fulfillment of those lives. The twelve essays which make up the volume deal successively with the major domains of life. Each author sets forth an inclusive statement of the most significant dimensions of psychological change in a specific area of life, to review the state of present information, and to project the measurements needed to improve understanding of these changes in the future.

The Human Meaning of Social Change

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Author: Angus Campbell,Philip E. Converse

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 0871541939

Category: Psychology

Page: 547

View: 3782

Presents a socio-psychological study of the meaning of social change, dealing with the question from two points of view: the human meaning which people attribute to the complex social environs in which they find themselves, and the impact that various alternatives offered by the environment have on the nature and fulfillment of their lives. The authors of the twelve essays have set forth the most significant aspects of psychological change in a particular area of life among them the meaning of work, the use of time, leisure, and alienation and engagement reviewed the state of available information, and projected the measurements needed to improve understanding of those changes in the future."

Social Change in a Metropolitan Community

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Author: Otis Dudley Duncan,Beverly Duncan,Howard Schuman

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610441702

Category: Social Science

Page: 136

View: 5551

How has American society changed over the last fifteen years? Do we raise our children differently now than in 1953? Has women's liberation produced a shift in attitudes toward marriage or altered our idea about appropriate activities for women? Have our attitudes toward race undergone a significant revision? In this challenging volume, three eminent sociologists examine questions like these in the light of hard data which have become available, year by year, over the last two decades. The major purpose of the book is to demonstrate how measures of social change can be developed, capitalizing on past efforts in survey research. An omnibus survey, carried out in 1971, was designed almost entirely as a selective repitition of questions originally asked in the 1950s. It provides precise and reliable measures of change in such areas as marital and sex roles, social participation, child rearing, religious behavior, political orientations, and racial attitudes. Lucid and authoritative, Social Change in a Metropolitan Community presents a unique body of information on changes in public opinion, social norms, and institutional behavior. Its large number of statistical measurements are presented in an extremely accessible form—almost always as simple percentage comparisons. The research findings included here are unduplicated by any other study, and as a source of information on current social trends they provide fascinating reading for anyone who wishes to enlarge his understanding of the temper of our times.

The Social Conquest of Earth

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Author: Edward O. Wilson

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0871403307

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 5784

New York Times Bestseller From the most celebrated heir to Darwin comes a groundbreaking book on evolution, the summa work of Edward O. Wilson's legendary career. Sparking vigorous debate in the sciences, The Social Conquest of Earth upends “the famous theory that evolution naturally encourages creatures to put family first” (Discover). Refashioning the story of human evolution, Wilson draws on his remarkable knowledge of biology and social behavior to demonstrate that group selection, not kin selection, is the premier driving force of human evolution. In a work that James D. Watson calls “a monumental exploration of the biological origins of the human condition,” Wilson explains how our innate drive to belong to a group is both a “great blessing and a terrible curse” (Smithsonian). Demonstrating that the sources of morality, religion, and the creative arts are fundamentally biological in nature, the renowned Harvard University biologist presents us with the clearest explanation ever produced as to the origin of the human condition and why it resulted in our domination of the Earth’s biosphere.

Time Use Research in the Social Sciences

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Author: Wendy E. Pentland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306459515

Category: Mathematics

Page: 281

View: 4342

Despite the fact that, for most of us, time is a central focus of our lives, the examination of what we do with our time and why has received limited attention as a method for understanding human behavior in the social sciences. Humans' view and use of time shows tremendous variation, including across cultures and with age, lifestyle, and gender. For many of us, a sense of time is ever-present. We speak of time as a commodity, a resource, an ally, an enemy, and a gift. It maybe on our side, on our hands, with us, or against us. We perceive it to change speeds (dragging vs. flying vs. standing still) and lest it get away on us, we attempt to harness and control it with clocks, schedules, and deadlines. We describe our use of time in a myriad ofways: we spend it, save it, waste it, kill it, give it, take it, and grab it. The impetus for this book grew from a three-day research symposium where established time use researchers from a variety of disciplines from Canada, the United States, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand gathered together to merge their knowledge and resources to collaborate in exam- ing the relationship between human time utilization and health and we- being. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support for the sym- sium received from the Government of Canada's Program for Inter- tional Research Linkages and M. Powell Lawton, without whose support and encouragement this book would likely not exist.

North American Social Report

A Comparative Study of the Quality of Life in Canada and the USA from 1964 to 1974.Vol. 5: Economics, Religion and Morality

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Author: Alex C. Michalos

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401095590

Category: Social Science

Page: 247

View: 1087

For readers who intend to read this volume without reading the first, some in troductory remarks are in order about the scope of the work and the strategy used in all five volumes to measure the qUality of life. In the frrst chapter of Volume I, I reviewed the relevant recent literature on social indicators and so cial reporting, and explained all the general difficulties involved in such work. It would be redundant to repeat that discussion here, but there are some fundamental points that are worth mentioning. Readers who fmd this account too brief should consult the longer discussion. The basic question that will be answered in this work is this: Is there a difference in the quality of life in Canada and the United States of America, and if so, in which country is it better? Alternatively, one could put the question thus: If one individual were randomly selected out of Canada and another out of the United States, would there be important qualitative differences, and if so, which one would probably be better off? To simplify matters, I often use the terms 'Canadian' and 'American' as abbreviations for 'a randomly selected resident' of Canada or the United States, respec tively.

Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decisionmaking?

A Hedgefoxian Perspective

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Author: Kathleen D. Vohs,Roy F. Baumeister,George Loewenstein

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610445430

Category: Psychology

Page: 368

View: 8743

Philosophers have long tussled over whether moral judgments are the products of logical reasoning or simply emotional reactions. From Jane Austen’s Sense and Sensibility to the debates of modern psychologists, the question of whether feeling or sober rationality is the better guide to decision making has been a source of controversy. In Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? Kathleen Vohs, Roy Baumeister, and George Loewenstein lead a group of prominent psychologists and economists in exploring the empirical evidence on how emotions shape judgments and choices. Researchers on emotion and cognition have staked out many extreme positions: viewing emotions as either the driving force behind cognition or its side effect, either an impediment to sound judgment or a guide to wise decisions. The contributors to Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? provide a richer perspective, exploring the circumstances that shape whether emotions play a harmful or helpful role in decisions. Roy Baumeister, C. Nathan DeWall, and Liqing Zhang show that while an individual’s current emotional state can lead to hasty decisions and self-destructive behavior, anticipating future emotional outcomes can be a helpful guide to making sensible decisions. Eduardo Andrade and Joel Cohen find that a positive mood can negatively affect people’s willingness to act altruistically. Happy people, when made aware of risks associated with altruistic acts, become wary of jeopardizing their own well-being. Benoît Monin, David Pizarro, and Jennifer Beer find that whether emotion or reason matters more in moral evaluation depends on the specific issue in question. Individual characteristics often mediate the effect of emotions on decisions. Catherine Rawn, Nicole Mead, Peter Kerkhof, and Kathleen Vohs find that whether an individual makes a decision based on emotion depends both on the type of decision in question and the individual’s level of self-esteem. And Quinn Kennedy and Mara Mather show that the elderly are better able to regulate their emotions, having learned from experience to anticipate the emotional consequences of their behavior. Do Emotions Help or Hurt Decision Making? represents a significant advance toward a comprehensive theory of emotions and cognition that accounts for the nuances of the mental processes involved. This landmark book will be a stimulus to scholarly debates as well as an informative guide to everyday decisions.

Citizen Politics

Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies

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Author: Russell J. Dalton

Publisher: CQ Press

ISBN: 1483321436

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 5269

Now, more than ever, people drive the democratic process. What people think of their government and its leaders, how (or whether) they vote, and what they do or say about a host of political issues greatly affect the further strengthening or erosion of democracy and democratic ideals. This fully updated new sixth edition of Citizen Politics: Public Opinion and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies, by Russell J. Dalton, continues to offer the only truly comparative study of political attitudes and behavior in the United States, Great Britain, France, and Germany. In addition to its comprehensive, thematic examination of political values, political activity, voting, and public images of government within a cross-national context, Citizen Politics explores new forms of political activity, such as Internet-based activism and new forms of political consumerism. All chapters have been updated with the latest research and empirical evidence. Further, Dalton includes new discussions of citizen sophistication and its implications for democratic citizenship.

Work, Self and Society

After Industrialism

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Author: Catherine Casey

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135095957

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 6591

Despite recent interest in the effects of restructuring and redesigning the work place, the link between individual identity and structural change has usually been asserted rather than demonstrated. Through an extensive review of data from field work in a multi-national corporation Catherine Casey changes this. She knows that changes currently occurring in the world of work are part of the vast social and cultural changes that are challenging the assumptions of modern industrialism. These events affect what people do everyday, and they are altering relations among ourselves and with the physical world. This valuable book is not only a critcal analysis of the transformations occurring in the world of work, but an exploration of the effects of contemporary practices of work on the self.

Community-Oriented Health Services

Practices Across Disciplines

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Author: Elias Mpofu, PhD, DEd, CRC

Publisher: Springer Publishing Company

ISBN: 082619818X

Category: Medical

Page: 384

View: 3998

Grounded in a transdisciplinary approach, this groundbreaking text provides extensive, evidence-based information on the value of communities as the primary drivers of their own health and well-being. It describes foundational community health concepts and procedures and presents proven strategies for engaging communities as resources for their own health improvementñan important determinant of individual well-being. It is based on recommendations by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and on the premise that healthy communities are those with populations that participate in their own health promotion, maintenance, and sustenance. The book is unique in its integration of environmental and social justice issues as they significantly affect the advancement of community health. The text focuses on community-oriented health interventions informed by prevention, inclusiveness, and timeliness that both promote better health and are more cost effective than individually focused interventions. It addresses the foundations of community-oriented health services including their history, social determinants, concepts, and policies as well as the economics of community-oriented health services and health disparities and equity. It covers procedures for designing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating sustainable community health coalitions along with tools for measuring their success. Detailed case studies describe specific settings and themes in U.S. and international community health practice in which communities are both enactors and beneficiaries. An accompanying instructor's manual provides learning exercises, field-based experiential assignments, and multiple-choice questions. A valuable resource for students and practitioners of education, public policy, and social services, this book bridges the perspectives of environmental justice, public health, and community well-being and development, which, while being mutually interdependent, have rarely been considered together. KEY FEATURES: Offers a new paradigm for improving public health through community-driven health coalitions Includes evidence-based strategies for engaging communities in the pursuit of health Demonstrates how to design, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health partnerships Presents transdisciplinary approaches that consider environmental and social justice variables Includes contributions of international authors renowned in community health research and practice

Sociolinguistics

Theoretical Debates

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Author: Nikolas Coupland

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107062284

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 471

View: 3706

An indispensable guide to the newest and most searching ideas about language in society.

Cohabitation, an alternative to marriage?

A cross-national study

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Author: G.E. Wiersma

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400968728

Category: Social Science

Page: 203

View: 1134

1. BACKGROUND In the last ten years there has been much popular discus sion and also a great scholarly interest in the so-called "alternative lifestyles" (1). ESgecially, since the late 1J60's, a diversity of lifestyles other than the nuclear family began to emerge, according to demographic changes in household compositions during the past decade (US Bureau of Census, 1979; Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek, 1930). One lifestyle, non-marital cohabitation, has increased most dra matically during the ~ast ten years and is the subject of this study. The term cohabitation will be used exclusively throughout the remainder of this study to refer to hetero sexual couples who are living together without being married legally. Despite its recent rapid increase, one should not overlook the fact that cohabitation, in comparison with legal marriage, remains an alternative practiced by a minority of the couples at any ?oint in time. For the Netherlands, it is estimated that 7 percent of all couples are living together unmarried, and 93 percent are married (Straver, 1981). This cohabitation rate is about twice as low when compared to rates in countries like Sweden and Denmark where they are 16 percent (the highest rate in Europe) and 13 percent (Trost, 1979), but still about twice as high when compared to the 3 percent estimate for the United States (Macklin, 1980).

Citizenship and Involvement in European Democracies

A Comparative Analysis

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Author: Jan W. Van Deth,José Ramón Montero,Anders Westholm

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134126808

Category: Political Science

Page: 496

View: 3974

This unique study presents the results of a cross-national analysis of citizenship and participation among citizens in twelve European democracies. Research on the future and quality of contemporary democracy is usually restricted to focus either on political participation, on particular aspects of citizenship, or on social activities, exclusively. This new book offers the first empirical investigation of the relationships both between social and political involvement, and between ‘small-scale’ and ‘large-scale’ democracies. Citizenship and Involvement in European Democracies offers representative samples of the populations in a selection of European countries between 2000-2002, including: Denmark, Germany (East and West), Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. The leading contributors provide new theoretical insights and offer a broad conceptualization of citizenship, stimulating the ongoing discussions about the problems and challenges of democratic political systems. This book has a companion volume entitled Social Capital and Associations in European Democracies edited by William A. Maloney and Sigrid Roßteutscher (Routledge, 2006). Both volumes will be of great interest to students and researchers of European politics, comparative politics and sociology.

The A-Z of Social Research

A Dictionary of Key Social Science Research Concepts

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Author: Robert Lee Miller,John D Brewer

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761971337

Category: Social Science

Page: 345

View: 6138

The A-Z is a collection of entries ranging from qualitative research techniques to statistical testing and the practicalities of using the Internet as a research tool. Alphabetically arranged in accessible, reader-friendly formats, the shortest entries are 800 words long and the longest are 3000. Most entries are approximately 1500 words in length and are supported by suggestions for further reading.

Understanding Religion and Social Change in Ethiopia

Toward a Hermeneutic of Covenant

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Author: M. Girma

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137269421

Category: Religion

Page: 219

View: 7965

Religiosity is one aspect without which Ethiopian society cannot be fully understood. This book aims to map out the terrain of the discourse in religion-social change nexus in Ethiopian using the notion of covenant as an interpretive tool.

Education as a Force for Social Change

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Author: Rudolf Steiner

Publisher: SteinerBooks

ISBN: 0880108517

Category: Education

Page: 138

View: 1473

These dazzling, radical lectures were given one month before the opening of the first Waldorf School-following two years of intense preoccupation with the social situation in Germany as World War I ended and society sought to rebuild itself. Well aware of the dangerous tendencies present in modern culture that undermine a true social life-such as psychic torpor and boredom, universal mechanization, and a growing cynicism-Steiner recognized that any solution must address not only economic and legal issues but also that of a free spiritual life. Steiner also saw the need to properly nurture in children the virtues of imitation, reverence, and love at the appropriate stages of development in order to create mature adults who are inwardly prepared to fulfill the demands of a truly healthy society-adults who are able to assume the responsibilities of freedom, equality, and brotherhood. Relating these themes to an understanding of the human as a threefold being of thought, feeling, and volition, and against the background of historical forces at work in human consciousness, Steiner lays the ground for a profound revolution in the ways we think about education. Also included here are three lectures on the social basis of education, a lecture to public school teachers, and a lecture to the workers of the Waldorf Astoria Cigarette Company, after which they asked him to form a school for their children.

Annual Report

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Author: Russell Sage Foundation

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Charitable uses, trusts, and foundations

Page: N.A

View: 5166

The Human Eros

Eco-ontology and the Aesthetics of Existence

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Author: Thomas Alexander

Publisher: Fordham University Press

ISBN: 0823252299

Category: Philosophy

Page: 456

View: 4264

The Human Eros: Eco-ontology and the Aesthetics of Existence explores themes in classical American philosophy, primarily that of John Dewey, but also in the thought of Ralph Waldo Emerson, George Santayana, and Native American traditions. The primary claim is that human beings exist with a need for the experience of meaning and value, a "Human Eros." Our various cultures are symbolic environments or "spiritual ecologies" within which the Human Eros can thrive. This is how we inhabit the earth. Encircling and sustaining our cultural existence is nature. Western philosophy has not generally provided adequate conceptual models for thinking ecologically. Thus the idea of "eco-ontology" undertakes to explore ways in which this might be done beginning with the primacy of Nature over Being, but also including the recognition of possibility and potentiality as inherent aspects of existence. I argue for the centrality of Dewey for an effective ecological philosophy. Both "pragmatism" and "naturalism" need to be contextualized within an emergentist, relational, non-reductive view of nature and an aesthetic, imaginative, non-reductive view of intelligence.

Logics of History

Social Theory and Social Transformation

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Author: William H. Sewell Jr.

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226749198

Category: Social Science

Page: 376

View: 6398

While social scientists and historians have been exchanging ideas for a long time, they have never developed a proper dialogue about social theory. William H. Sewell Jr. observes that on questions of theory the communication has been mostly one way: from social science to history. Logics of History argues that both history and the social sciences have something crucial to offer each other. While historians do not think of themselves as theorists, they know something social scientists do not: how to think about the temporalities of social life. On the other hand, while social scientists’ treatments of temporality are usually clumsy, their theoretical sophistication and penchant for structural accounts of social life could offer much to historians. Renowned for his work at the crossroads of history, sociology, political science, and anthropology, Sewell argues that only by combining a more sophisticated understanding of historical time with a concern for larger theoretical questions can a satisfying social theory emerge. In Logics of History, he reveals the shape such an engagement could take, some of the topics it could illuminate, and how it might affect both sides of the disciplinary divide.